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A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to a correctional facility located in a remote location it is more commonly used to refer to communities of prisoners overseen by wardens or governors having absolute authority. Historically penal colonies have often been used for
penal labour Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of forced labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour. The work may be light or hard, depending on the context. Forms of Sentence (law), sentence involving penal la ...
in an economically underdeveloped part of a state's (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a
prison farm A prison farm (also known as a penal farm) is a large correctional facility In criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, and correctional, are umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carr ...
.


British Empire

With the passage of the Transportation Act 1717, the British government initiated the
penal transportation Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convict A convict is "a person found guilty Guilty or The Guilty may refer to: * Guilt (emotion), an experience that occurs when a person believes they have violated a moral st ...
of
indentured servants Indentured servitude is a form of forced labor in which a person (an indenture) is forced to work without salary for a specific number of years for eventual compensation or debt repayment. Historically, it has been used to punish and relocate cap ...
to
Britain's colonies in the Americas
Britain's colonies in the Americas
. British merchants would be in charge of transporting the convicts across the Atlantic, where in the colonies their indentures would be auctioned off to planters. Many of the indentured servants were sentenced to seven year terms, which gave rise to the colloquial term "His Majesty's Seven-Year Passengers". It is estimated that some 50,000 British convicts were sent to the Americas this way, and the majority landed in the
Chesapeake Colonies The Chesapeake Colonies were the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, later the Commonwealth of Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and South ...
of
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...
and
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...
. Transported convicts represented perhaps one-quarter of Britons that left the country during the 18th century. The
colony of Georgia The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British America. It was the last of the Thirteen Colonies, thirteen original American colonies established by Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain in what later ...
, for example, was first founded by
James Edward Oglethorpe James Edward Oglethorpe (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British soldier, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia in what was then British America. As a social reformer, he hoped to res ...
who originally intended to use prisoners taken largely from
debtors' prison A debtors' prison is a prison A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian, and to a lesser extent Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may b ...
s, creating a "Debtor's Colony," where the prisoners could learn trades and work off their debts. Even though this largely failed, the idea that the state was founded as a penal colony has persisted, both in popular history and local folklore. When that avenue closed after the outbreak of
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America British America comprised the colon ...
in 1776, British prisons started to become overcrowded. Since immediate stopgap measures proved themselves ineffective, in 1785 Britain decided to use parts of what is now known as
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
as penal settlements. Leaving Portsmouth, England on the 13th of May 1787, the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, r ...
transported the first ~800 convicts and ~250 marines to Botany Bay. Australian penal colonies in late 18th century included
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (, ; Norfuk Norfuk ( pih, Norfuk) (increasingly spelt Norfolk) or Norf'k is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian language, Ta ...
and
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, and in early 19th century also
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainl ...
(
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
) and
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...
(
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
). Advocates of
Irish Home Rule The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or "home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state tha ...
or
trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply referred to as a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standard ...
ism (the
Tolpuddle Martyrs The Tolpuddle Martyrs were six agricultural labourers from the village of Tolpuddle in Dorset, England, who, in 1834, were convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. They were arrested on c ...
) sometimes received sentences of deportation to the Australian colonies. Without the allocation of the available convict labour to farmers, to pastoral squatters, and to government projects such as roadbuilding, colonisation of Australia may not have been possible, especially considering the considerable drain on non-convict labor caused by several
gold rushes cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare-earth miner ...
that took place in the second half of the 19th century after the flow of convicts had dwindled and (in 1868) ceased.
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
, off the North American continent, was also used during the Victorian period. Convicts housed in hulks were used to build the Royal Naval Dockyard there, and during the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
(1899–1902), Boer prisoners-of-war were sent to the archipelago and imprisoned on one of the smaller islands. In
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...

British India
, the colonial government established various penal colonies. Two of the largest ones were on the
Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands is an archipelago in the northeastern Indian Ocean about southwest off the coasts of Myanmar's Ayeyarwady Region. Together with the Nicobar Islands to their south, the Andamans serve as a maritime boundary between the Bay o ...

