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Military police (MP) are
law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is any government agency responsible for the law enforcement, enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are usually called police services. In North America, some o ...
connected with, or part of, the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
of a state. In different countries it may refer to: * A section of the military responsible for policing the areas of responsibility of the
armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
(referred to as provosts) against all criminal activity by military or civilian personnel * A section of the military responsible for policing in both the armed forces and in the civilian population (most
gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

gendarmerie
s, such as the
French Gendarmerie The National Gendarmerie (french: Gendarmerie nationale ), along with the National Police, is one of two national police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a St ...
or the
Spanish Guardia Civil
Spanish Guardia Civil
) * A section of the military solely responsible for policing the civilian population (such as the Romanian Gendarmerie or the
Chilean Carabineros
Chilean Carabineros
) * The preventive police forces of each
Brazilian state The federative units of Brazil ( pt, unidades federativas do Brasil) are subnational entities with a certain degree of autonomy (self-government, self-regulation and self-collection) and endowed with their own government A government i ...

Brazilian state
('' Polícia Militar''), responsible for policing the civilian population, which are reserve forces of the
Brazilian Army The Brazilian Army ( pt, Exército Brasileiro) is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the ...
and can be pressed into federal service during times of war The status of military police is usually prominently displayed on the
helmet A helmet is a form of protective gear Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by p ...

helmet
, with an
armband An armband is a piece of material worn around the arm over the sleeve A sleeve (O. Eng. ''slieve'', or ''slyf'', a word allied to ''slip Slip or SLIP may refer to: Science and technology Football * Steven Gerrard Also known as Slippy G B ...

armband
,
brassard A brassard or armlet is an armband An armband is a piece of material worn around the arm over the sleeve A sleeve (O. Eng. ''slieve'', or ''slyf'', a word allied to ''slip Slip or SLIP may refer to: Science and technology Footba ...
, or arm or shoulder flash. Military police personnel may also wear a more traditional
police badge
police badge
, usually on the front of their uniform; They may also wear other accoutrements exclusive to military police personnel. Naval police personnel are sometimes called " masters-at-arms" and/or "
shore patrol File:US Navy 030101-N-0780F-002 Shore Patrol talk with Sailors.jpg, Shore patrol speaks with sailors in Crete, 2003 Shore patrol are service members who are provided to aid in security for the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, Unite ...
". Law enforcement personnel of an air force are sometimes called "air police," "security police," or "security forces."


By country


Americas


Argentina

In Argentina there are several militarized law enforcement forces but they are not considered military police. Under the Ministry of Security is the
Argentine National Gendarmerie The Argentine National Gendarmerie ( es, Gendarmería Nacional Argentina, GNA) is the national gendarmerie force and corps of border guards of Argentina. The Argentine National Gendarmerie has a strength of 70,000. The Gendarmerie is primarily a ...
(which is the border protection force, environmental security, rural security and also responsible for security in strategic sites. It is also used to combat drug trafficking, kidnappings and crimes under federal law) and the
Argentine Naval Prefecture The Argentine Naval Prefecture ( es, Prefectura Naval Argentina or PNA) is a service of the Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of Sout ...
that is responsible for the protection of maritime, fluvial and lacustrine waters, also the battle against illegal fishing and public security in coastal areas. Also at the federal level is the
Argentine Federal Police The Argentine Federal Police ( es, Policía Federal Argentina or PFA) is the national civil police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health ...
and the Airport Security Police, but they are not militarized security forces. Under the
Ministry of DefenseMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries ...
of Argentina, each military force (
Argentine Army The Argentine Army (''Ejército Argentino'', EA) is the Army, land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military service of Argentina. Under the Argentine Constitution, the President of Argentina is the ...
,
Argentine Navy The Argentine Navy (ARA; es, Armada de la República Argentina)In the native Spanish, the navy is known as ''Armada de la República Argentina''. This also forms the basis for the navy's ship prefix A ship prefix is a combination of letter ...
and
Argentine Air Force "Argentine Wings" , mascot = , anniversaries = 10 August (anniversary) 1 May (Baptism of fire during the Falklands War) , equipment = 139 aircraft , equipment_label = , battles = * Operativo Independencia Operativo Independencia ("Ope ...
have their own military police forces. The Army's primary military police formation is the 601st MP Company based in Campo de Mayo. Other units can organize their own MP service to protect their own premises and facilities. The Argentine Navy has its own military police called "Naval Facilities Police". The Argentine Air Force has its military police that secures military air installations.


Brazil

"
Military police Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state. In different countries it may refer to: * A section of the military responsible for policing the areas of responsibility of the armed forc ...
" is a law enforcement agency which follows the Brazilian military rules, responsible for Preventive police of the civilian population. Each state has its own Military Police department similar to a
Gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

Gendarmerie
. However, and despite their name, these corps are not military organizations, nor have they any link to the military or the Ministry of Defense. Traditional
Provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
duties are held by different corps within each branch of the
Brazilian Armed Forces The Brazilian Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas Brasileiras, ) is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation Command, Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazil ...
: Army Police ( pt, Polícia do Exército, PE) for the
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...
, Navy Police ( pt, Polícia da Marinha) for the
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
, and Air Force Police ( pt, Polícia da Aeronáutica, PA) for the
Air Force
Air Force
.


