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Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of
lipid In and , a lipid is a macro that is soluble in solvents. are typically s used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid s that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including s, es, s, fat-soluble s (such as vitamins A, ...
s whose molecule has a
hydrophilic A hydrophile is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms ...

hydrophilic
"head" containing a
phosphate In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo durin ...

phosphate
group and two
hydrophobic In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of at ...
"tails" derived from
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s, joined by an
alcohol In , alcohol is an that carries at least one (−OH) bound to a atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol (ethyl alcohol), which is and is the main alcohol present in s. An important class of alcohols, of which ...

alcohol
residue (usually a
glycerol Glycerol (; also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in lipids known ...
molecule). Marine phospholipids typically have
omega-3 fatty acid Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or ''n''−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acid Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This ...
s
EPA The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent executive agency of the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States ...
and
DHA
DHA
integrated as part of the phospholipid molecule. The phosphate group can be modified with simple organic molecules such as
choline Choline is an essential nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * ...

choline
,
ethanolamine Ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol, monoethanolamine, ETA, or MEA) is an organic chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2 (C2H7NO). The molecule is bifunctional, containing both a primary amine In organic chemistry, amines (, ) are compoun ...

ethanolamine
or
serine Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an α-amino acid Amino acids are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, ...

serine
. Phospholipids are a key component of all
cell membrane cell membrane vs. Prokaryotes A prokaryote is a typically unicellular organism that lacks a nuclear membrane-enclosed cell nucleus, nucleus. The word ''prokaryote'' comes from the Greek language, Greek (, 'before') and (, 'nut' or 'kernel').C ...

cell membrane
s. They can form
lipid bilayer The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane A polarized membrane is a lipid bilayer, lipid membrane that has a positive electrical charge on one side and a negative charge on another side, which produces the resting pote ...
s because of their
amphiphilic An amphiphile (a.k.a. amphipath; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
characteristic. In
eukaryote Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), tax ...

eukaryote
s, cell membranes also contain another class of lipid,
sterol Sterol is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, and synth ...

sterol
, interspersed among the phospholipids. The combination provides fluidity in two dimensions combined with mechanical strength against rupture. Purified phospholipids are produced commercially and have found applications in
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
and
materials science The interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and resea ...
. The first phospholipid identified in 1847 as such in biological tissues was
lecithin 300px, An example of a phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid in lecithin. Shown in – choline and phosphate group; – glycerol; – monounsaturated fatty acid; – saturated fatty acid. Lecithin (, from the Greek ''lekithos'' "yolk") ...
, or
phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical s ...

phosphatidylcholine
, in the egg yolk of chickens by the French chemist and pharmacist
Theodore Nicolas Gobley TheodoreSome earlier Wikipedia versions, e.g. wiki.de, write Nicolas-Theodore; family sources (see wiki.fr article discussion) guarantee Theodore as ordinary given name, plus a publication in March 1848, "Recherches sur la présence de l'arsenic da ...
.


Phospholipids in biological membranes


Arrangement

The phospholipids are
amphiphilic An amphiphile (a.k.a. amphipath; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
. The hydrophilic end usually contains a negatively charged phosphate group, and the hydrophobic end usually consists of two "tails" that are long
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
residues. In aqueous solutions, phospholipids are driven by
hydrophobic interactions thumbnail, 250px, A droplet of water forms a spherical shape, minimizing contact with the hydrophobic leaf. The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water#Chemical and p ...
, which result in the fatty acid tails aggregating to minimize interactions with the water molecules. The result is often a
phospholipid bilayer The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane A polarized membrane is a lipid bilayer, lipid membrane that has a positive electrical charge on one side and a negative charge on another side, which produces the resting pote ...
: a membrane that consists of two layers of oppositely oriented phospholipid molecules, with their heads exposed to the liquid on both sides, and with the tails directed into the membrane. That is the dominant structural motif of the membranes of all
cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ...
and of some other biological structures, such as
vesicles Vesicle may refer to: ; In cellular biology or chemistry * Vesicle (biology and chemistry), a supramolecular assembly of lipid molecules, like a cell membrane * Synaptic vesicle ; In human embryology * Vesicle (embryology), bulge-like features of ...
or
virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecu ...

