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Peptides (from
Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including the ...
πεπτός, ''peptós'' "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, ''péssein'' "to digest") are short chains of
amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, a ...

amino acid
s linked by
peptide bond In organic chemistry, a peptide bond is an amide type of Covalent bond, covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from C1 (carbon number one) of one alpha-amino acid and N2 (nitrogen number two) of another, along a peptide o ...

peptide bond
s. Chains of fewer than ten or fifteen amino acids are called
oligopeptide 300px, A tetrapeptide (example Valine, Val-Glycine, Gly-Serine, Ser-Alanine, Ala) with green marked N-terminus, amino end (Valine, L-valine) and blue marked C-terminus, carboxyl end (Alanine, L-alanine) An oligopeptide, often just called peptide (' ...
s, and include
dipeptideA dipeptide is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, caten ...
s,
tripeptide A tripeptide is a peptide derived from three amino acids joined by two or sometimes three peptide bonds. As for proteins, the function of peptides is determined by the constituent amino acids and their sequence. The simplest tripeptide is glycylgl ...
s, and
tetrapeptide A tetrapeptide is a peptide Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, native t ...
s. A polypeptide is a longer, continuous, unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological polymers and
oligomer In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...
s, alongside
nucleic acid Nucleic acids are biopolymer Biopolymers are natural polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecule ...

nucleic acid
s,
oligosaccharide An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/; from the Greek ὀλίγος ''olígos'', "a few", and σάκχαρ ''sácchar'', "sugar") is a saccharide is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sug ...
s,
polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant found in . They are long chain carbohydrates composed of units bound together by . This carbohydrate can react with water () using as catalyst, which produces constituent sugars ...
s, and others. A polypeptide that contains more than approximately fifty amino acids is known as a
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way, often bound to
ligand In coordination chemistry A coordination complex consists of a central atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...
s such as
coenzyme A cofactor is a non-protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including ...
s and cofactors, or to another protein or other
macromolecule macromolecule A macromolecule is a very large molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neu ...
such as
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral gro ...

DNA
or
RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Re ...

RNA
, or to complex
macromolecular assemblies The term macromolecular assembly (MA) refers to massive chemical structures such as virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including t ...
. Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed . A water molecule is released during formation of each
amide In organic chemistry, an amide, also known as an organic amide or a carboxamide, is a chemical compound, compound with the general formula RC(=O)NR′R″, where R, R', and R″ represent organic compound, organic functional group, groups or ...

amide
bond. All peptides except
cyclic peptide Cyclic peptides are polypeptide chains Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of langua ...
s have an
N-terminal 350px, A Val-Glycine.html"_;"title="Valine.html"_;"title="tetrapeptide_(example:_Valine">Val-Glycine">Gly-Serine">Ser-Alanine.html" ;"title="Glycine">Gly-Serine.html" ;"title="Valine">Val-Glycine.html" ;"title="Valine.html" ;"title="tetrapeptid ...

N-terminal
(amine group) and
C-terminal The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid Amino acids are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistr ...

C-terminal
(carboxyl group) residue at the end of the peptide (as shown for the tetrapeptide in the image).


Classes

Many kinds of peptides are known. They have been classified or categorized according to their sources and functions. According to the Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, some groups of peptides include plant peptides, bacterial/ antibiotic peptides, fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides, immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides,
opiate peptide Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a substance derived from opium. Opioid, a more modern term, is used to designate all substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors in the brain (including antago ...
s,
neurotrophic Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which ...
peptides, and blood–brain peptides. Some ribosomal peptides are subject to
proteolysis Proteolysis is the breakdown of protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to another. ...

proteolysis
. These function, typically in higher organisms, as
hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

hormone
s and signaling molecules. Some organisms produce peptides as
antibiotic An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system t ...
s, such as
microcin Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of relatively few amino acid Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and Carboxylic acid, carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a Substituent, side chain (R gro ...
s and
bacteriocin Bacteriocins are protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including Enzyme cat ...
s. Peptides frequently have
post-translational modification Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzyme, enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes translation (biology), translating mRNA into polypeptide c ...
s such as
phosphorylation In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...