Andaman Islands
and
Hijli Hijli is a neighborhood of Kharagpur in the Kharagpur subdivision of the Paschim Medinipur district in the state of West Bengal, India. Geography Location Hijli is located at . Area overview Kharagpur subdivision, shown partly in the map alongsi ...
. In the early days of settlement,
Singapore Island Singapore Island or Mainland Singapore, historically known as Pulau Ujong ( eng, Island at the end), is the mainland, main constituent island of the sovereign island city-state of Singapore. It is part of the Malay Archipelago and is located at t ...
was the recipient of Indian convicts, who were tasked with clearing the jungles for settlement and early public works.


France

France sent criminals to tropical penal colonies including
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
in the early 18th century.
Devil's Island The penal colony of Cayenne (French: ''Bagne de Cayenne''), commonly known as Devil's Island (''Île du Diable''), was a French penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from th ...
in French Guiana, 1852–1939, received forgers and other criminals.
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
and its Isle of Pines in
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabi ...

Melanesia
(in the
South Sea
South Sea
) received transported dissidents like the
Communard Image:La Commune by Georges Pilotell.jpg, "The Commune arrested by Ignorance and Reactionary, Reaction" The Communards () were members and supporters of the short-lived 1871 Paris Commune formed in the wake of the French defeat in the Franco-Pr ...
s, Kabyles rebels as well as convicted criminals between the 1860s and 1897.


The Americas

* Brazil had a prison on the island of
Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha () is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Indonesian Arc ...

Fernando de Noronha
from 1938 to 1945. * Gorgona Island in Colombia housed a state high-security prison from the 1950s. Convicts were dissuaded from escaping by the poisonous snakes in the interior of the island and by the sharks patrolling the 30 km to the mainland. The penal colony closed in 1984 and the last prisoners were transferred to the mainland. most of the former jail buildings are covered by dense vegetation, but some remain visible. *Once Spanish presence in
Valdivia Valdivia (; Mapuche: Ainil) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. Lon ...

Valdivia
was reestablished in 1645 authorities had convicts from all-over the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Monarchy of Spain, Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South Amer ...
construct the
Valdivian Fort System The Fort System of Valdivia ( es, Sistema de fuertes de Valdivia) are a series of Spanish colonial Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies' cities and t ...
. The convicts, many of whom were
Afro-Peruvian Black Peruvians or Afro-Peruvians are Peruvian Peruvians ( es, Peruanos) are people identified with the country of Peru. There were Andean and Coastal Ancient civilizations like Caral, the oldest civilization of Peru and the Americas, who inha ...
s, became later soldier-settlers. Close contacts with indigenous
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethni ...

Mapuche
meant many soldiers spoke Spanish and had some command of
Mapudungun Mapuche () or Mapudungun (from ' 'land' and ' 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche The Huilliche , Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile Chile ...
. * During the 19th century Chile used
Punta Arenas Punta Arenas (; historically Sandy Point in English) is the capital city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Sci ...

Punta Arenas
on the
Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan (), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south. The strait is considered the most important natural pass ...
as a penal colony (1848–??). * Ecuador has used two islands in the archipelago as penal colonies: the Island of San Cristóbal (1869–1904) and Isabela Island (1945–1959). * Mexico uses the island of Isla María Madre (in the Marías Islands) as a
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer t ...
. With a small population (fewer than 1,200), the colony is governed by a state official who is both the governor of the islands and chief judge. The military command is independent of the government and is exercised by an officer of the Mexican Navy. The other islands are uninhabited. Mexico announced on 18 February 2019 that it will close the Islas Marías Federal Prison, replacing it with a new cultural center. * In Paraguay the first ruler and supreme dictator Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia opened the penal colony of Tevego in 1813, where mostly petty criminals were sent. It was abandoned in 1823, but re-established in 1843 as San Salvador. It was evacuated towards the end of the
Paraguayan War The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was a South American South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather t ...
of 1864–1870; soon afterwards Brazilian troops destroyed it. *Argentina had a penal colony in
Ushuaia Ushuaia ( , ) is the capital city, capital of Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina, Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina, and the southernmost city of the country. Ushuaia claims the title of the southernmo ...

Ushuaia
,
Tierra del Fuego #REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego#REDIRECT Tierra del Fuego Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire", formerly also Fireland in English) is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cl ...

