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The pectineus muscle (, from the Latin word ''pecten'', meaning comb) is a flat, quadrangular
muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cat ...

muscle
, situated at the
anterior Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
(front) part of the upper and
medial Medial may refer to: Mathematics * Medial magma, a mathematical identity in algebra Geometry * Medial axis, in geometry the set of all points having more than one closest point on an object's boundary * Medial graph, another graph that repres ...
(inner) aspect of the
thigh In Outline of human anatomy, human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the Human leg, lower limb. The single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is very thick and strong ...

thigh
. The pectineus muscle is the most anterior adductor of the hip. The muscle does
adduct An adduct (from the Latin ''adductus'', "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all comp ...
and internally rotate the thigh but its primary function is
hip flexion A flexor is a muscle that flexes a joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hi ...
. It can be classified in the
medial compartment of thigh The medial compartment of thigh is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh and contains the hip adductor muscles and the gracilis muscle The gracilis muscle (; Latin for "slender") is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the ...
(when the function is emphasized) or the
anterior compartment of thigh The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which extend the knee and flex the hip. Structure The anterior compartment is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh that contains groups of muscles together with their nerves and blood supp ...
(when the nerve is emphasized).


Structure

The pectineus muscle arises from the pectineal line of the pubis and to a slight extent from the surface of bone in front of it, between the
iliopectineal eminence Medial to the anterior inferior iliac spine is a broad, shallow groove, over which the Iliacus muscle, iliacus and Psoas major muscle, psoas major muscles pass. This groove is bounded medially by an eminence, the iliopubic eminence (or iliopectineal ...
and
pubic tubercle The pubic tubercle is a prominent tubercle on the Pubis (bone), superior ramus of the Pubis (bone), pubis bone of the pelvis. Structure The pubic tubercle is a prominent forward-projecting tubercle on the upper border of the medial portion of ...
, and from the fascia covering the anterior surface of the muscle; the fibers pass downward, backward, and lateral, to be inserted into the pectineal line of the femur which leads from the
lesser trochanter The lesser trochanter of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of ...
to the
linea aspera The linea aspera ( la, rough line) is a ridge of roughened surface on the posterior surface of the shaft Shaft may refer to: Rotating machine elements * Shaft (mechanical engineering), a rotating machine element used to transmit power * Line s ...
.


Relations

The pectineus is in relation by its anterior surface with the pubic portion of the
fascia lata The fascia lata is the deep fascia Deep fascia (or investing fascia) is a fascia A fascia (; plural fasciae ; adjective fascial; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European l ...
, which separates it from the
femoral artery The femoral artery is a large in the and the main arterial supply to the thigh and leg. The femoral artery gives off the deep femoral artery or and descends along the anteromedial part of the thigh in the . It enters and passes through the , ...
and
vein Veins are blood vessels The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is a biological system A b ...
and internal
saphenous vein
saphenous vein
, and lower down with the profunda artery. By its posterior surface with the capsule of the hip joint, and with the
obturator externus The external obturator muscle, obturator externus muscle (; OE) is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis. It is sometimes considered part of the medial compartment of thigh, and sometimes co ...

obturator externus
and
adductor brevis The adductor brevis is a muscle in the thigh situated immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus muscle, adductor longus. It belongs to the Adductor muscles of the hip, adductor muscle group. The main function of the adductor brevis ...

adductor brevis
, the
obturator artery The obturator artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery that passes antero-inferiorly (forwards and downwards) on the lateral wall of the pelvis, to the upper part of the obturator foramen, and, escaping from the pelvic cavity through the obtu ...
and
vein Veins are blood vessels The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is a biological system A b ...
being interposed. By its external border with the
psoas major The psoas major ( or ) is a long fusiform muscle located in the lateral lumbar region between the vertebral column The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining ...