phosphorylation
,
hydroxylation In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in th ...
,
sulfonationAromatic sulfonation is an organic reactionImage:Claisen Rearrangement Scheme.png, 400px, The Claisen rearrangementOrganic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions ...
,
palmitoylation Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, struct ...

palmitoylation
, glycosylation, and
disulfide In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...
formation. In general, peptides are linear, although
lariat A lasso ( or ), also called lariat, riata, or reata (all from Castilian Spanish, Castilian, la reata 're-tied rope'), is a loop of rope designed as a restraint to be thrown around a target and tightened when pulled. It is a well-known tool of ...
structures have been observed. More exotic manipulations do occur, such as racemization of L-amino acids to D-amino acids in
platypus venom 300px, The venom-delivering spur is found only on the male's hind limbs. The platypus The platypus (''Ornithorhynchus anatinus''), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic, egg-laying mammal Mammals (from ...
.
Nonribosomal peptideNonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds * ...
s are assembled by
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
s, not the ribosome. A common non-ribosomal peptide is
glutathione Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant Antioxidants are that inhibit , a that can produce and s that may damage the of organisms. Antioxidants such as s or (vitamin C) may act to inhibit these reactions. To balance , plants and animals ma ...

glutathione
, a component of the
antioxidant Antioxidants are compounds Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above ...

antioxidant
defenses of most aerobic organisms. Other nonribosomal peptides are most common in
unicellular organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemica ...
s,
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s, and
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
and are synthesized by
modular Broadly speaking, modularity is the degree to which a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its ...
enzyme complexes called ''nonribosomal peptide synthetases''. These complexes are often laid out in a similar fashion, and they can contain many different modules to perform a diverse set of chemical manipulations on the developing product. These peptides are often
cyclic Cycle or cyclic may refer to: Anthropology and social sciences * Cyclic history, a theory of history * Cyclical theory, a theory of American political history associated with Arthur Schlesinger, Sr. * Social cycle, various cycles in social scienc ...
and can have highly complex cyclic structures, although linear nonribosomal peptides are also common. Since the system is closely related to the machinery for building
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s and
polyketide Polyketides are a class of natural product A natural product is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than o ...
s, hybrid compounds are often found. The presence of
oxazoles Oxazole is the parent compound for a vast class of heterocyclic aromatic forms of benzene (top) combine to produce an average structure (bottom) In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements ...
or
thiazoles Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen; the term 'thiazole' also refers to a large family of derivatives. Thiazole itself is a pale yellow liquid with a pyridine-like odor and the molecular for ...

thiazoles
often indicates that the compound was synthesized in this fashion. are derived from animal milk or meat digested by
proteolysis Proteolysis is the breakdown of protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to another. ...

proteolysis
. In addition to containing small peptides, the resulting material includes fats, metals, salts, vitamins, and many other biological compounds. Peptones are used in nutrient media for growing bacteria and fungi. Peptide fragments refer to fragments of proteins that are used to identify or quantify the source protein. Often these are the products of enzymatic degradation performed in the laboratory on a controlled sample, but can also be forensic or paleontological samples that have been degraded by natural effects.


Chemical synthesis


Example families

The peptide families in this section are ribosomal peptides, usually with hormonal activity. All of these peptides are synthesized by cells as longer "propeptides" or "proproteins" and truncated prior to exiting the cell. They are released into the bloodstream where they perform their signaling functions.