Tierra del Fuego
, in the
Patagonia Patagonia () refers to a geographical region that encompasses the southern end of South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convent ...

Patagonia
region. It was active between 1902 and 1947.


Elsewhere

* The
Qing Empire The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
of 1644–1912 used
Xinjiang Province Xinjiang Province is a historical administrative area of Northwest China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous co ...
in north-west China as a penal colony. * Imperial Russia used
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
and
Russian Far East The Russian Far East ( rus, Дальний Восток России, r=Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, p=ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ) is a region in Northeast Asia Northeast Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia ...

Russian Far East
for penal colonies (
Katorga Katorga ( rus, ка́торга, p=ˈkatərgə; from medieval and modern Greek: ''katergon, κάτεργον'', "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eu ...
) for criminals and dissidents. Though geographically contiguous with heartland Russia, Siberia provided both remoteness and a harsh climate. In 1857 a penal colony was established on the island of
Sakhalin Sakhalin; ja, 樺太 ''Karafuto'') is the largest island of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. The ...

Sakhalin
. The Soviet
Gulag The Gulag, GULAG, or GULag (russian: ГУЛАГ, ГУЛаг, an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by h ...

Gulag
system and its tsarist predecessor, the
katorga Katorga ( rus, ка́торга, p=ˈkatərgə; from medieval and modern Greek: ''katergon, κάτεργον'', "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eu ...
system, provided penal labor to develop forestry, logging, and mining industries, construction enterprises, as well as highways and
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional p ...

railroad
s across Siberia and in other areas. In modern Russian Federation,
corrective labor colonies A corrective colony (russian: исправительная колония (ИК), ispravitelnaya koloniya) is the most common type of prisons in Russia, prison in Russia and some post-Soviet states. Such colonies combine penal detention with compul ...
are a common type of prison. * The
Kingdom of Hawaii The Hawaiian Kingdom, or Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, was a sovereign state located in the Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, a ...
under the rule of King
Kamehameha III Kamehameha III (born Kauikeaouli) (March 17, 1814 – December 15, 1854) was the third king of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Kingdom of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854. His full Hawaiian name is Keaweaweula Kīwalaō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa and then lengthened ...

Kamehameha III
(reigned 1825–1854) replaced the death penalty with exile, and
Kahoolawe Kahoolawe (Hawaiian: ), anglicized as Kahoolawe (), is the smallest of the eight main volcano, volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoolawe is located about southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lanai, Lānaʻi, and it is long by wide ...
became a men's penal colony sometime around 1830, while Kaena Point on
Lanai Lanai ( haw, Lānai, , , also ,) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands and the smallest publicly accessible inhabited island in the chain. It is colloquially known as the Pineapple Island because of its past as an island-wide pineapple ...

Lanai
served as the female penal colony. The law making the island a penal colony was repealed in 1853. *
Buru Island Buru (formerly spelled Boeroe, Boro, or Bouru) is the third largest island within Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera ...

Buru Island
in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
was used as penal colony during the
New OrderNew Order may refer to: Politics * ''L'Ordine Nuovo'' (''The New Order''), a socialist newspaper edited by Antonio Gramsci in the early 1920s * ''New Order in East Asia'', propaganda term for Japanese-dominated East Asia announced by Japanese p ...
era to hold political prisoners. *
Apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

Apartheid
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
used
Robben Island Robben Island ( af, Robbeneiland) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can ...

Robben Island
as penal colony for anti apartheid activists. * The Netherlands had a penal colony from the late 19th century. The Department of Justice took over the town of Veenhuizen (originally set up by a private company to "re-educate" vagrants from the large cities in the west like
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
) to turn it into a collection of prison buildings. The town stands in the least populated province of
Drenthe Drenthe () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as wel ...

Drenthe
in the north of the country, isolated in the middle of a vast area of peat and marshland. * Some sources refer to
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...
forced-labor camps (''
Arbeitslager Image:Arbeitsbuch Fur Auslander 1942.jpg, 200px, ''Arbeitsbuch Für Ausländer'' (Workbook for Foreigners) identity document issued to a Polish Forced Labourer in 1942 by the Germans, together with a letter "P" patch that Poles were required to we ...
'') in
German-occupied Europe German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the con ...

