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Permanent residency is a person's legal resident status in a country or territory of which such person is not a
citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and th ...
but where they have the right to reside on a permanent basis. This is usually for a permanent period; a person with such legal status is known as a permanent resident. In the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
, such a person is referred to as a
green card A green card, known officially as a permanent resident card, is an identity document which shows that a person has permanent residency in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. o ...

green card
holder but more formally as a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR). Permanent residency itself is distinct from
right of abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence o ...
, which waives immigration control for such persons. Persons having permanent residency still require immigration control if they do not have right of abode. However, a right of abode automatically grants people permanent residency. This status also gives
work permit A work permit or work visa is the permission to take a job within a foreign country. European Union Currently, every EU country has a different process for granting work permits to nationals of non-EU countries. To address this issue, the Eur ...
in most cases. In many western countries, the status of permanent resident confers a right of abode upon the holder despite not being a citizen of the particular country.


Countries with permanent residency systems

Not every country allows permanent residency. Rights and application may vary widely. All European Union countries have a facility for someone to become a permanent resident, as EU legislation allows an EU national who moves to another EU country to attain permanent resident status after residing there for five years. The European Union also sets out permanent residency rights for long-term resident third country nationals under directive (2003/109/EC). A novel approach was the granting of rights across the national borders of states adhering to the directive. As Hong Kong and Macau, both
special administrative regions of China The Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of the People's Republic of China are one of the provincial-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a ...
, do not have their own citizenship laws, the term "permanent residents" refer to persons with the
right of abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence o ...
in these territories. Most permanent residents of Chinese descent are Chinese citizens according to
Chinese nationality law Chinese nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds China, People's Republic of China (PRC) nationality. Foreign nationals may naturalize if they are immediate family members of Chinese citizens or permanently resident in an ...
. Other countries have varying forms of such residency and relationships with other countries with regards to permanent residency. The regions that have some type of permanent resident status include: *
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered b ...
*
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...
*
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Persian Gulf. The island nation comprises a small archipelago An archipelag ...
*
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean country located on the northeastern coast of Central America. Belize borders Mexico to the north, Caribbean Sea to the east and Guatemala to the south. It has an area of and a population of 419,199 (2020). Its mainlan ...
*
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...
*
Brunei Darussalam Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coas ...
(called ''penduduk tetap'') *
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...
(permanent residents were known as ''landed immigrants'' before 28 June 2002) *
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...
*
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...

China
(called 永久居留权 (''yǒngjiǔ-jūliúquán''), programme started from 2004) ** The first time that there were over 10,000 foreign permanent residents in China was in 2016. ''
China Daily ''China Daily'' () is an English-language daily newspaper owned by the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party. Overview ''China Daily'' has the widest print circulation of any English-language newspaper in China. The headqua ...
'' wrote that while, by that year, the process had been made simpler, "Getting China's "green card" is considered one of the most difficult tasks in the world." *
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southea ...
*
Curaçao Curaçao ( ; ; pap, Kòrsou, ) is a Lesser Antilles island country in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country ( nl, land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. T ...
(called ''sedula'') *
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with ...
*
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a c ...

Ecuador
*
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
: **
Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of Austria, federated states, one of which is Vienna, Austria's ca ...
(called ''Niederlassungsbewilligung'')
Descriptions
**
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. G ...
(B or C permit for non-EEA citizens)
Descriptions
**
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
(called ''karta za postojanno prebivavašt v Republika Bălgarija čuždenec'') **
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...

Croatia
**
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or politi ...

Descriptions
**
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
– (called ''trvalý pobyt'')
Descriptions
**
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central Constituent state, constituent of the Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, a constitution ...
- (called ''permanent opholdstilladelse'')
Descriptions
**
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Swe ...

Estonia

Descriptions
**
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of Bo ...

Finland
(permit P)
Descriptions
**
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
(some types of ''titre de séjour'', such as the ''carte de résident'')
Descriptions
**
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
(called ''Niederlassungserlaubnis'')
Descriptions
**
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A contin ...

Greece
(called ''Πράσινη Κάρτα'')
Descriptions
**
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence ...

Descriptions
**
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
(called ''Permanent residency card'')

**
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy

Descriptions
**
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic reg ...

Latvia

Descriptions
(called "Uzturēšanās atļauja") **
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countri ...