Canada

The
Canadian Forces Military Police Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atla ...
(CF MP) contribute to the effectiveness and readiness of the
Canadian Forces The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes; ''FAC'') is the unified military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
(CF) and the
Department of National DefenceDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) * Department of National Defence (Canada) * Department of Defence (Ireland) * Department of National Defense (Philippine ...
(DND) through the provision of professional police, security and operational support services worldwide. CFMP are classified as
Peace Officer A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors ...
s in the
Criminal Code A criminal code (or penal code) is a document that compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interactin ...
,Military Police and Reports on Persons in Custody
which gives them the same powers as civilian law enforcement personnel to enforce
Acts of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislat ...
on or in relation to DND property or assets anywhere in the world. They have the power to arrest anyone who is subject to the
Code of Service DisciplineThe Code of Service Discipline (CSD) is the basis of the Military justice#Canada, Canadian Forces military justice system. The CSD is designed to assist military commanders in maintaining discipline, efficiency, and morale within the Canadian Forces ...
(CSD), regardless of position or rank under the
National Defence Act The ''National Defence Act'' (NDA; French: ''Loi sur la défense nationale''; ''LDN'') is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territ ...
(NDA). MP have the power to arrest and charge non-CSD bound civilians only in cases where a crime is committed on or in relation to DND property or assets, or at the request of the
Minister of Public Safety The minister of public safety (french: ministre de la sécurité publique) is the minister of the Crown in the Cabinet of Canada, Canadian Cabinet responsible for overseeing Public Safety Canada, the Government of Canada, Government of Canada's ...
, Commissioner of the Correctional Service of Canada or
Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Commissioner is the highest rank of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and of its predecessor agencies, the North-West Mounted Police (1873 to 1904) and the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (1904 to February 1, 1920). The Commissioner reports d ...

Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
. Although MP jurisdiction is only on DND property across Canada and throughout the world, any civilian accessing these areas falls under MP jurisdiction and are dealt with in the same manner as any civilian policing agency. If a crime is committed on or in relation to DND property or assets, MP have the power to arrest and charge the offender, military or civilian, under the
Criminal Code A criminal code (or penal code) is a document that compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interactin ...
. It is important to note though that the purpose of the CFMP is not to replace the job of a civilian police officer, but rather to support the Canadian Forces through security and policing services. MP also have the power to enforce the Provincial Highway Traffic Acts on all military bases in Canada pursuant to the Government Property Traffic Regulations (GPTR).


Colombia

In Colombia, MPs (Policía Militar in Spanish) are very common. They can be seen guarding closed roads, museums, embassies, government buildings and airports. In the
National Army of Colombia The National Army of Colombia ( es, Ejército Nacional de Colombia) is the land warfare service branch of the Military Forces of Colombia. With over 361,420 active personnel as of 2020, it is the largest and oldest service branch in Colombia, an ...
they are assigned to the 37 Military Police Battalions, wearing green uniforms with the military police helmet. A Naval Police battalion is in service in the Colombian Marine Infantry. MP units also provide
military band A military band is a group of personnel that performs musical duties for military functions, usually for the armed forces. A typical military band consists mostly of wind instrument, wind and percussion instruments. The conducting, conductor of a ...
s and
drum and bugle corps Drum and bugle corps is a name used to describe several related musical ensembles. * Drum and bugle corps (modern), a musical marching unit * Drum and bugle corps (classic), musical ensembles that descended from military bugle and drum units retur ...
for ceremonial events. The Air Force also has a military police force (Policía Militar Aérea) that is in charge of protecting and enforcing law inside
Colombian Air Force , "We are the Force" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Colombian Air Force Hymn , mascot = Capitan Paz , anniversaries = 8 November , equipment = , equipment_label = , battles = * Colombia–Peru War * Colombian armed conflict ...
bases.


United States

Each branch of the
United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the Military, military forces of the United States of America. The armed forces consists of six Military branch, service branches: the United States Army, Army, United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps, Uni ...

United States Armed Forces
maintains its own police force. The U.S. Coast Guard, which in itself is a law enforcement agency, uses a mixture of enlisted rates and ranks qualified as law enforcement officers to patrol, investigate crimes, and enforce laws and regulations on large bases and training centers through the United States Coast Guard Police. The Coast Guard also uses the
Coast Guard Investigative Service The Coast Guard Investigative Service (CGIS) is a division of the United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service ...
, a mixture of civilian, enlisted, reservists, and officers who are qualified and duly sworn federal law enforcement officers separate from the normal Coast Guard chain of command. CGIS primarily investigates and charges those in its own population with serious crimes, such as rape, assault or forgery, that fall under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. The following is a list of military police forces: * Military Police Corps/ Office of the Provost Marshal General
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
* Provost Marshal's Office (base law enforcement) and Law Enforcement Battalions (combat support or "field MPs") —
United States Marine Corps The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the maritime land force service branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the na ...
* Masters-at-Arms or MAs are enlisted
Sailor A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical sys ...