Antimicrobial peptides

*
Magainin The magainins are a class of antimicrobial peptides Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life. Fundamental differences exist between prokaryotic a ...
family * family *
Cathelicidin Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) are polypeptide that is primarily stored in the lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs); in humans, the ''CAMP'' gene In biology, a gene (from ''genos'' "...Wilhelm Johanns ...
family *
Defensin Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins across cellular life, including vertebrate and invertebrate animals, plants, and fungi. They are host defense peptides, with members displaying either direct Antimicrobial peptides, antimicrobial ...
family


Tachykinin peptides

*
Substance P Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide Peptides (from Greek language πεπτός, ''peptós'' "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, ''péssein'' "to digest") are short chains of between two and fifty amino acids, linked by peptide bonds. Chain ...

Substance P
* *
Neurokinin A Neurokinin A (NKA), formerly known as Substance K, is a neurologically active peptide translated from the pre-protachykinin gene. Neurokinin A has many excitatory effects on mammalian nervous systems and is also influential on the mammalian inflamm ...

Neurokinin A
* Eledoisin *
Neurokinin B Neurokinin B (NKB) belongs in the family of tachykinin peptides. Neurokinin B is implicated in a variety of human functions and pathways such as the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasi ...

Neurokinin B


Vasoactive intestinal peptides

*
VIP VIP is a very important person. VIP or V.I.P. may also refer to: Entertainment * V.I.P. (comedian) Indian television comedian * VIP (magazine), ''VIP'' (magazine), an Irish celebrity lifestyle fashion magazine * VIP, a video brand formerly used ...

VIP
(''Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide''; PHM27) *
PACAP Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallogra ...
''Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide'' * Peptide PHI 27 (''Peptide Histidine Isoleucine 27'') * GHRH 1-24 ''(Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone 1-24)'' *
Glucagon Glucagon is a peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on the endocrine ...

Glucagon
*
Secretin Secretin is a hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europ ...


Pancreatic polypeptide-related peptides

* ''(NeuroPeptide Y) *
PYY Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical str ...
''(Peptide YY)'' * APP ''(Avian Pancreatic Polypeptide)'' * PPY ''Pancreatic PolYpeptide''


Opioid peptides

*
Proopiomelanocortin Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. POMC is Protein biosynthesis, synthesized in Corticotropic cell, corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary from the 267-amino-acid-long polypeptide precursor pre-pr ...
(POMC) peptides *
Enkephalin An enkephalin is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception Nociception (also nocioception, from Latin ''nocere'' 'to harm or hurt') is the Somatosensory system, sensory nervous system's process of encoding noxious stimuli. It deals with ...
pentapeptides *
ProdynorphinProdynorphin, also known as proenkephalin B, is an opioid Opioids are substances that, when reaching opioid receptors, have effects similar to those of morphine. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medica ...
peptides


Calcitonin peptides

*
Calcitonin Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on ...

Calcitonin
*
Amylin Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. ...
* AGG01


Self-Assembling peptides

* Aromatic short peptides * Biomimetic peptides * Peptide amphiphiles *Peptide dendrimers


Other peptides

* B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) - produced in the myocardium and useful in medical diagnosis *
LactotripeptidesLactotripeptides are two naturally occurring milk peptides: Isoleucine-Proline Proline (symbol Pro or P) is an organic acid classed as a proteinogenic amino acid (used in the Protein biosynthesis, biosynthesis of proteins), although it does not c ...
- Lactotripeptides might reduce
blood pressure Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mas ...

blood pressure
, although the evidence is mixed. * Peptidic components from traditional Chinese medicine Colla Corii Asini in hematopoiesis.


Terminology


Length

Several terms related to peptides have no strict length definitions, and there is often overlap in their usage. *A ''polypeptide'' is a single linear chain of many amino acids (any length), held together by
amide bond A peptide bond is an amide In organic chemistry, an amide, also known as an organic amide or a carboxamide, is a compound with the general formula RC(=O)NR′R″, where R, R', and R″ represent organic groups or hydrogen Hydrogen i ...
s. *A ''
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
'' consists of one or more polypeptides (more than about 50 amino acids long). *An ''
oligopeptide 300px, A tetrapeptide (example Valine, Val-Glycine, Gly-Serine, Ser-Alanine, Ala) with green marked N-terminus, amino end (Valine, L-valine) and blue marked C-terminus, carboxyl end (Alanine, L-alanine) An oligopeptide, often just called peptide (' ...
'' consists of only a few amino acids (between two and twenty).