Descriptions
**
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
- long-term resident/''résident longue durée'' **
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisia ...

Malta
**
Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Dutch Caribbean, Caribbean. It is the largest of four Kingdom of the Netherlands#Constituent countries, cons ...

Netherlands
(called ''Verblijfsvergunning voor onbepaalde tijd''; class II, IV, or V permit)
Descriptions
**
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...

Poland
(called ''Karta rezydenta długoterminowego UE'')
Descriptions
**
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includ ...

Portugal
- (called ''residência permanente ''
Descriptions to non-EU citizens
**
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...

Romania
(called ''Permis de şedere permanentă'')
Descriptions
**
Slovak Republic Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories ...
(called ''trvalý pobyt'') **
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes ...

Slovenia

Descriptions
**
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...

Spain

Descriptions
**
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...

Sweden
(called ''Permanent Uppehållstillstånd'')
Descriptions
*
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It spans along the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing borders with the Ivory Coast in Ghana–Ivory Coast border, the west, Burkina Faso in Burkina Faso–Gha ...

Ghana
*
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to th ...

Guatemala
*
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...

Hong Kong
(through the ''
Right of Abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence o ...
'', with or without Chinese citizenship) *
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
( called "Permanent Resident Status Scheme")
Descriptions
*
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
*
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
(The term ''toshav-keva'' refers to a permanent resident without
Israeli citizenship Israeli citizenship law ( he, חוק האזרחות הישראלית) regulates who are and can become citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belon ...
.) *
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
(called 永住許可 ''eijūkyoka'') *
South Korea South Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Namhan'', or /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Namchosŏn'' in North Korean usage), officially the R ...

South Korea
*
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the Chi ...

Macau
(''Residente Permanente'', with or without Chinese citizenship) *
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
*
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two reg ...

Malaysia
(called ''pemastautin tetap'') *
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; ...

Mexico
*
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean The P ...

Nicaragua
(called ''Résidents Permanents Nicaragua''
Descriptions
*
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...
*
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. Bokmål is the preferred ...

Norway
() *
Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several ...

Panama
*
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = National seal , national_motto ...

Peru
(A permanent residency option is available for those from countries which prohibit dual citizenship. Permanent residency only requires an annual fee, and no other supporting documents.) *
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republik ...

Philippines
*
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares its ...

Qatar
*
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
(called "вид на жительство" ''vid na žítel'stvo'', or ПМЖ ''pe-em-žé'') *
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bord ...

Singapore
*
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...

South Africa
* St. Kitts and Nevis *
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
(''Permis d'établissement'', ''Niederlassungsbewilligung'' or ''Permesso di domicilio'', commonly referred to as a C permit (Permis C, C-Ausweis, Permesso C) (settlement permit)Permit C (settlement permit) – Federal Office for Migration
) *
Republic of China (Taiwan) Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main islan ...

Republic of China (Taiwan)
*
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern A ...

Thailand

Trinidad and Tobago
*
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of European countries by area, second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares bo ...

Ukraine
(called "посвідка на постійне проживання"' 'posvidka na postijne prozhyvannya'', or ППП "pe-pe-pe"). *
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
(either through ''
Indefinite leave to remain Indefinite leave to remain (ILR) or permanent residency (PR) is an immigration status granted to a person who does not hold the right of abode in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known ...
'' or ''
Right of Abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence o ...
'' or Permanent Residence for nationals)
Descriptions
*
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
( lawfully admitted for permanent residence)