Sailor
s of the
U.S. Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = " Anchors Aweigh" ...
, designated as Naval Security Force (NSF), primarily responsible for law enforcement and force protection. NSF personnel are led by Naval commissioned officers from the
Limited Duty Officer #REDIRECT Limited duty officer#REDIRECT Limited duty officer A limited duty officer (LDO) is an officer in the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors ...
(LDO) and
Chief Warrant Officer Chief warrant officer is a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces The United States Armed Forces are the of the . The armed forces consists of six : the , , , , , and . The is the of the armed forces and forms military po ...
(CWO) communities, who are also designated as NSF. Additionally, a host installation's Security Force (both overseas and in the Continental United States) are augmented by Sailors on Temporary Assignment of Duty (TEMADD) from their parent units, as part of the Auxiliary Security Force (ASF).
Shore Patrol File:US Navy 030101-N-0780F-002 Shore Patrol talk with Sailors.jpg, Shore patrol speaks with sailors in Crete, 2003 Shore patrol are service members who are provided to aid in security for the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard, Unite ...
personnel are Sailors from U.S. naval vessels visiting foreign ports (and some domestic ports) assigned to the Shore Patrol Party or Beach Guard, responsible for the good order and discipline of Sailors from the visiting ship(s) on liberty. Sailors assigned to the Shore Patrol Party or Beach Guard Detachment do not include Sailors assigned to the ship's Security Force, both performing different duties while visiting that country, because of the Status of Force Agreement (SOFA) or Rules of Engagement (ROE). Prior to the 1970s, Master-at-Arms and Shore Patrol were used synonymously to refer to Sailors assigned to perform law enforcement and Shore Patrol duties. *
United States Air Force Security Forces The United States Air Force Security Forces (SF) are the ground combat force and military police service of the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Space Force. USAF Security Forces (SF) were formerly known as Military Police (MP), Air Police (AP), and Se ...
(formerly known as Military Police, Air Police and Security Police)—
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosph ...

United States Air Force
Each service also maintains uniformed civilian police departments. They are referred to as Department of Defense Police (DoD Police). These police fall under each directorate they work for within the
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
, for example: DoD Army or DoD Navy Police. The
Department of the Air Force Police File:United States Air Force Security Forces Police Patch.jpeg, United States Air Force Security Forces POLICE Patch The United States Department of the Air Force Police are the civilian uniformed police service of the United States Department o ...
operate under the Air Provost Marshal. The police officers' duties are similar to those of local civilian police officers. They enforce the
Uniform Code of Military Justice The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ, 10 U.S.C. §§ 801–946 is the foundation of Military justice, military law in the United States. It was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United St ...
(UCMJ) and
federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
laws, along with
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
laws if the
state legislature A state legislature is a Legislature, legislative branch or body of a State (country subdivision), political subdivision in a Federalism, federal system. Two federations literally use the term "state legislature": * The legislative branches of e ...
of whatever state that federal
peace officer A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors ...
is in gives them the authority to enforce state law or classifies them as a peace officer under state law, and the regulations of their particular installation. Felony level criminal investigations in the United States Armed Forces are carried out by separate agencies: * Army Criminal Investigation Command (CiD)—Army (general felony crimes) * Army Counterintelligence (CI)—Army (national security crimes) * Marine Corps Criminal Investigation Division (CID)—Marine Corps *
Naval Criminal Investigative Service The United States Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) is the primary law enforcement agency of the United States Department of the Navy, U.S. Department of the Navy. Its primary function is to investigate criminal activities involving ...
(NCIS)—Navy and Marine Corps *
Air Force Office of Special Investigations The U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI or OSI) is a U.S. federal law enforcement agency that reports directly to the Secretary of the Air Force. AFOSI is also a United States Air Force, U.S. Air Force List of United States Air ...

Air Force Office of Special Investigations
(OSI)—Air Force *
Coast Guard Investigative Service The Coast Guard Investigative Service (CGIS) is a division of the United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service ...
(CGIS)—Coast Guard The
Defense Criminal Investigative Service The Defense Criminal Investigative Service is the criminal investigative arm of the Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense. DCIS protects military personnel by investigating cases of fraud, bribery, and corruption; preventing the ...
(DCIS) is a civilian agency that answers directly to the DOD as well as the
Pentagon Force Protection Agency The Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) is a federal law enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government ...
(PFPA). The
United States Constabulary The United States Constabulary was a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed services of the United States, U.S. uniforme ...
was a gendarmerie force used to secure and patrol the American Zone of West Germany immediately after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
.


