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A neologism (; from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often driven by changes in culture and technology. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than
protologism ''Protologism'' is a term coined in 2003 by the American literary theorist Mikhail Epstein in reference to a word coined, by an individual or a small group, that has not yet been published independently of the coiner(s). The word may be proposed, m ...
s. A word whose development stage is between that of the
protologism ''Protologism'' is a term coined in 2003 by the American literary theorist Mikhail Epstein in reference to a word coined, by an individual or a small group, that has not yet been published independently of the coiner(s). The word may be proposed, m ...
(freshly coined) and neologism (new word) is a ''prelogism''. Popular examples of neologisms can be found in science, fiction (notably
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
), films and television, branding, literature,
jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms ...
,
cantCANT may refer to: *CANT, a solo project from Grizzly Bear bass guitarist and producer, Chris Taylor (Grizzly Bear musician), Chris Taylor. *Cantieri Aeronautici e Navali Triestini, an aviation company See also

* Cant (disambiguation) {{dab ...
, linguistic and popular culture. Former examples include ''
laser A laser is a device that emits light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as ...

laser
'' (1960) from Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; ''robot'' (1941) from
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...

Czech
writer
Karel Čapek Karel Čapek (; 9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer, playwright and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel ''War with the Newts'' (1936) and play ''R.U.R.'' (''Rossum's Universal Ro ...

Karel Čapek
's play ''
R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) ''R.U.R.'' is a 1920 science-fiction Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine)">Imagination.'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fi ...
''; and ''
agitprop Agitprop (; from rus, агитпроп, r=Agitpróp, portmanteau of ''agitatsiya'', "agitation" and ''propaganda'', "propaganda") is the promulgation of ideas (in Russian, "propaganda" does not have the pejorative connotation that it has acquired ...
'' (1930) (a
portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant ...

portmanteau
of "agitation" and "propaganda").


Background

Neologisms are often formed by combining existing words (see
compound noun and adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
) or by giving words new and unique
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
es or
prefix A prefix is an affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...
es. Neologisms can also be formed by blending words, for example, "brunch" is a blend of the words "breakfast" and "lunch", or through
abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Re ...
or
acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many la ...
, by intentionally
rhyming A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (usually, exactly the same sound) in the final stressed syllables and any following syllables of two or more words. Most often, this kind of perfect rhyming is consciously used for artistic effect in the fi ...
with existing words or simply through playing with sounds. A relatively rare form of neologism is when proper names are used as words, e.g. boycott (from
Charles Boycott Charles Cunningham Boycott (12 March 1832 – 19 June 1897) was an English land agent whose ostracism by his local community in Ireland gave the English language the verb "to boycott". He had served in the British Army 39th (Dorsetshire) R ...
), guy, Dick, and Karen. Neologisms can become popular through
memetics Memetics is the study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution. Proponents describe memetics as an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer. Memetics describes how an idea can propagate success ...
, through
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement fo ...
, the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
, and
word of mouth Word of mouth or ''viva voce'', is the passing of information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data ...
, including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive
jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms ...
, and often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, they disappear from common use just as readily as they appeared. Whether a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. It is unusual for a word to gain popularity if it does not clearly resemble other words.


History and meaning

The term ''neologism'' is first attested in English in 1772, borrowed from French ''néologisme'' (1734). In an academic sense, there is no professional Neologist, because the study of such things (cultural or ethnic vernacular, for example) is
interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, ...
. Anyone such as a
lexicographer Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a his ...

lexicographer
or an etymologist might study neologisms, how their uses span the scope of human expression, and how, due to science and technology, they spread more rapidly than ever before in the present times. The term ''neologism'' has a broader meaning which also includes "a word which has gained a new meaning". Sometimes, the latter process is called ''semantic shifting'', or ''semantic extension''. Neologisms are distinct from a person's ''
idiolect Idiolect is an individual's distinctive and unique use of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages ha ...
'', one's unique patterns of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Neologisms are usually introduced when it is found that a specific notion is lacking a term, or when the existing vocabulary lacks detail, or when a speaker is unaware of the existing vocabulary. The law, governmental bodies, and technology have a relatively high frequency of acquiring neologisms. Another trigger that motivates the coining of a neologism is to disambiguate a term which may be unclear due to having many meanings.