Other forms of permanent residency

* India does not permit dual citizenship, but former Indian citizens, and persons of Indian origin, are eligible to apply for an ''
Overseas Citizen of India Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) is a form of permanent residency Permanent residency is a person's legal residency (domicile), resident status in a country or territory of which such person is not a citizenship, citizen but where he or she ...
(OCI)'' card that allows them to live and work freely in India, apart from running for certain political office posts and occupying constitutional posts. They also cannot vote or buy agricultural land. Spouses who have no other connection to India other than being married to someone with or eligible for OCI can also apply for OCI if they have been married for at least two years. Once the marriage is dissolved, OCI status is automatically lost for spouse with no connection to India. Recently in 2016 India allowed Permanent Resident Status to foreigners with some conditions. * Turkey allows dual citizenship, and former Turkish citizens who have given up their Turkish citizenship (for example, because they have naturalized in a country that usually does not permit dual citizenship, such as Germany, Austria, South Korea or Japan) can apply for the "Blue Card" (''mavi kart''), which gives them some citizens' rights back, e.g. the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess land or the right to inherit, but not the right to vote. * Some countries have made treaties regulating travel and access to the job markets (non-government/non-military-related work): A citizen of an EU country can live and work indefinitely in other EU countries and in Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland (and citizens of these countries can live and work in EU countries). The
Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement (TTTA) is an arrangement between Australia and New Zealand which allows for the free movement of citizens of one of these countries to the other. The arrangement came into effect in 1973, and allows citizens of ...
between Australia and New Zealand allows citizens of the two countries to live and work in the other country. A citizen of a
Gulf Cooperation Council The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf ( ar, مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, ), is a regional intergovernmental organ ...

Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) member state (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates) can live and work in other member states. : However, for voting, being voted and working for the public sector or the national security in a country, citizenship of the country concerned is almost always required.


Golden Visas

A " golden visa" is a permanent residency visa issued to individuals who invest, often through the purchase of property, a certain sum of money into the issuing country. Dating back to the 1980s, golden visas became much more popular and available in the 21st century. Golden visas require investments of anywhere from $100,000 in
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French: ''Dominik''), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island country in the Caribbean. The capital, Roseau, is located on the western side of the island. ...
up to £2,000,000 in the U.K. The most common method for obtaining a golden visa is through the purchase of real estate with a minimum value. Some countries such as Malta and Cyprus also offer " golden passports" (citizenship) to individuals if they invest a certain sum. The issuing of so-called "golden visas" has sparked controversy in several countries.


Limitations of permanent residents

Depending on the country, permanent residents usually have the same rights as citizens except for the following: * they may not
vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. ...

vote
(though in some cases such as the UK's
Commonwealth citizen A Commonwealth citizen is a citizen or qualified national of a Commonwealth of Nations A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "repu ...
s, New Zealand voting is allowed) * they may not stand for public office (except
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
citizens permanently residing in other EU member states who may stand in local and European elections) * in most cases they may not hold
public sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public service A public service is a service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administr ...
employment. Canada and New Zealand allow this; some countries, such as Brazil and Portugal, allow it only for permanent residents holding citizenship of another country of shared heritage) * they may not usually apply for employment involving
national security National_Security_Council_staff_on_the_1986_United_States_bombing_of_Libya.html" ;"title="Ronald Reagan">President of the United States National_Security_Council_staff_on_the_1986_United_States_bombing_of_Libya">Libya_bombing_on_15_April_1986 ...
. In Singapore, male PRs who have been granted PR before the age of 18 have to serve
national service National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service. Conscription is mandatory national service. The term ''national service'' comes from the United Kingdom's National Service (Armed Forces) ...
. Most first-generation males are exempted. * they may not own certain classes of
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more general ...

real estate
* they are not issued the
passport A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be ...

passport
of that country (unless otherwise stateless or unable to obtain a passport from their country of nationality, in which case they may be entitled to a
certificate of identity A certificate of identity, sometimes called an alien's passport, is a travel document issued by a country to non-citizens (also called aliens) residing within their borders who are stateless persons or otherwise unable to obtain a passport f ...
instead) * they do not have access to the country's
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
ar protection (some countries such as Australia allow this) * they may qualify to apply for citizenship after meeting a specified period of residence


Obligations of permanent residents

Permanent residents may be required to fulfill specific residence obligations to maintain their status. In some cases, permanent residency may be conditional on a certain type of employment or maintenance of a business. Many countries have compulsory
military service Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subject ...
for citizens. Some countries, such as Singapore, extend this to permanent residents. However, in Singapore, most first generation permanent residents are exempted, and only their sons are held liable for national service. In a similar approach, the United States has
Selective Service The Selective Service System (SSS) is an independent agency of the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States The United States ...
, a compulsory ''registration'' for military service, which is required of all male citizens and permanent residents ages 18 to 26; this requirement theoretically applies even to those residing in the country illegally. Applications for citizenship may be denied or otherwise impeded if the applicant cannot prove having complied with this requirement. Permanent residents may be required to reside in the country offering them residence for a given minimum length of time (as in Australia and Canada). Permanent residents may lose their status if they stay outside their host country for more than a specified period of time (as in the United States). Permanent residents have the same obligations as citizens regarding taxes.