=Combat roles of the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force and U.S. Marine Corps Military Police

= MP's in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps, in addition to their roles as enforcers of law and order on military installations, fulfill a number of combat roles as well. Military Police in Afghanistan and Iraq have been widely employed for such duties as convoy security, mounted and dismounted patrols, maritime expeditionary warfare,
Military Working Dog Dog of the Garrison of Sør-Varanger during a simulated arrest Dogs in warfare have a very long history starting in ancient times Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
operations, security details for senior officers, and detainee handling. Army MPs, Navy MAs, Navy Sailors who possess the Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) Code 2008 and 9575, Navy Sailors who have completed the Individual Augmentee (IA) training for Detention Operations, and Air Force Security Forces have been widely used as
prison guard A prison officer or corrections officer is a uniformed official responsible for the custody, supervision, safety, and regulation of prisoners. They are responsible for the care, custody, and control of individuals who have been convicted of a c ...
s in detainee facilities, whereas Marine Corps MPs focus on securing and processing detainees before passing them on to Army holding facilities.


=Limitation of authority and jurisdiction

= Since U.S. Army Military Police Soldiers and U.S. Air Force Security Forces Airmen are members of the armed forces, they are prohibited from exercising
domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, group or family. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can h ...
law enforcement powers under the
Posse Comitatus Act The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, which prescribes the foundation of ...
(PCA), a federal law passed in 1878. MPs may enforce certain limited powers, such as traffic stops, on access roads and other federal property not necessarily within the boundaries of their military base or installation. When combined, the Posse Comitatus Act and
Insurrection Act The Insurrection Act of 1807 is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, which prescribes the foundati ...
place significant limits on presidential power to use the military in a law enforcement capacity. The PCA directly applies only to the Army and Air Force, without mentioning the Navy and Marine Corps. The Navy and Marine Corps are limited from enforcing domestic laws due to DoD policy and regulations. The only military forces exempt from the act are the
United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
, as its mission includes maritime law enforcement duties;
United States Space Force The United States Space Force (USSF) is the Space force, space service branch of the United States Armed Forces, U.S. Armed Forces, one of the eight Uniformed services of the United States, U.S. uniformed services, and the world's first and ...

United States Space Force
, which has authority to conduct law enforcement regarding space-related activities; and Army and Air
National Guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizations in different countries. The original National Guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizati ...
units while under state authority. Army and Air National Guard troops are not exempt from Posse Comitatus while they are serving under federal Title 10 orders.


Africa


Algeria

The
Algerian People's National Armed Forces french: Armée nationale populaire , image = , caption = People's National Army emblem , image2 = , caption2 = Newly graduated officers on parade in Cherchell Cherchell (Arabic Ar ...
has maintained military police units since its founding upon Algerian independence in 1962. The task of the Algerian military police is to maintain law and order within units and hunt down conscripts trying to flee military service, protect and secure military installations, and organize and move large combat units. In the 1990s, three military police battalions were established as combat units, and they have taken part in combat operations.


Botswana

The
Botswana Defence Force The Botswana Defence Force (BDF, Setswana Tswana, also known by its Endonym and exonym, native name , is a Bantu language spoken in Southern Africa by about 8.2 million people. It belongs to the Bantu languages, Bantu language family withi ...
maintains provosts to enforce order within the ranks who are authorized to carry out arrests and to order other service personnel to arrest someone. Soldiers and officers suspected of committing offenses may be arrested by military personnel of superior rank. An officer may be arrested by another officer of superior rank, while soldiers may be arrested by any officer, warrant officer, or non-commissioned officer.


Egypt

The
Egyptian Army , ) , mascot = Saladin's Eagle , commander1 = Mohamed Ahmed Zaki , commander1_label = Minister of Defense And Military Production , commander2 = Lieutenant General Li ...
maintains a Military Police Corps consisting of 24 battalions, divided into 12 Inland MP battalions (222nd, 224th, 226th, 228th, 230th, 232nd, 234th, 236th, 238th, 240th, 242nd, 244th) and 12 Field MP battalions (221st, 223rd, 225th, 227th, 229th, 231st, 233rd, 235th, 237th, 239th, 241st, 243rd).


Kenya

The
Kenya Army The Kenya Army is the land arm of the Kenya Defence Forces. History The origin of the present day Kenya Army lie with the British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British ...
maintains a Military Police Corps which consists of two battalions and the School of Military Police.


Morocco

The
Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie The Royal Gendarmerie (Arabic: الدرك الملكي المغربي ''ad-darak al-malikiyy al-maḡribiyy)'' is the gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French Maritime Gendarmerie, ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle ha ...

Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie
, a part of the
Royal Moroccan Army zgh, ⵜⴰⵙⵔⴷⴰⵙⵜ ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏⵜ , image = , caption = Flag of the Royal Moroccan Army , start_date = active since: 1088 CE current form: 14 May 1956 , d ...
, is directly subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. It is divided into 22 Regional Gendarmeries, a Mobile Gendarmerie, Air Gendarmerie, and Maritime Gendarmerie.