virus
coatings. In biological membranes, the phospholipids often occur with other molecules (e.g.,
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
s,
glycolipid Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule consistin ...

glycolipid
s,
sterol Sterol is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, and synth ...

sterol
s) in a
bilayer :''For bilayers in biology, see lipid bilayer The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cell (biology), ce ...

bilayer
such as a
cell membrane cell membrane vs. Prokaryotes A prokaryote is a typically unicellular organism that lacks a nuclear membrane-enclosed cell nucleus, nucleus. The word ''prokaryote'' comes from the Greek language, Greek (, 'before') and (, 'nut' or 'kernel').C ...

cell membrane
. Lipid bilayers occur when hydrophobic tails line up against one another, forming a membrane of hydrophilic heads on both sides facing the water.


Dynamics

These specific properties allow phospholipids to play an important role in the cell membrane. Their movement can be described by the
fluid mosaic modelThe fluid mosaic model is one way of understanding biological membranes, consistent with most experimental observations. This model show how the cell moves and stretches. According to this model they study a lipid bilayer. The lipid bilayer gives fl ...

fluid mosaic model
, which describes the membrane as a mosaic of lipid molecules that act as a solvent for all the substances and proteins within it, so proteins and lipid molecules are then free to diffuse laterally through the lipid matrix and migrate over the membrane.
Sterol Sterol is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, and synth ...

Sterol
s contribute to membrane fluidity by hindering the packing together of phospholipids. However, this model has now been superseded, as through the study of
lipid polymorphism Cross Section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids in aqueous solutions Polymorphism in biophysics is the ability of lipids to aggregate in a variety of ways, giving rise to structures of different shapes, known as "phases". ...
it is now known that the behaviour of lipids under physiological (and other) conditions is not simple.


Main phospholipids


Diacylglyceride structures

: ''See:
Glycerophospholipid Examples of variable phosphate esters in glycerophospholipids Glycerophospholipids or phosphoglycerides are glycerol Glycerol (; also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English) is a simple polyol compound. It is a co ...

Glycerophospholipid
'' *
Phosphatidic acidPhosphatidic acids are anionic phospholipids important to cell signaling and direct activation of lipid-gated ion channels. Hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid gives rise to one molecule each of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty aci ...

Phosphatidic acid
(phosphatidate) (PA) *
Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a class of phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical ...

Phosphatidylethanolamine
(cephalin) (PE) *
Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical s ...

Phosphatidylcholine
(lecithin) (PC) *
Phosphatidylserine Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane. It plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relation to apoptosis. It is a key pathway for viruses to enter cells via apo ...

Phosphatidylserine
(PS) * Phosphoinositides: **
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, where red is x, blue is y, and black is z, in the context of independent variation, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides. In such molecules the isomer of the inosit ...

Phosphatidylinositol
(PI) ** Phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) ** Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) and ** Phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3)


Phosphosphingolipids

: ''See
Sphingolipid Sphingolipids are a class of s containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of s that includes . They were discovered in brain extracts in the 1870s and were named after the mythological because of their enigmatic nature. These compounds pl ...

Sphingolipid
'' * Ceramide phosphorylcholine (
Sphingomyelin Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine. They were discovered in brain extrac ...

Sphingomyelin
) (SPH) * Ceramide phosphorylethanolamine (
Sphingomyelin Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine. They were discovered in brain extrac ...

Sphingomyelin
) (Cer-PE) * Ceramide phosphoryllipid


Applications

Phospholipids have been widely used to prepare liposomal, ethosomal and other nanoformulations of topical, oral and
parenteral A route of administration in pharmacology Pharmacology is a branch of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) ...
drugs for differing reasons like improved bio-availability, reduced toxicity and increased permeability across membranes. Liposomes are often composed of
phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical s ...

phosphatidylcholine
-enriched phospholipids and may also contain mixed phospholipid chains with
surfactant Surfactants are compounds that lower the (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as s, agents, , s, or s. The word "surfactant" is a of ''surface-active a ...

surfactant
properties. The ethosomal formulation of
ketoconazole Ketoconazole, sold under the brand name Nizoral among others, is an antifungal drug, antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections. Applied to the skin it is used for fungal skin infections such as tinea, cutaneous candidias ...

ketoconazole
using phospholipids is a promising option for transdermal delivery in fungal infections. Advances in phospholipid research lead to exploring these biomolecules and their conformations using lipidomics.