Literature

Neologisms may come from a word used in the narrative of fiction such as novels and short stories. Examples include "
grok ''Grok'' is a neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that ha ...
" (to intuitively understand) from the science fiction novel about a Martian, entitled ''
Stranger in a Strange Land ''Stranger in a Strange Land'' is a 1961 science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 by the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened ...
'' by
Robert A. Heinlein Robert Anson Heinlein (; July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination.'' Sc ...

Robert A. Heinlein
; "
McJob "McJob" is a slang Slang is vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or ...
" ( precarious, poorly-paid employment) from '' Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture'' by
Douglas Coupland Douglas Coupland (born 1961) is a Canadian novelist A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living wage, ...
; "
cyberspace Cyberspace is a concept describing a widespread interconnected digital technology. "The expression dates back from the first decade of the diffusion of the internet. It refers to the online world as a world 'apart', as distinct from everyday rea ...
" (widespread, interconnected digital technology) from ''
Neuromancer ''Neuromancer'' is a 1984 science fiction novel by American-Canadian writer William Gibson. It is one of the best-known works in the cyberpunk genre and the only novel to win the Nebula Award, the Philip K. Dick Award, and the Hugo Award. It wa ...
'' by
William Gibson William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as ''cyberpunk''. Beginning his writing career in the late 1970s, his ea ...

William Gibson
and "
quark A quark () is a type of elementary particle In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle that is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundam ...
" (Slavic slang for "rubbish"; German for a type of
dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as ...
) from
James Joyce James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosoph ...
's ''
Finnegans Wake ''Finnegans Wake'' is a book by Irish literature, Irish writer James Joyce. It has been called "a work of fiction which combines a body of fables ... with the work of analysis and deconstruction". It is significant for its experimental style and ...
''. The title of a book may become a neologism, for instance, ''
Catch-22 ''Catch-22'' is a satirical Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normall ...
'' (from the title of
Joseph Heller Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American author of novels, short stories, plays, and screenplays. His best-known work is the 1961 novel ''Catch-22 ''Catch-22'' is a satirical war novel by American author Joseph Hell ...

Joseph Heller
's novel). Alternatively, the author's name may give rise to the neologism, although the term is sometimes based on only one work of that author. This includes such words as "
Orwellian "Orwellian" is an adjective describing a situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary dou ...
" (from
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
, referring to his dystopian novel ''
Nineteen Eighty-Four ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' (also stylised as ''1984'') is a dystopian social science fiction novel and cautionary tale written by English writer George Orwell. It was published on 8 June 1949 by Secker & Warburg as Orwell's ninth and final boo ...
'') and "Kafkaesque" (from
Franz Kafka Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contigu ...
), which refers to arbitrary, complex bureaucratic systems. Names of famous characters are another source of literary neologisms, e.g. '' quixotic'' (referring to the romantic and misguided
title character The title character in a narrative work is one who is named or referred to in the title of the work. In a performed work such as a play or film, the performer who plays the title character is said to have the title role of the piece. The title of th ...

title character
in ''
Don Quixote (, ;Oxford English Dictionary,Don Quixote , ) is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ont ...

Don Quixote
'' by
Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616 Old Style and New Style dates, NS) was a Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language, and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. He is ...

Miguel de Cervantes
), '' scrooge'' (from the avaricious main character in
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
' ''
A Christmas Carol ''A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas'', commonly known as ''A Christmas Carol'', is a novella A novella is a narrative prose fiction whose length is shorter than that of most novel A novel is a relatively l ...

A Christmas Carol
'') and ''
pollyanna ''Pollyanna'' is a 1913 novel by American author Eleanor H. Porter, considered a classic of children's literature. The book's success led to Porter's soon writing a sequel, ''Pollyanna Grows Up'' (1915). Eleven more ''Pollyanna'' sequels, known ...

pollyanna
'' (from the unfailingly optimistic character in Eleanor H. Porter's book of the same name).