Nigeria

The
Nigerian Army The Nigerian Army (NA) is the land force An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the ...
maintains a military police force, the Nigerian Army Corps of Military Police (NACMP). It is responsible for protecting installations, guarding important personnel as well as military convoys and prisoners, and investigating crimes. Nigerian military police personnel are divided into three fields, and all MPs are required to specialize in at least one: criminal investigations, general policing duties, and handling.


Asia


Cambodia

The
Gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

Gendarmerie
, or "Military Police", known as the Royal Gendarmerie of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
is a paramilitary unit with about 7,000 soldiers deployed in all provinces. It is headquartered in
Phnom Penh Phnom Penh (; km, ភ្នំពេញ, ; lit. "Penh's Hill") is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Phnom Penh
. The unit's chain of command is through the
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces french: Forces armées royales cambodgiennes , image = Royal Cambodian Armed Forces Logo.png , alt = Royal Cambodian Armed Forces seal , caption = , image2 = , alt2 = , ...
High Command. The Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia is deployed in every province and cities to keep the law and order. Military police in Cambodia play an important role in Cambodia society, keeping law and order in cities along with the National Police.


India

The Corps of Military Police (CMP) is the military police of the Indian Army. In addition, the CMP is trained to handle prisoners of war and to regulate traffic, as well as to handle basic telecommunication equipment such as telephone exchanges. They can be identified by their red berets, white lanyards and belts, and they also wear a black
brassard A brassard or armlet is an armband An armband is a piece of material worn around the arm over the sleeve A sleeve (O. Eng. ''slieve'', or ''slyf'', a word allied to ''slip Slip or SLIP may refer to: Science and technology Footba ...
with the letters "MP" imprinted in red. Internal policing duties in a regiment (or a station) are handled by the Regimental Police, who are soldiers of the unit who are assigned to policing tasks for a short period of time. They are essentially used to regulate traffic, and can be identified by a black brassard with the letters "RP" embossed in gold or white. The Indian Air Force is policed by the Indian Air Force Police. They can be identified by their white peaked caps, white lanyards and belts (with a pistol holster). They used to wear a black brassard with the letters "IAF(P)" imprinted in red, until 2013. Now Indian Air Force Provost and Security officers and IAF(P) wear an arm badge. The Indian Navy has the Indian Navy Police, Navy Police, and they can be identified by a black brassard with the letters "NP" in gold, with the state emblem placed in between the N and the P.


Indonesia

In Indonesia, the institution which solely has the responsibility and authority concerning the maintenance of discipline and law enforcement towards members of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) is the Military Police Corps (Indonesia), Military Police Command (Indonesian language, Indonesian: ''Pusat Polisi Militer TNI'' abbreviated "Puspom TNI"), an institution directly under the auspices of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Headquarters ("Mabes TNI") which heads the three Military Police corps which are the: *Army Military Police Corps (Indonesia), Indonesian Army Military Police Command; (Puspomad) *Indonesian Navy Military Police Command; (Puspomal) *Indonesian Air Force Military Police Command (Puspomau) They are authorised to enforce military law and conduct crime investigations involving active members of the TNI. Other than conducting law enforcement, MPs which are attached to the Paspampres also conduct Police escort, escort and Honour guard duties for the head of state, high-ranking military officials, and VVIPs. The Military police are also responsible in supervising prisoners of war (POWs), controlling military prisoners, arresting deserters, managing military traffic, issuing military driving licenses and conduct joint law enforcement operations with the Indonesian National Police, civilian police such as implementing Random checkpoint, traffic checkpoints and crime investigation to take action towards military personnel caught red-handed in violations. In Indonesia, the Military Police does not have authority towards civilians as it is the realm of the Indonesian National Police (Polri), and in the other hand, the Indonesian National Police, civilian Police does not have authority to arrest active members of the military, except accompanied by the Military police. If a member of the armed forces is caught red-handed by the civilian police, then the violator will be sent to the nearest Military Police or the Military police would be contacted in order to conduct further legal processes.
The Indonesian Army, Army, Indonesian Navy, Navy, and Indonesian Air Force, Air force have their own Military Police unit which focuses on their own branches, but any Military policemen from either branch can take action towards military members from a different branch if caught red-handed, then the violator will be sent to the Military police of their branch. The Military Police in Indonesia are known locally as ''Polisi Militer'' sometimes shortened "PM" or "POM". The uniforms worn by the Military police varies for the tri-services. The Army Military Police wear dark green, the Navy Military Police wear blue-gray and the Air Force Military Police wear light blue. The beret of all of the three Military police corps in Indonesia is the same which is blue, dragged to the left (except those attached to the Paspampres who wears light blue berets). When wearing camouflage uniform, MPs are identifiable by their white aiguillettes and
brassard A brassard or armlet is an armband An armband is a piece of material worn around the arm over the sleeve A sleeve (O. Eng. ''slieve'', or ''slyf'', a word allied to ''slip Slip or SLIP may refer to: Science and technology Footba ...
worn on their upper left sleeve imprinted the word "PM".


