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The modes of persuasion, modes of appeal or rhetorical appeals (Greek: ''pisteis'') are strategies of
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...
that classify a speaker's or writer's appeal to their audience. These include
ethos Ethos ( or ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

ethos
,
pathos Pathos (, ; plural: ''pathea'' or ''pathê''; , for "suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the ...

pathos
, and
logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, , lógos; from , , ) is a term in , , , and derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse".Henry George Liddell ...

logos
.


Ethos

''Ethos'' (plural: ''ethea'') is an appeal to the authority or credibility of the presenter. It is how well the presenter convinces the audience that the presenter is qualified to speak on the subject. This can be done by: *Being a notable figure in the field in question, such as a college professor or an executive of a company whose business is related to the presenter's topic *Demonstrating mastery of the terminology of the field (
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* Cant (disambiguation) {{dab ...
) *Being introduced by or producing
bona fides Good faith ( la, bona fides, sometimes spelled "bona fide"), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction. While some Latin phrases have lost their literal meaning over ...
from other established authorities


Pathos

''Pathos'' (plural: ''pathea'') is an appeal to the audience's emotions. The terms ''sympathy'', ''pathetic'', and ''empathy'' are derived from it. It can be in the form of
metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of ...
,
simile A simile () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
, a passionate delivery, or even a simple claim that a matter is unjust. Pathos can be particularly powerful if used well, but most speeches do not solely rely on pathos. Pathos is most effective when the author or speaker demonstrates agreement with an underlying value of the reader or listener. In addition, the speaker may use pathos and
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure ...

fear
to sway the audience. Pathos may also include appeals to audience
imagination Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental Phenomenon, phenomena. Often the term is also identified with the phenomena themselves. ...

imagination
and
hope Hope is an optimistic Optimism is an attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable. A common idiom An idiom is a phrase or expression that ...

hope
s; done when the speaker paints a scenario of positive future results of following the course of action proposed. In some cases, downplaying the ''ethos'' can be done while emphasizing ''pathos'', for example as
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William Jennings Bryan
did in his
Cross of Gold speech The Cross of Gold speech was delivered by William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American orator and politician. Beginning in 1896, he emerged as a dominant force in the Democratic PartyDem ...
:


Logos

''Logos'' (plural: ''logoi'') is logical appeal or the simulation of it, and the term ''logic'' is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's claims or thesis. There are also more traditional forms of logical reasoning such as
syllogism A syllogism ( grc-gre, συλλογισμός, ''syllogismos'', 'conclusion, inference') is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a Logical consequence, conclusion based on two propositions that are asserted or a ...
s and
enthymeme An enthymeme ( el, ἐνθύμημα, ''enthumēma'') is a rhetorical syllogism used in oratorical practice. Originally theorized by Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek ...
s. Having a ''logos'' appeal also enhances ''ethos'' because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared to his or her audience. However, the data can be confusing and thus confuse the audience. Logos can also be misleading or inaccurate, however meaningful it may seem to the subject at hand. In some cases, inaccurate, falsified, or misconstrued even be used to enact a pathos effect. Such is the case with casualty numbers, which, while not necessarily falsified, may include minor casualties (injuries) that are equated with deaths in the mind of an audience and therefore can evoke the same effect as a death toll.


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Modes Of Persuasion Rhetorical techniques