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The personification of Russia is traditionally feminine and most commonly maternal since medieval times. Most common terms for
national personification A national personification is an anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairle ...
of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
are: *Mother Russia (russian: Матушка Россия, tr. ''Matushka Rossiya'', "Mother Russia"; also, , tr. ''Rossiya-matushka'', "Russia the Mother", , tr. ''Mat'-Rossiya'', , tr. ''Matushka Rus' '', "Mother Rus' "), *Homeland the Mother (russian: Родина-мать, tr. ''Rodina-mat' ''). In the Russian language, the concept of
motherland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languag ...

motherland
is rendered by two terms: "" ( tr. ''rodina''), literally, "place of birth" and "" ( tr. ''otchizna''), literally "fatherland".
Harald Haarmann Harald Haarmann (born 1946) is a Germany, German linguistics, linguist and cultural scientist who lives and works in Finland. Haarmann studied general linguistics, various philology, philological disciplines and prehistory at the universities of ...
and
Orlando Figes Orlando Guy Figes () is a British historian and writer known for his works on Russian and European history. He is Professor of History at Birkbeck, University of London, Birkbeck College, University of London. Figes is known for his works on Rus ...
see the goddess
Mokosh Mokosh ( orv, Мóкошь) is a Slavic goddess Slavic paganism or Slavic religion describes the religious beliefs, myths and ritual practices of the Slavs before Christianisation of the Slavs, Christianisation, which occurred at various stage ...
a source of the "Mother Russia" concept.


Usage

During the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
and the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
, the image was in the propaganda of the supporters of the
White movement The White movement ( rus, Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, r= Beloye dvizheniye, p= ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ) also known as the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, ''Beliye''), was a loose confederation of anti-communist ...
, which interpreted the struggle against the
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks (Russian language, Russian: Большевики, from большинство ''bolshinstvo'', 'majority'),; derived from ''bol'shinstvo'' (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority". also know ...
as a battle with "aliens" who were "oppressors of Mother Russia". The
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks (Russian language, Russian: Большевики, from большинство ''bolshinstvo'', 'majority'),; derived from ''bol'shinstvo'' (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority". also know ...
also used the image of "Motherland", including during the fight against
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
.


Statues

During the Soviet era, many statues of Mother Motherland were built, most to commemorate the
Great Patriotic War The Eastern Front of World War II was a Theater (warfare), theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers against the Soviet Union (USSR), Polish Armed Forces in the East, Poland and other Allies of World War II, Allies, which encom ...
. These include: *''
The Motherland Calls ''The Motherland Calls'' ( rus, Родина-мать зовёт!, Rodina-mat' zovyot!, t=Homeland-Mother Is Calling!) is the compositional centre of the Monument, monument-ensemble "Heroes of the Battle of Stalingrad" on Mamayev Kurgan in Volg ...
'' (russian: Родина-мать зовёт, tr. ''Rodina-mat' zovot'') a colossal statue in Volgograd, Russia, commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad * ''Mother Motherland'', Kyiv ( uk, Батьківщина-Мати, tr. ''Batʹkivshchyna-Maty'', "Mother Fatherland") or, and more commonly referred to as, Rodina-Mat (russian: Родина-мать, tr. ''Rodina-mat' '') is a monumental statue that is a part of the
Museum of The History of Ukraine in World War II The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War ( uk, Музей історії України у Другій світовій війні) is a memorial complex commemorating the German-Soviet War located in the southern o ...
*
Mother Motherland (Saint Petersburg) Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery (russian: Пискарёвское мемориа́льное кла́дбище) is located in Saint Petersburg, on the Avenue of the Unvanquished (Проспект Непокорённых), dedicated mostly to t ...
, a statue at the Piskarevskoye Memorial Cemetery, St. Petersburg, Russia *
Mother Russia (Kaliningrad) The personification of Russia is traditionally feminine and most commonly maternal since medieval times. Most common terms for national personification of Russia are: *Mother Russia (russian: Матушка Россия, Romanization of Russian, ...
, a monument in Kaliningrad, Russia *
Mother Motherland Mourning over Her Perished Sons A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered m ...
(russian: Родина-мать, скорбящая о погибших сыновьях, tr. ''Rodina-mat', skorbyashchaya o pogibshikh synov'yakh''),
Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niamiha rivers. As the capital, Minsk has a special administra ...

Minsk
, Belarus commemorating the dead in Afghanistan *
Mother Motherland (Naberezhnye Chelny) The personification of Russia is traditionally feminine and most commonly maternal since medieval times. Most common terms for national personification of Russia are: *Mother Russia (russian: Матушка Россия, Romanization of Russian, ...
, a monument in
Naberezhnye Chelny Naberezhnye Chelny ( rus, На́бережные Челны́, p=ˈnabʲɪrʲɪʐnɨjə tɕɪlˈnɨ; tt, Яр Чаллы IPA: Help:IPA/Tatar, jar ɕɑlːɤ̆ is the second largest types of inhabited localities in Russia, city in the Republic ...
, Russia *
Mother Motherland (Pavlovsk) The personification of Russia is traditionally feminine and most commonly maternal since medieval times. Most common terms for national personification of Russia are: *Mother Russia (russian: Матушка Россия, Romanization of Russian, ...
, a memorial complex, Pavlovsk, Russia *
Motherland Monument (Matveev Kurgan) The Monument "Motherland" Matveev Kurgan (russian: Памятник "Родина-Мать" в Матвеев Кургане) is a Russian monument located near the village of Starorotovka. History The monument is located on the departure from ...


See also

*
Mat Zemlya Mat Zemlya (Matka Ziemia or Matushka Zeml'ja) is the Earth Mother and is probably the oldest deity in Slavic mythology. She is also called Mati Syra Zemlya meaning ''Damp Mother Earth'' or ''Moist Mother Earth''. Her identity later blended into th ...
*
Russian Bear The Russian Bear (russian: Русский медведь, Russky medved) is a widespread symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that ca ...


References


Further reading

* Ellen Rutten, ''Unattainable Bride Russia: Gendering Nation, State, and Intelligentsia in Russian Intellectual Culture'', 2010, . The book discusses personifications of Russia as a bride in 20th century Russian literature and art.


External links

*
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
National symbols of Russia {{Culture-stub