Simulations

Computational simulations of phospholipids are often performed using molecular dynamics with
force fields In speculative fiction, a force field, sometimes known as an energy shield, force shield, force bubble, defence shield or deflector shield, is a barrier made of things like energy, negative energy, dark energy, electromagnetic fields, gravitationa ...
such as
GROMOS GROningen MOlecular Simulation (GROMOS) is the name of a Force field (chemistry), force field for molecular dynamics simulation, and a related computer software package. Both are developed at the University of Groningen, and at the Computer-Aided ...
,
CHARMM Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) is the name of a widely used set of force fields for molecular dynamics, and the name for the molecular dynamics simulation and analysis computer software Software is a collection of Inst ...
, or
AMBER Amber is fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ...

AMBER
.


Characterization

Phospholipids are optically highly
birefringent Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index In optics, the refractive index (also known as refraction index or index of refraction) of a optical medium, material is a dimensionless number that describes how fas ...
, i.e. their refractive index is different along their axis as opposed to perpendicular to it. Measurement of
birefringence Birefringence is the property of a material having a that depends on the and propagation direction of . These optically materials are said to be birefringent (or birefractive). The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference b ...

birefringence
can be achieved using cross polarisers in a microscope to obtain an image of e.g.
vesicle Vesicle may refer to: ; In cellular biology or chemistry * Vesicle (biology and chemistry) s in an aqueous An aqueous solution is a solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt ...
walls or using techniques such as
dual polarisation interferometry Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam. It is used to measure the conformational change in proteins, or othe ...
to quantify lipid order or disruption in supported bilayers.


Analysis

There are no simple methods available for analysis of phospholipids, since the close range of polarity between different phospholipid species makes detection difficult. Oil chemists often use spectroscopy to determine total phosphorus abundance and then calculate approximate mass of phospholipids based on molecular weight of expected fatty acid species. Modern lipid profiling employs more absolute methods of analysis, with
NMR spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a technique to observe local magnetic fields around . The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is pr ...
, particularly 31P-NMR, while
HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography, is a technique in analytical chemistry Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and ...

HPLC
- ELSD provides relative values.


Phospholipid synthesis

Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis ( GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (
flippase Flippases (rarely spelled flipases) are transmembrane lipid transporter protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a va ...

flippase
and floppase). Eventually a vesicle will bud off from the ER containing phospholipids destined for the cytoplasmic cellular membrane on its exterior leaflet and phospholipids destined for the exoplasmic cellular membrane on its inner leaflet.


Sources

Common sources of industrially produced phospholipids are soya, rapeseed, sunflower, chicken eggs, bovine milk, fish eggs etc. Phospholipids for gene delivery such as distearoylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane etc. are produced synthetically. Each source has a unique profile of individual phospholipid species, as well as fatty acids, and consequently differing applications in food, nutrition, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and drug delivery.


In signal transduction

Some types of phospholipid can be split to produce products that function as
second messengers Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers. (Intracellular signals, a non-local form or cell signaling, encompassing both first mes ...
in
signal transduction Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation residue Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational ...
. Examples include
phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or PtdIns(4,5)''P''2, also known simply as PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2, is a minor phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that ...
(PIP2), that can be split by the enzyme phospholipase C into
inositol triphosphate Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3 is an inositol phosphate Inositol phosphates are a group of mono- to hexaphosphorylated In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a ...
(IP3) and
diacylglycerol A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride , the simplest possible fat after Triformin Glycerides, more correctly known as acylglycerols, are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids, and are generally very hydrophobic. Glycer ...
(DAG), which both carry out the
functions of the Gq type of G protein
functions of the G<sub>q</sub> type of G protein
in response to various stimuli and intervene in various processes from
long term depression In neurophysiology, long-term depression (LTD) is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus. LTD occurs in many areas of the Central Nervous System, CNS with var ...
in neurons to
leukocyte White blood cells, also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the of the that are involved in protecting the body against both and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from cells in the known as s. Leukocytes are ...
signal pathways started by
chemokine Chemokines (), or chemotactic cytokines, are a family of small cytokine Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the firs ...
receptors. Phospholipids also intervene in
prostaglandin The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid In and , a lipid is a macro that is soluble in solvents. are typically s used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid s that do not (or do not easily) ...
signal pathways as the raw material used by
lipase A lipase (, ) is any enzyme Enzymes () are s that act as s (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate . The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called , and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as . Almost all ...
enzymes to produce the prostaglandin precursors. In plants they serve as the raw material to produce
jasmonic acid Jasmonic acid (JA) is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, b ...