Loss of status

Permanent residents may lose their status if they fail to comply with
residency Residency may refer to: * Residency (domicile), the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place ** Permanent residency, indefinite residence within a country despite not having citizenship Education * Residency (medicine), a ...
or other obligations imposed on them. For example: * they leave the country beyond a maximum number of days (varies among countries but usually more than 2 years) * they become a threat to national security, or they commit serious crimes and become subject to deportation or removal from the country


Access to citizenship

Usually permanent residents may apply for citizenship by
naturalization Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the ind ...
after a period of permanent residency (typically five years) in the country concerned.
Dual citizenship Multiple/dual citizenship (or multiple/dual nationality) is a legal status Legal status is the position held by something or someone with regard to law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
may or may not be permitted. In many nations an application for naturalization can be denied on character grounds, sometimes allowing people to reside in the country (as non-domiciled) but not become citizens. In the United States the residency requirements for citizenship are normally five years, even though permanent residents who have been married to a US citizen for three years or more may apply in three years. Those who have served in the armed forces may qualify for an expedited process allowing citizenship after only one year, or even without any residence requirement.


Golden Passports

Since the 1990s, in addition to golden visas some countries have begun to offer golden passports to foreign nationals who invest (often through the purchase of property) a certain sum into the issuing country's economy. The issuing of EU passports by
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisia ...

Malta
and
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or politi ...
has sparked controversy but is expected to produced billions of euros in revenue for the issuing countries.


Automatic entitlement

Full permanent residence rights are granted automatically between the following: * Ireland and the United Kingdom including general election voting rights. * the states of the
Nordic Council The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary Nordic cooperation among the Nordic countries. Formed in 1952, it has 87 representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden as well as from the autonomous are ...

Nordic Council
*
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
and
Republic of Belarus A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...
*
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
and
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
In some cases (e.g., the member states of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
) citizens of participating countries can live and work at will in each other's states, but don't have a status fully equivalent to that of a permanent resident. In particular, under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australia and New Zealand grant each other's citizens the right to reside permanently and work in each country; however, the rights and entitlements of New Zealanders living in Australia under this arrangement (the so-called
Special Category Visa A Special Category Visa (SCV) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, ...
) are somewhat short of those of
Australian permanent resident Australian permanent residents are residents of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island ...
s, in particular with respect to unemployment benefits and similar benefits.


Proof of permanent residency

People who are granted permanent residency in a country are usually issued some sort of documentary evidence as legal proof of this status. In the past, many countries merely stamped the person's passport indicating that the holder was admitted as a permanent resident or that he/she was exempt from immigration control and permitted to work without restriction. Other countries would issue a photo ID card, place a visa sticker or certificate of residence in the person's passport, or issue a letter to confirm their permanent resident status. *In Australia and New Zealand, a printout of permanent residence visa or resident visa is stuck to a page of the permanent resident's passport. (On 1 September 2015, Australia ceased issuing visa labels to holders of Australian visas.) *In Canada, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card known as Permanent Resident Card. They are also given an official document called a Confirmation of Permanent Residence or Record of Landing on the day that permanent resident status is conferred. *In Costa Rica, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card commonly referred to as a "cedula". *In the countries of the European Union, residency permits are a photo ID card following a common EU design. *In Germany, resident permits ''( Aufenthaltstitel)'' have been issued as photo ID cards following a common EU design since 1 September 2011. Prior to that date, residence permits were stickers (similar to visas) which were affixed to the resident's passport. *In Ghana, permanent residents are issued an Indefinite Residence permit which is in the form of a sticker attached into the resident's passport. *In Hong Kong, permanent residents are issued a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card. *In Japan and South Korea, all resident foreigners are issued a residence card, and for permanent residents this status is indicated. *In Lithuania, permanent residents are issued a photo ID ''(Leidimas gyventi)'' following a common EU design. *In Macau, permanent residents are issued a Macao Permanent Resident Identity Card (''Bilhete de Identidade de Residente Permanente''). *In Malaysia, permanent residents are issued with a MyPR card similar to the
MyKad The Malaysian identity card ( ms, kad pengenalan Malaysia), is the compulsory identity document, identity card for Malaysian citizens aged 12 and above. The current identity card, known as MyKad, was introduced by the ''National Registration Depar ...
issued to Malaysian citizens, the difference being the colour (red instead of blue) and additional information stating the cardholder's country of origin. *In Singapore, permanent residents are issued a blue identity card with their photograph, thumb print and other personal particulars similar to citizen's pink identity card *In Slovakia, permanent residents were used to issued a red photo ID. Slovakia has switched to common EU design since 2011. *In South Africa, permanent residents who have their passport endorsed, are issued a certificate and a standard national green identity book showing "NON S.A. CITIZEN". *In Switzerland, permanent residents are issued either a biometric ID card in accordance with Schengen regulations if they are non EU/EFTA national, or a paper permit in a yellow-coloured plastic wallet if they are an EU/EFTA national. *In the Republic of China (Taiwan), permanent residents are issued a blue photo ID card (APRC). A separate open work permit can also be issued to permanent residents allowing them to accept employment in any non-governmental positions for which they are qualified. *In the United Kingdom, the applicant is issued with a photo ID card known as a
Biometric Residence Permit Biometrics are body measurements and calculations related to human characteristics. Biometrics Multi-factor authentication, authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. ...
which states that the permit is a Settlement permit for Indefinite Leave to Remain. *In the United States, permanent residents are non-citizens issued a photo ID card which is known as a Permanent Resident Card (or simply as a "
green card A green card, known officially as a permanent resident card, is an identity document which shows that a person has permanent residency in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. o ...