German-occupied Europe
as penal colonies. * North Korea operates a
penal system A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens, nationality, nationals and individuals associated with the country of Australia. Between 1788 ...
including prison labor camps and re-education camps. * Tarrafal operated as a Portuguese penal colony in the
Cape Verde Islands , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** P ...
, set up in 1936 by the head of the Portuguese government, Salazar, where anti-fascist opponents of this right-wing régime were sent. At least 32 anarchists, communists and other opponents of Salazar's regime died in this camp. The camp closed in 1954 but re-opened in the 1970s to jail African leaders fighting Portuguese colonialism. * Spain maintained a penal colony on in present-day Equatorial Guinea. The tiny island of Cabrera was also a short-lived penal colony in which approximately 7.000 French
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), co ...
from the
Battle of Bailén The Battle of Bailén was fought in 1808 between the Spanish Army of Andalusia, led by Generals Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén, Francisco Castaños and Theodor von Reding, and the First French Empire, Imperial French Army's II co ...
(1808) were left on their own for years; less than half of them survived.Gates, David (1986). ''The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War''. W W Norton & Co. . * Taiwan had a penal colony at
Green IslandGreen Island or Greene Island can refer to: Places Africa * Green Island (Egypt), in the Gulf of Suez * Green Island (Eritrea), in the Red Sea (Gulf of Zula) Antarctica * Green Island (Berthelot Islands) Asia * Green Island, Hong Kong * Green Isl ...
during Chiang Kai Shek's White Terror of 1949–1987. the island is a tourist destination. * Con Dao Island in Vietnam was used as a penal colony both by the French colonists (from 1861 onwards) and by the
Republic of Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Wes ...
(from 1954 and during the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
of 1955–1975). *
The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան ...
used
Fezzan Fezzan ( , ; ber, ⴼⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; ar, فزان, Fizzān; la, Phazania) is the southwestern region of modern . It is largely , but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (s) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns an ...
as a penal colony, because it was the most remote province from then the capital city,
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
. * There are penal colonies in the Philippines, namely
Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines is one of seven operating units of the Bureau of Corrections (Philippines), Bureau of Corrections under the Department of Justice (Philippines), Department of Justice. Hi ...
in Palawan, and
Davao Prison and Penal Farm Davao Prison and Penal Farm, formerly the Davao Penal Colony (DaPeCol), was established on January 21, 1932 in Panabo City, Davao del Norte, Philippines. It has a land area of 30,000 hectares with a prison reservation of 8,000 hectares. During Wor ...
in Davao.


See also

*
Alcatraz Alcatraz Island (, Latin-American , European from ) is located in San Francisco Bay, offshore from San Francisco, California, United States. The small island was developed with facilities for a Alcatraz Island Lighthouse, lighthouse, a milit ...

Alcatraz
*
History of Canada History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...
*
History of Australia The history of Australia is the story of the land and peoples of the continent of Australia. Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its i ...


References


Citations


Sources

* * Diiulio, John J., ''Governing Prisons: A Comparative Study of Correctional Management'', Simon and Schuster, 1990. . * Dupont, Jerry, "The Common Law Abroad: Constitutional and Legal Legacy of the British Empire", Wm. S. Hein Publishing, 2001. . * Johnsen, Thomas C., "Vita: Howard Belding Gill: Brief Life of a Prison Reformer: 1890–1989",
Harvard Magazine ''Harvard Magazine'' is an independently edited magazine and separately incorporated affiliate of Harvard University. Aside from ''The Harvard Crimson'', it is the only publication covering the entire university, and also regularly distributed to ...
, September–October 1999, p. 54. * Serrill, M. S., "Norfolk – A Retrospective – New Debate Over a Famous Prison Experiment," ''Corrections Magazine'', Volume 8, Issue 4 (August 1982), pp. 25–32. * Mun Cheong Yong, V. V. Bhanoji Rao, "Singapore-India Relations: A Primer", Study Group on Singapore-India Relations, National University of Singapore Centre for Advanced Studies Contributor Mun Cheong Yong, V. V. Bhanoji Rao, Yong Mun Cheong, Published by NUS Press, 1995. . {{DEFAULTSORT:Penal Colony Imprisonment and detention
Colony In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, ...
Settlement schemes