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In
biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...
, the order ( la,
ordo ''Ordo'' (Latin "order, rank, class") may refer to: * A musical phrase constructed from one or more statements of a rhythmic mode pattern and ending in a rest * Big O notation in calculation of algorithm computational complexity * Orda (organization ...

ordo
) is # a
taxonomic rank In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family (biology), family, order (biology), order, ...
used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the
nomenclature codes Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classifica ...
. The well-known ranks in descending order are:
life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities A bubble of exhaled gas in water In common usage and classical mechanics, a physical object or physical body (or simply an object or body) is a collection of matter within a ...

life
,
domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a partial function **Domain of holomorphy of a function *Doma ...
,
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
,
phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typically denotes a q ...
,
class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
, order,
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...
,
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
, and
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, is sometimes added directly above order, with suborder directly beneath order. # a taxonomic unit (a ''
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
''; plural ''taxa'') in the rank of order (e.g. Strigiformes,
Rosales Rosales is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and t ...

Rosales
). In that case the plural is ''orders'' (Latin ). What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a
taxonomist In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxon, taxa (singular ...
, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order. Some taxa are accepted almost universally, while others are recognized only rarely. The name of an order is usually written with a capital letter. For some groups of organisms, their orders may follow consistent naming schemes. Orders of
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s,
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
, and
alga Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthesis, photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. It is a polyphyletic grouping that includes species from multiple distinct clades. Included organisms range from un ...

alga
e use the suffix (e.g.
Dictyotales Dictyotales is a large order (biology), order in the brown algae (class Phaeophyceae). Members of this order generally prefer warmer waters than other brown algae. One genus in this order is calcareous, ''Padina (alga), Padina'', the only calcar ...
). Orders of
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s and
fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ray-finned fish, belonging to the class , with over 95 ...

fish
es use the Latin suffix meaning 'having the form of' (e.g.
Passeriformes A passerine is any bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the Oviparity, laying of Eggshell, hard-shelled eggs, a high Metaboli ...
), but orders of
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s and
invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the chordata, chordate subphylum vertebrate, Vertebra ...
s are not so consistent (e.g.
Artiodactyla The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse Ungulata which primarily consists of large mammals with . These include s such as s, es, and s; and s such as , s, s, s, , , and es. s such as , ...

Artiodactyla
,
Actiniaria Sea anemones are the marine, predatory Predation is a biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms ...

Actiniaria
,
Primates A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutheria Eutheria (; from Greek , 'good, right' and , 'beast'; ) is the clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...
).


Hierarchy of ranks


Zoology

For some
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
s covered by the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted in that rules the formal of treated as s. It is also informally known as the ICZN Code, for its publisher, the (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules princi ...
, several additional classifications are sometimes used, although not all of these are officially recognized. In their 1997 classification of mammals, McKenna and Bell used two extra levels between superorder and order: ''grandorder'' and ''mirorder''. Michael Novacek (1986) inserted them at the same position. Michael Benton (2005) inserted them between superorder and magnorder instead. This position was adopted by ''Systema Naturae 2000'' and others.


Botany

In botany, the ranks of subclass and suborder are secondary ranks pre-defined as respectively above and below the rank of order. Any number of further ranks can be used as long as they are clearly defined. The superorder rank is commonly used, with the ending that was initiated by
Armen Takhtajan Armen Leonovich Takhtajan or Takhtajian ( hy, Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; russian: Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) ...
's publications from 1966 onwards.


History

The order as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name (and not just called a ''higher genus'' ()) was first introduced by the German botanist
Augustus Quirinus Rivinus Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (9 December 1652 – 20 December 1723), also known as August Bachmann or A. Q. Bachmann, was a German physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwea ...

Augustus Quirinus Rivinus
in his classification of plants that appeared in a series of treatises in the 1690s.
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Carl Linnaeus
was the first to apply it consistently to the division of all three kingdoms of nature (then
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...

mineral
s,
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s, and
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

animal
s) in his ''
Systema Naturae ' (originally in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...
'' (1735, 1st. Ed.).


Botany

For plants, Linnaeus' orders in the ''Systema Naturae'' and the ''
Species Plantarum ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with" ...
'' were strictly artificial, introduced to subdivide the artificial classes into more comprehensible smaller groups. When the word was first consistently used for natural units of plants, in 19th century works such as the '' Prodromus'' of and the ''
Genera Plantarum ''Genera Plantarum'' is a publication of Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a S ...
'' of Bentham & Hooker, it indicated taxa that are now given the rank of family. (''See ''
ordo naturalis In botany, the phrase ''ordo naturalis'', 'natural order', was once used for what today is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a lar ...
'', 'natural order.) In French botanical publications, from
Michel Adanson Michel Adanson (7 April 17273 August 1806) was an 18th-century French botanist and naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning mo ...
's (1763) and until the end of the 19th century, the word (plural: ) was used as a French equivalent for this Latin . This equivalence was explicitly stated in the 's (1868), the precursor of the currently used ''
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name Science (from the Latin Latin (, ...
''. In the first international ''Rules'' of
botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such ...
from the
International Botanical Congress International Botanical Congress (IBC) is an international meeting of botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist ...
of 1905, the word ''family'' () was assigned to the rank indicated by the French , while order () was reserved for a higher rank, for what in the 19th century had often been named a (plural ). Some of the plant families still retain the names of Linnaean "natural orders" or even the names of pre-Linnaean natural groups recognised by Linnaeus as orders in his natural classification (e.g. ''Palmae'' or ''Labiatae''). Such names are known as
descriptive In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestu ...
family names.


Zoology

In
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological class ...
, the Linnaean orders were used more consistently. That is, the orders in the zoology part of the ''Systema Naturae'' refer to natural groups. Some of his ordinal names are still in use (e.g.
Lepidoptera Lepidoptera ( ; ) is an order (biology), order of insects that includes butterfly, butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 Family (biology), families and 46 Taxonomic ...

Lepidoptera
for the order of moths and butterflies;
Diptera Flies are insects of the Order (biology), order Diptera, the name being derived from the Ancient Greek, Greek δι- ''di-'' "two", and πτερόν ''pteron'' "wing". Insects of this order use only a single pair of wings to fly, the hindwings ...

Diptera
for the order of flies, mosquitoes, midges, and gnats).


Virology

In
virology Virology is the scientific study of virusessubmicroscopic, parasitic organisms of genetic material contained in a protein coatand virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, t ...
, the
International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification ...
's
virus classification Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a Alpha taxonomy, taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cell (biology), cellular organisms. Viruses are classified by phenotypic characteristics, ...
includes fifteen taxa to be applied for viruses, viroids and satellite nucleic acids:
realm A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin ...
, subrealm, kingdom, subkingdom, phylum, subphylum, class, subclass, order, suborder, family, subfamily, genus, subgenus, and species. There are currently fourteen viral orders, each ending in the suffix .


See also

*
Biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...
*
Cladistics Cladistics (; ) is an approach to biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared ch ...

Cladistics
*
Phylogenetics In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

Phylogenetics
*
Taxonomic rank In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family (biology), family, order (biology), order, ...
*
Systematics Biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), or ...
*
Taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
*
Virus classification Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a Alpha taxonomy, taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cell (biology), cellular organisms. Viruses are classified by phenotypic characteristics, ...


References


Further reading

* {{Authority control 01 Botanical nomenclature 1rank08 rank08 Bacterial nomenclature