Number of amino acids

Peptides of defined length are named using
IUPAC numerical multiplier The numerical multiplier (or multiplying affix) in IUPAC nomenclature The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: * IUPAC nomen ...
prefixes. *A '' monopeptide'' has one amino acid. *A ''
dipeptideA dipeptide is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, caten ...
'' has two amino acids. *A ''
tripeptide A tripeptide is a peptide derived from three amino acids joined by two or sometimes three peptide bonds. As for proteins, the function of peptides is determined by the constituent amino acids and their sequence. The simplest tripeptide is glycylgl ...
'' has three amino acids. *A ''
tetrapeptide A tetrapeptide is a peptide Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of languages, native t ...
'' has four amino acids. *A ''pentapeptide'' has five amino acids. *A ''hexapeptide'' has six amino acids. *A ''heptapeptide'' has seven amino acids. *An ''octapeptide'' has eight amino acids (''e.g.'',
angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on the endocr ...

angiotensin II
). *A ''nonapeptide'' has nine amino acids (''e.g.'',
oxytocin Oxytocin (Oxt or OT) is a peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect o ...

oxytocin
). *A ''decapeptide'' has ten amino acids (''e.g.'',
gonadotropin-releasing hormone Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are hormone A hormone (from the Greek participle , "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules in multicellula ...
and
angiotensin I Angiotensin is a peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on the endocri ...

angiotensin I
).


Function

*A ''
neuropeptide Neuropeptides are chemical messengers made up of small chains of amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), mil ...
'' is a peptide that is active in association with neural tissue. *A ''
lipopeptide A lipopeptide is a molecule A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated wi ...
'' is a peptide that has a
lipid In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...
connected to it, and '' pepducins'' are lipopeptides that interact with GPCRs. *A ''
peptide hormonePeptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on the endocrine system of animals, including hum ...
'' is a peptide that acts as a
hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

hormone
. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of proteins. The term is somewhat archaic. *A peptidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the peptide systems in the body or brain. An example is
opioidergic An opioidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the opioid neuropeptide systems (i.e., endorphin Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormonePeptid ...
s, which are
neuropeptidergic Neuropeptidergic means "related to neuropeptides". A neuropeptidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the neuropeptide systems in the body or brain. An example is opioidergics. See also * Adenosinergic * Cannabin ...
s. *Cell-penetrating peptide is a peptide able to penetrate the cell membrane.


See also

* Acetyl hexapeptide-3 * * Collagen hybridizing peptide, a short peptide that can bind to denatured collagen in tissues * Bis-peptide *
CLE peptideCLE peptides (CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region-Related) are a group of peptide Peptides (from Greek language πεπτός, ''peptós'' "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, ''péssein'' "to digest") are short chains of amino acids linked by pe ...
*
Epidermal growth factor Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowder ...
* ''
Journal of Peptide Science The ''Journal of Peptide Science'' is a monthly peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified m ...
'' *
LactotripeptidesLactotripeptides are two naturally occurring milk peptides: Isoleucine-Proline Proline (symbol Pro or P) is an organic acid classed as a proteinogenic amino acid (used in the Protein biosynthesis, biosynthesis of proteins), although it does not c ...
* Micropeptide * Multifunctional peptide * Neuropeptide * Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 * Pancreatic hormone * peptide spectral library * Peptide synthesis * Peptidomimetics (such as peptoids and beta-peptide, β-peptides) to peptides, but with different properties. * Protein tag, describing addition of peptide sequences to enable protein isolation or detection * Replikins * Ribosome * Translation (biology)


References

{{Authority control Peptides, Peptides