Cant

Polari Polari () is a form of slang or Cant (language), cant used in United Kingdom, Britain by some actors, circus and fairground showmen, Professional wrestling, professional wrestlers, merchant navy sailors, Crime, criminals, sex workers, and the Sexua ...
is a cant used by some actors, circus performers, and the
gay subculture Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures are subcultures and communities composed of people who have shared experiences, backgrounds, or interests due to common sexual identity, sexual or gender identity, gender identities. Among the first ...
to communicate without outsiders understanding. Some Polari terms have crossed over into mainstream slang, in part through their usage in pop song lyrics and other works. Example include: ''acdc'', ''barney'', ''blag'', '' butch'', ''
camp Camp may refer to: Outdoor accommodation and recreation * Campsite or campground, a recreational outdoor sleeping and eating site * a temporary settlement for nomads * Camp, a term used in New England, Northern Ontario and New Brunswick to describ ...
'', ''khazi'', ''cottaging'', ''hoofer'', ''mince'', ''ogle'', ''scarper'', ''slap'', ''strides'', ''tod'', '' oughtrade'' ( rough trade).
Verlan Ambigram of the word "verlan". ''Verlan'' () is a type of argot in the French language, featuring inversion of syllables in a word, and is common in slang and youth language. It rests on a long French tradition of transposing syllables of indivi ...
(), (''verlan'' is the reverse of the expression "l'envers") is a type of
argot A cant is the jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative context and may not be well understood outside t ...
in the
French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inf ...

French language
, featuring inversion of
syllable A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels a ...

syllable
s in a word, and is common in
slang Slang is vocabulary (words, phrases, and usage (language), linguistic usages) of an informal register, common in spoken conversation but avoided in formal writing. It also sometimes refers to the language generally exclusive to the members of p ...
and youth language. It rests on a long French tradition of transposing syllables of individual words to create slang words. Some ''verlan'' words, such as ''meuf'' ("femme", which means "woman" roughly backwards), have become so commonplace that they have been included in the ''
Petit Larousse Image:Petit-larousse-1905.jpg, ''Le Petit Larousse'' in its original form designed by Eugène Grasset, 1905 edition ''Le Petit Larousse Illustré'', commonly known simply as ''Le Petit Larousse'' (), is a French-language encyclopedic dictionary pub ...
''. Like any slang, the purpose of ''verlan'' is to create a somewhat secret language that only its speakers can understand. Words becoming mainstream is counterproductive. As a result, such newly common words are re-verlanised: reversed a second time. The common ''meuf'' became ''feumeu''.


Popular culture

Neologism development may be spurred, or at least spread, by popular culture. Examples of pop-culture neologisms include the American
Alt-right File:Donald Trump alt-right supporter (32452974604).jpg, upright=1.35, An alt-right supporter at the March 4 Trump rally in Saint Paul, Minnesota; due to copyright issues, a depiction of Pepe the Frog on the man's sign has been digitally remove ...
(2010s), the Canadian
portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant ...

portmanteau
"
Snowmageddon Snowmageddon, Snowpocalypse, and Snowzilla are portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "Portmanteau (luggage), portmanteau") is a Blend word, blend of words
" (2009), the Russian
parody A parody, also called a spoof, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or make fun of its subject by means of satire, satiric or irony, ironic imitation. Ofte ...
"
Monstration A monstration is a public performance similar to a Demonstration (protest), demonstration, but intended as creative performance art, often parodying a serious demonstration. It is principally a Russian phenomenon. History Poland Orange Alterna ...
" (ca. 2004), Santorum (c. 2003). Neologisms spread mainly through their exposure in
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement fo ...
. The genericizing of
brand names A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making one's living or making mon ...
, such as "coke" for
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...

Coca-Cola
, "kleenex" for
Kleenex Kleenex is a brand name for a variety of paper-based products such as facial tissue, bathroom tissue, paper towels, tampons, and diapers. Often used informally as a genericized trademark for facial tissue in the United States, the name ''Kleenex'' ...

Kleenex
facial tissue, and "xerox" for
Xerox Xerox Holdings Corporation (; also known simply as Xerox) is an American corporation that sells print and digital document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program A computer program is a collectio ...
photocopying A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically ...
, all spread through their popular use being enhanced by mass media. However, in some limited cases, words break out of their original communities and spread through
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
. " DoggoLingo", a term still below the threshold of a neologism according to
Merriam-Webster Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical literature, periodical (or electronic publishing, its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for info ...
, is an example of the latter which has specifically spread primarily through
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
group and
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
account use.Boddy, Jessica (April 23, 2017)
"Dogs Are Doggos: An Internet Language Built Around Love For The Puppers"
''National Public Radio''.
The suspected origin of this way of referring to dogs stems from a Facebook group founded in 2008 and gaining popularity in 2014 in Australia. In Australian English it is common to use
diminutives A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
, often ending in –o, which could be where doggo-lingo was first used. The term has grown so that Merriam-Webster has acknowledged its use but notes the term needs to be found in published, edited work for a longer period of time before it can be deemed a new word, making it the perfect example of a neologism.