Iran

The Central Provost of Islamic Republic of Iran Army is the police service of the Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces. It has authority within all branches of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army and has seniority over the designated provosts of the "Sea Police" of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy and the "Air Police" of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force. Separately, the General Provost of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps maintains police authority over the land, air, and sea branches of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and the Basij militia.


Israel

The Military Police Corps (Israel), Military Police Corps (''Kheil HaMishtara HaTzva'it''), ''Mem Tzadeh'' for short, is the military police/Provost (military police), provost of the Israel Defense Forces. It is responsible for investigating crimes committed by soldiers, traffic enforcement among military traffic, arresting soldiers suspected of criminal offenses, assisting officers in enforcing discipline, locating deserters, guarding military prisons, and helping man checkpoints. In times of emergency, Enemy combatant, enemy detainees are held and sorted by the military police. It is a brigade-sized force commanded by a Brigadier General. The corps has very little civilian jurisdiction and for that reason works in conjunction with the Israel Police when civilians are involved. The Israel Border Police, a branch of the civilian police force, is Israel's
gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

gendarmerie
equivalent. The civilian police and military police share a computer database. Should a suspect apprehended by the civilian police on a civilian charge and wearing civilian clothes turn out to be a deserting or AWOL soldier, he or she is turned over to the Military Police.


Japan

During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the ''Kenpeitai'' were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army and the ''Tokubetsu Keisatsutai, Tokkeitai'' were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Navy. They also performed military intelligence, intelligence and secret police functions and were active in Japan and its occupied territories. Today's Japan Self-Defense Forces maintain military police units called the Keimutai (), with its personnel called Keimukan ().


Kazakhstan

The Military Police (Kazakhstan), Military Police in Kazakhstan refers to law enforcement bodies in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The military police is under the joint jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense (Kazakhstan), Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan, Ministry of Internal Affairs and the National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan, National Security Committee, all of which manage the activities of the military police.


Mongolia

The Mongolian Armed Forces maintain two law enforcement units. The Internal Troops of Mongolia is a paramilitary gendarmerie unit that performs special guard and reserve duties. Among other duties, it guards government installations and serves as a riot police force. The 032 Military Unit engages in law enforcement as well as organizing daily activities and military supplies and services.


Malaysia

The ''Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja'' (Royal Military Police Corps) performs military police duties in the Malaysian Army. Apart from enforcing discipline and conduct of members of the Army, the Corps oversees security of designated Army installations, performs escort and ceremonial duties, and assists civil law enforcement authorities. The ''Kor Polis Tentera'' is also tasked with crime prevention and investigating criminal activities on Army property or by military personnel. With its roots in the British Royal Military Police, members of the ''Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja'' also wear the distinctive red peaked cap, white lanyard and belt, as well as a black
brassard A brassard or armlet is an armband An armband is a piece of material worn around the arm over the sleeve A sleeve (O. Eng. ''slieve'', or ''slyf'', a word allied to ''slip Slip or SLIP may refer to: Science and technology Footba ...
with the letters "PT" imprinted. PT stands for "Polis Tentera", the Malay words for "Military Police". Military police on traffic duty wear armbands sporting the letters "MP" in red.


Pakistan

Since the establishment and inception of the Pakistan Armed Forces, they have maintained their own military police. The Pakistan Army received its share of Muslim personnel from the former Royal Indian Military Police, forming the Pakistan Army Military Police or "MP". Later, the Pakistan Navy established the "naval police" with its centre commissioned at "PNS Nighaban", and the Pakistan Air Force later established the PAF Police to maintain order. The Pakistan Navy's Naval Police can be identified by their red armbands with the letters "NP" written in white. They are headquartered at PNS Qasim in Karachi. The Pakistan Army's military police is known as the Pakistan Army Corps of Military Police. They can be identified by their red armbands, white cross belts and white combat helmets with the letters "MP", written in white. The Pakistan Air Force established its own military police, known as the "Pakistan Air Force Police" commonly referred to as Provost. The PAF Police can be identified by their red armlets, white cross belts and white combat helmets with "PAF Police" written in red. The MP, NP and the PAF Police do not exercise any jurisdiction over civilians, nor can the civil courts interfere in the operations of the Military Police. In some cases, the Military Police Corps have worked with civilian police agencies if civilians are involved.


Philippines

The Armed Forces of the Philippines currently maintains its own military police distinct from the nation's police, civilian force, reporting to the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Chief of Staff through the service commanding generals. The American-established (now defunct) Philippine Constabulary (PC) was also known as the ''Military Police Command''. Pursuant to Republic Act 6975 (the DILG Reorganization Act of 1991), the PC and the Integrated National Police merged to form the civilian Philippine National Police, and was placed under the Department of the Interior and Local Government.


Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabian military police are a small subset of the national police and are charged mainly with keeping peace in areas with high levels of aggression and tension. They wear red berets and camouflaged uniform.