green card
"). See also ("The term '' means the status of having been lawfully the
privilege Privilege may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Privilege'' (film), a 1967 film directed by Peter Watkins * ''Privilege'' (Ivor Cutler album), 1983 * ''Privilege'' (Television Personalities album), 1990 * ''Privilege (Abridged) ''Privile ...

privilege
of residing
permanently ''Permanently'' is the third studio album by American country music singer Mark Wills. Released in 2000 on Mercury Nashville Records, the album produced three singles on the ''Billboard (magazine), Billboard'' Hot Country Singles & Tracks (now Hot ...

permanently
in the United States as an
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

immigrant
, such status not having changed."); '' Landon v. Plasencia''
459 U.S. 21, 32
(1982) ("As we explained... once an
alien Alien primarily refers to: * Alien (law) In law, an alien is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part ...

alien
gains admission to our
country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a n ...

country
and begins to develop the ties that go with permanent residence, his
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...

constitutional
status changes accordingly.").
Federal law requires that the card be carried on the person at all times.


Brexit

The European Union Settlement Scheme is a scheme launched in 2019 by the UK
Home Office The Home Office (HO), also known (especially in official papers and when referred to in Parliament) as the Home Department, is a ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for Immigration to the United Kingdom, i ...

Home Office
to process the registration of EU citizens resident in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
prior to its departure from the European Union. Successful applicants receive either 'Pre-settled status' or 'Settled status', depending on the length of time they have been resident in the United Kingdom.


See also

*
Civitas sine suffragio''Civitas sine suffragio'' (Latin, "citizenship without the vote") was a level of citizenship in the Roman Republic which granted all the rights of Roman citizenship except the right to vote in popular assemblies. This status was first extended to so ...
*
Denization Denization is an obsolete or defunct process in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies nort ...
*
Domicile (law) Domicile is relevant to an individual's "personal law," which includes the law that governs a person's status and their property. It is independent of a person's nationality. Although a domicile may change from time to time, a person has only one d ...
*
Habitual residence In conflict of laws, habitual residence is the standard used to determine the law which should be applied to determine a given legal dispute or legal entitlement. It can be contrasted with the law on domicile (law), domicile, traditionally used in c ...
*
Immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as permanent residents or naturalized citizens. Commuters, tourists, ...

Immigration
* Long-term resident (European Union) *
MeticIn ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 6 ...
*
Nationality law Nationality law is the law of a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perman ...
*
Residency (domicile) Domicile is relevant to an individual's "personal law," which includes the law that governs a person's status and their property. It is independent of a person's nationality. Although a domicile may change from time to time, a person has only one do ...
* Temporary residency


References


External links


Citizenship by Investment


{{DEFAULTSORT:Permanent Residency * Human migration Immigration law