Translations

Because neologisms originate in one language, translations between languages can be difficult. In the scientific community, where English is the predominant language for published research and studies, like-sounding translations (referred to as 'naturalization') are sometimes used. Alternatively, the English word is used along with a brief explanation of meaning. The four translation methods are emphasized in order to translate neologisms:
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
, transcription, the use of analogues,
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
or loan translation. When translating from English to other languages, the naturalization method is most often used. The most common way that professional translators translate neologisms is through the
Think aloud protocolA think-aloud (or thinking aloud) protocol is a method used to gather data in usability testingUsability testing is a technique used in user-centered interaction design to evaluate a product by testing it on users. This can be seen as an irreplacea ...
(TAP), wherein translators find the most appropriate and natural sounding word through speech. As such, translators can use potential translations in sentences and test them with different structures and syntax. Correct translations from
English for specific purposes English for specific purposes (ESP) is a subset of . It usually refers to teaching the to university students or people already in employment, with reference to the particular vocabulary and skills they need. As with any , a given course of ESP w ...
into other languages is crucial in various industries and legal systems. Inaccurate translations can lead to 'translation asymmetry' or misunderstandings and miscommunication. Many technical glossaries of English translations exist to combat this issue in the medical, judicial, and technological fields.


Other uses

In
psychiatry Psychiatry is the specialty (medicine), medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psyc ...
and
neuroscience Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sens ...

neuroscience
, the term ''neologism'' is used to describe words that have meaning only to the person who uses them, independent of their common meaning. This can be seen in
schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may b ...

schizophrenia
, where a person may replace a word with a nonsensical one of their own invention, e.g. "I got so angry I picked up a dish and threw it at the geshinker." The use of neologisms may also be due to
aphasia Aphasia is an inability to comprehend or formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. The major causes are a cerebral vascular accident (stroke) or head trauma. Aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, brain infections ...

aphasia
acquired after
brain damage Neurotrauma, brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. In general, brain damage refers to significant, undiscriminating trau ...
resulting from a
stroke A stroke is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Di ...

stroke
or
head injury A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones protect the various orga ...
.B Butterworth, Hesitation and the production of verbal paraphasias and neologisms in jargon aphasia. Brain Lang, 1979


See also

*
AureationAureation ("to make gold Gold is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Au (from la, aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a brightness, brig ...
*
Blend word A blend (sometimes blend word, lexical blend, portmanteau or portmanteau word) is a word formed from parts of two or more other words. At least one of these parts is not a morph (the realization of a morpheme) but instead a mere ''splinter'', a f ...
*
Language planning In sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, meas ...
*
Nonce word A nonce word (also called an occasionalism) is a lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word f ...
*
Mondegreen A mondegreen is a mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase in a way that gives it a new meaning. Mondegreens are most often created by a person listening to a poem or a song; the listener, being unable to hear a lyric clearly, substitutes words ...
*
Morphology (linguistics) In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...
*
Phono-semantic matching Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism, where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with Phonetics, phonetically and semantically similar words or r ...
*
Portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant ...

Portmanteau
*
Protologism ''Protologism'' is a term coined in 2003 by the American literary theorist Mikhail Epstein in reference to a word coined, by an individual or a small group, that has not yet been published independently of the coiner(s). The word may be proposed, ...
*
Retronym A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that helps differentiate the original form/version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to avoid confusion between older and newer types, whereas previously (before there were ...
*
Sniglet A sniglet () is an often humorous word made up to describe something for which no dictionary word exists. Introduced in the 1980s TV comedy series ''Not Necessarily the News'', sniglets were generated and published in significant number, along with ...
* Syllabic abbreviations * Word formation


References


External links


Neologisms in Journalistic TextInterpretation of the Formation of Internet Neologisms
*[https://books.google.com/books?id=3x-umCIwEYQC Algeo, John. ''Fifty Years among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, 1941–1991'']
WordspyRice University Neologisms DatabaseNeologisms from the Internet – with Esther Dyson, Jimmy Wales and more...
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