Sri Lanka

Each branch of the Military of Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Armed Forces has its own military police/Provost section. The Sri Lanka Army is policed by the Sri Lanka Corps of Military Police and by Regimental Police, who belong to each individual regiments or corps. The Military Police force carries out the following missions: * Maintenance of order and discipline: Consists of monitoring, maintaining and, if necessary, re-establishing discipline and military order. This also involves controlling stragglers and refugees in times of war and guarding and escorting prisoners of war. * Security missions: Prevents and deters any threat to or attack against the personnel and property of the armed forces. MPs also provide VIP motorcycle escorts and honor guards, perform close protection missions and escort classified documents and money transports. The Sri Lanka Navy is policed by the Sri Lanka Navy#Provost Branch, Provost Branch. The Sri Lanka Air Force is policed by the Sri Lanka Air Force#Air Force Police, Air Force Police (AFP).


Singapore

In Singapore, the Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command serves as the law enforcement agency of the Singapore Armed Forces. The Command is headed by a colonel, otherwise also known as the Provost Marshal. Its sub-units included the Military Police Enforcement Unit (including Special Investigations Branch and ceremonial and drill components), the Detention Barracks (DB), The 1st Provost Bn, MP Training School and the Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command#Organisation, Security Support Forces (including Military working Dog Wing, Close Protection and Security Ops Unit). The command also collaborates closely with the Singapore Police Force in terms of policing work duties, investigations, etc.


South Korea

The Republic of Korea Armed Forces maintains a series of separate military police commands for the Republic of Korea Army, Army, Republic of Korea Navy, Navy, Republic of Korea Air Force, Air Force, and Republic of Korea Marine Corps, Marine Corps. ROK Army MPs also function as border guards at the Korean Demilitarized Zone.


Taiwan

The ROCMP is responsible for enforcing military law, maintaining military discipline, providing backup for the civilian police force or serving as combat troops during times of emergency, providing security for historical sites (such as the Cihu Mausoleum) and certain government buildings, including the Presidential Office Building in Taipei City, as well as performing counter-terrorism and VIP protection operations. The ROCMP are also charged with the defense of the capital Taipei.


Thailand

In Thailand, each branch of the armed forces has its own military police force. The Royal Thai Navy has the ''สารวัตรทหารเรือ'' (Naval Military Police), the Royal Thai Army has the ''สารวัตรทหาร'' (Army Military Police), and the Royal Thai Air Force has the ''สารวัตรทหารอากาศ'' (Air Force Military Police). The duties of the Air Military Police Department (''กรมทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ'') are peacekeeping, security, regulating traffic discipline within Air Force installations and housing areas, apprehending deserters, escorting VIPs and investigating crimes under the authority of the Military Court. These investigations include prisoners of war, enemy aliens, refugees and displaced officers within the Air Force and designated areas. It is under supervision of the Commander of the Air Military Police Department. There is one active Air MP Battalion called the Battalion of Military Air Police (''กองพันทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ''). The Air Military Police Department is one unit under the supervision of the Office of Don Muang RTAF Base Commander (''สำนักงานผู้บังคับทหารอากาศดอนเมือง''). * Office of Don Muang RTAF Base Commander (''สำนักงานผู้บังคับทหารอากาศดอนเมือง'') * Air Military Police Department(''กรมทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ'') * Battalion of Military Air Police (''กองพันทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ'')


Vietnam

In Vietnam, the 144th Brigade of Military Provost (''Kiểm soát Quân sự'') is under the command of the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army. The provosts are responsible for guarding and protecting the Presidential Palace, government offices and army offices. They are also responsible for supervising military laws on soldiers and officers. Even though the 144th Brigade is the highest level division in the Military Provost force of Vietnam, there seems to be no unified command for the Military Provost under the General Staff, the Ministry of Defense or another General Department within the Ministry. There are several known Military Provost units such as the 31st Military Provost Battalion of Ho Chi Minh city Military Command, the said 144th Brigade, and the 103rd Military Provost Battalion of the Hanoi Capital Military Command. Besides the Provost units, there are also the military investigative agencies that function similarly to the Provosts, such as the Criminal Investigation Bureau and the Investigative Security Agency within the Defense Ministry.


Europe


Armenia

The Military Police (Armenia), Military Police ( hy, Ռազմական ոստիկանություն; Rrazmakan vostikanut’yun) of Armenia fall under the command of the Ministry of Defence of Armenia, Ministry of Defence. The Military Police was established in May 1992, by order of the Minister of Defense. The Military Police is considered a division that is separate from the Ministry of Defense. It had no special status until 2007, when a law to define the Military Police status was adopted. Its status is defined in the RA Law on Military Police. According to the law, the Military Police is responsible for the following: *Investigation of military crimes in the armed forces that were committed on the territory of military units or by conscripts in military service; *Deterrence, prevention and stoppage of crimes being planned or committed by military servicemen; *Protection of property that belongs to the authorized body; *Proper exploitation and safe operation of vehicles that belong to the armed forces. The Military Police Bylaws were approved by the Government of Armenia on 25 December 2008.