jasmonic acid
, a
plant hormone Plant hormones (or phytohormones) are signal molecule In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English), or cell-cell communication, governs the basic activities of cell (biology), cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions. A si ...
similar in structure to prostaglandins that mediates defensive responses against pathogens.


Food technology

Phospholipids can act as
emulsifiers An emulsion is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavi ...
, enabling oils to form a
colloid A colloid is a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically combined. A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are r ...

colloid
with water. Phospholipids are one of the components of
lecithin 300px, An example of a phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid in lecithin. Shown in – choline and phosphate group; – glycerol; – monounsaturated fatty acid; – saturated fatty acid. Lecithin (, from the Greek ''lekithos'' "yolk") ...
, which is found in egg yolks, as well as being extracted from
soybean The soybean, soy bean, or soya bean (''Glycine max'') is a species of legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation ...

soybean
s, and is used as a
food additive Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology ...
in many products and can be purchased as a
dietary supplement A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill Pill or The Pill may refer to: Drugs * Pill (pharmacy) A tablet is a pharmaceutical A medication (also referred to as medicine, ...
. Lysolecithins are typically used for water–oil emulsions like
margarine Margarine (, also , ) is a spread used for flavoring, baking and cooking. It is most often used as a substitute for butter. Although originally made from animal fats, most margarine consumed today is made from vegetable oil. The foodstuff was or ...

margarine
, due to their higher HLB ratio.


Phospholipid derivatives

: ''See table below for an extensive list.'' * Natural phospholipid derivates: *: egg PC ( Egg lecithin), egg PG, soy PC, hydrogenated soy PC,
sphingomyelin Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine. They were discovered in brain extrac ...

sphingomyelin
as natural phospholipids. * Synthetic phospholipid derivates: **
Phosphatidic acidPhosphatidic acids are anionic phospholipids important to cell signaling and direct activation of lipid-gated ion channels. Hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid gives rise to one molecule each of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty aci ...

Phosphatidic acid
(DMPA, DPPA, DSPA) **
Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical s ...

Phosphatidylcholine
(DDPC, DLPC, DMPC,
DPPC
DPPC
, DSPC, DOPC,
POPC POPC is a phosphatidylcholine. It is a diacylglycerol and phospholipid. The full name is 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. It is an important phospholipid for biophysical experiments and has been used to study various subjects such ...

POPC
, DEPC) **
Phosphatidylglycerol General chemical structure of a phosphatidyl glycerol where R1 and R2 are fatty acid side chains Phosphatidylglycerol is a glycerophospholipid found in pulmonary surfactant and in the plasma membrane where it directly activates lipid-gated ion chann ...

Phosphatidylglycerol
(DMPG, DPPG, DSPG, POPG) **
Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a class of phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical ...

Phosphatidylethanolamine
(DMPE, DPPE, DSPE DOPE) **
Phosphatidylserine Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane. It plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relation to apoptosis. It is a key pathway for viruses to enter cells via apo ...

Phosphatidylserine
(DOPS) ** PEG phospholipid (mPEG-phospholipid, polyglycerin-phospholipid, funcitionalized-phospholipid, terminal activated-phospholipid)


Abbreviations used and chemical information of glycerophospholipids


See also

*
Cable theory Classical cable theory uses mathematical models to calculate the electric current (and accompanying voltage) along passive neurites, particularly the dendrites that receive synapse, synaptic inputs at different sites and times. Estimates are mad ...
*
Galactolipid Galactolipids are a type of glycolipid Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A car ...
* Sulfolipid *
Hydrophile A hydrophile is a molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In phys ...

Hydrophile
* Glycolipids


References

{{Authority control Anionic surfactants