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The term "party of power" refers to a political party that has a close relationship with the executive branch of government such that the party appears to function as an extension of the executive rather than as an autonomous political organization. The concept resembles that of a Cartel party theory, cartel party. In a presidential republic the party of power typically forms a legislative block that backs the executive. The concept has been commonly applied to post-Soviet political parties. Claims have been made that United Russia, the New Azerbaijan Party, Kazakhstan's Nur Otan, the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan, the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan and Georgian Dream (from 2013) are parties of power. Parties that have been considered as parties of power in the past include the Union of Citizens of Georgia (until 2003), the United National Movement (Georgia), Georgia's United National Movement (until 2013) and the Republican Party of Armenia (until 2018). Parties of power are typically described as having a hierarchical Top-down and bottom-up design#Management and organization, top-down structure, being centralised, organised in clientelism, clientelistic networks, lacking a defined or coherent ideology and playing a subordinate role towards the bureaucracy. They have been created by the State (polity), state as a method to assist in the political interests of the executive branch but while also being reliant on the state to manipulate election outcomes.Nicklaus Laverty (2015) The “party of power” as a type, East European Politics, 31:1, 71-87, DOI: 10.1080/21599165.2014.983088 The use of the concept and of the term "party of power" has been criticized, including by those who claim that, strictly speaking, United Russia and Nur Otan do not possess or exercise power themselves. It is not the parties that make decisions and policies in the last resort. The term "parties of power" may therefore be regarded as misleading.


Russian parties of power

In the Russian language, the term "party of power" (or more correct "power party" or "party in power") is used to describe the party which advocates the current head of state, the party which belongs to/is controlled by the current government or the party established by the current highest official in the state. The terms "ruling party" and "party of power" can be considered as antonyms, because a party of power will be established after a presidential election to support the winner and not the reverse. The party has the same ideology as the President of Russia, president or Prime Minister of Russia, prime minister. A party which supports the current president without difficulty wins parliamentary elections. After the party leader loses a presidential election, a party of power without coherent ideology, as a rule, ceases to exist.


List of Russian parties of power

These parties were specially established for support of the incumbent president or prime minister in the Russian parliament: * Inter-regional Deputies Group/Democratic Russia (1990–1993, Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union/Congress of People's Deputies of Russia/Supreme Soviet of Russia) * Democratic Choice of Russia (1993–1994) * Our Home – Russia (1995–1999, so called "centre-right party of power") * Unity (Russian political party), Unity (1999–2001/2003) * A Just Russia (the second "party of power", supporting Vladimir Putin and opposing United Russia) *United Russia (2001–present)


See also

* Ruling party * Dominant-party system * Multi-party system * Non-partisan democracy


References


Literature

* * * * * {{Cite book , first=Thomas , last=Remington , title=Patronage and the Party of Power: President-Parliament Relations under Vladimir Putin , work=Power and Politics in Putin's Russia , publisher=Routledge , year=2013 , pages=81–110 Ruling party Politics of Russia Politics of Kazakhstan Politics of Azerbaijan Types of political parties