psoas major
, the
femoral artery The femoral artery is a large in the and the main arterial supply to the thigh and leg. The femoral artery gives off the deep femoral artery or and descends along the anteromedial part of the thigh in the . It enters and passes through the , ...
resting upon the line of interval. By its internal border with the outer edge of the
adductor longus In the human body, the adductor longus is a skeletal muscle located in the thigh. One of the adductor muscles of the hip, its main function is to Adduction, adduct the thigh and it is innervated by the obturator nerve. It forms the medial wall o ...

adductor longus
.
Obturator foramen The obturator foramen (Latin foramen obturatum) is the large opening created by the ischium and pubis (bone), pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and blood vessels pass. Structure It is bounded by a thin, uneven margin, to which a stron ...
is situated directly behind this muscle, which forms one of its coverings. It forms part of the floor of the
femoral triangle The femoral triangle (or Scarpa's triangle) is an anatomical region of the upper third of the thigh. It is a subfascial space which appears as a triangular depression below the inguinal ligament In human anatomy, the inguinal region refers to eith ...
.


Innervation

The lumbar plexus is formed from the anterior rami of nerves L1 to L4 and some fibers from T12. With only five roots and two divisions, it is less complex than the brachial plexus and gives rise to a number of nerves including the femoral nerve and accessory obturator nerve. The pectineus muscle is considered a
composite muscle Composite or hybrid muscles are those muscles which have more than one set of fibers but perform the same function and are usually supplied by different nerves for different set of fibers. Examples * Brachialis: Musculocutaneous nerve is motor an ...
as the innervation is by the
femoral nerve The femoral nerve is a nerve in the thigh that supplies skin on the upper thigh and inner leg, and the muscles that extend the knee. Structure Femoral nerve is the major nerve supplying the anterior compartment of the thigh. It is the largest bran ...
(L2 and L3) and occasionally (20% of the population) a branch of the
obturator nerve The obturator nerve in human anatomy arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves in the lumbar plexus; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. Structure The obt ...
called the accessory obturator nerve. When it is present, the accessory obturator nerve innervates a portion of the pectineus muscle, entering the muscle on its dorsomedial aspect. The greater nerve to the muscle is the femoral nerve. Unlike the obturator accessory nerve, the femoral nerve is always present and provides the sole innervation for the pectineus muscle in over 90% of cases. The muscle is also innervated by the accessory obturator nerve in the 8.7% of cases in which the nerve occurs.5


Function

It is one of the muscles primarily responsible for
hip flexion A flexor is a muscle that flexes a joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.Saladin, Ken. Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. McGraw-Hi ...
. It also
adducts An adduct (from the Latin ''adductus'', "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all comp ...
the thigh.


Additional images

File:Gray235.png, Right hip bone. External surface. File:Gray344.png, Structures surrounding right hip-joint. File:Gray430.png, Muscles of the iliac and anterior femoral regions. File:Gray433.png, Deep muscles of the medial femoral region. File:Gray549.png, The left femoral triangle. File:Gray823.png, The lumbar plexus and its branches. File:Slide3GGGGG.JPG, Pectineus muscle File:Slide2LLLL.JPG, Pectineus muscle File:Slide13LLLL.JPG, Pectineus muscle File:Slide4NNNNN.JPG, Pectineus muscle File:Slide1WWWW.JPG, Pectineus muscle File:Slide1BOUA.JPG, Muscles of Thigh. Anterior views File:Slide1DEEA.JPG, Muscles of Thigh. Anterior views.


See also

*
Thigh In Outline of human anatomy, human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee. Anatomically, it is part of the Human leg, lower limb. The single bone in the thigh is called the femur. This bone is very thick and strong ...

Thigh


References


Notes

* * Saladin, Kenneth S. Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007. pg.493. Print.


External links

* - "Muscles of the anterior (extensor) compartment of the thigh." * - "Deep muscles of the anterior thigh." * {{Authority control Hip adductors Hip medial rotators Hip flexors Thigh muscles Medial compartment of thigh