Austria

The Austrian Military Police (German: ''Militärpolizei'') of the Austrian Armed Forces (''Bundesheer'') is located in Vienna and consists of the following elements * Military Police HQ * Fundamentals Division * Training Division * Signal Platoon * Close Protection * 3 MP Companies * MP Militia The Military Police has three locations in Austria. The Military Police Command and one MP Co. are located in Vienna. One MP Co. is in Graz and one in Salzburg. The Military Police is tasked with law enforcement and the protection of the forces, military events and Armed Forces property. The increasing number of international operations in which Austrian soldiers participate and new threat scenarios hugely expand the spectrum of tasks. In addition to its traditional domestic tasks, the Military Police now also fulfill tasks in international operations. In Austria the Military Police is only tasked with internal Armed Forces matters. Abroad, they are tasked with extensive assignments. It closes the security gap between a conflict that has ended and a functioning society. A large number of experienced specialists and modern equipment are required to meet these demanding tasks. National tasks include: * Check routines and security checks * Security duty * Traffic control * Close Protection * Force Protection * Law enforcement * Inquiries International tasks include: * Taking down traffic accidents * Crime scene investigation * Fingerprinting and photographing * Interrogations * Searches/investigations/support in interventions * Detention of dangerous criminals * Crowd and riot control * Operation of detention facilities * Interventions (Special weapons and tactics – SWAT) * Close Protection * Defence against terrorism


Belarus

The military commandants of the Armed Forces of Belarus are regional administrations responsible for military police on a unit's territory. Units are assigned to a specific commandant based on their location. There are 6 military commandants in the Belarusian Armed Forces.


Belgium

The Belgian Army's Military Police Group (''Groupe Police Militaire'' in French; ''Groep Militaire Politie'' in Dutch) performs military police duties on behalf of all four components of the Belgian military. The group is headed by a colonel and has 188 members in five MP detachments. Until 1995, the Belgian Rijkswacht, Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was, besides its civilian policing tasks, responsible for the nation's Military Police duties. The Military Police Group staff is located in the Queen Elizabeth Barracks in the Brussels suburb of Evere. Alpha Detachment located at Evere covers the province of Flemish Brabant and the capital, Brussels. Bravo Detachment covers the Walloon Brabant, Hainaut Province and Namur Province areas and is located at Nivelles. Charlie Detachment located at Marche-en-Famenne covers the Liège Province and Luxembourg (Belgium), Belgian Luxembourg areas. Delta Detachment covers the Limburg (Belgium), Limbourg and Antwerp Province areas and is located at Leopoldsburg. Echo Detachment located at Lombardsijde covers Western and Eastern Flanders. The Military Police force carries out the following missions: * Maintenance of order and discipline: Consists of monitoring, maintaining and, if necessary, re-establishing discipline and military order. This also involves controlling stragglers and refugees in times of war and guarding and escorting prisoners of war. * Traffic regulation: Includes traffic monitoring and regulation to ensure the flow of military movements in accordance with plans. This includes route reconnaissance and marking, convoy and oversize vehicle escort and river crossing control. Traffic accident investigations is also a part of the job. * Security missions: Prevents and deters any threat to or attack against the personnel and property of the armed forces. The Military Police force protects, for example, the Palace of the Nation and the Parliaments and Councils of the Regions and the Communities, headquarters and classified conferences. MPs also provide VIP motorcycle escorts and honour guards, perform close protection missions, and escort classified documents and money transports. The Belgian Military Police has also taken part in multinational peacekeeping missions such as Afghanistan, Kosovo and the Congo. The Belgian police, Federal Police's Military Crime Division (DJMM) performs all investigations involving the armed forces. In 2003, duties relating to refugees and deserters in wartime were transferred from the then disbanded Gendarmerie to the MPs. Members of the former 4 and 6 MP Companies were merged into the new MP Group, along with some Gendarmes previously assigned MP-related duties. Belgian MPs are identified by black armbands with the letters MP in white block letters, worn on the left arm.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Shortly after the formation of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2005, an intentional strategy was made to limit in law and multi-ethnic, crime violation in the armed forces, so to speak, the Military Police, which was formed later on and approved by the Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Bulgaria

The first documents reflecting the establishment of interior order bodies in Bulgaria are: Instruction on Establishment of Initial Military Police Governorship, dated 3 July 1877, Instruction on the Rights and Duties of the Constituted Local Police Guards, dated 19 July 1877, and Temporary Regulations on Constituting Police Voluntary Sentries and Armed Guards, dated 8 August 1877. According to the Instruction on Military Police Governorship in the free Bulgarian lands and regions with army presence, the Military Police enforced the law and order in the rear of the army, suspended possible clashes among members of different religious communities and observed for the proper implementation of commanders instructions. Irrespective of the military police presence in the rear of the army and troops, newly- appointed civil administrative authorities (governors) were given the right to organize mounted and infantry sentries and armed local guards. Temporary Regulations on Gendarmerie Structure were promulgated after Alexander of Battenberg, Prince Alexander I had suspended the Tarnovo Constitution, Constitution of Turnovo in 1881. The gendarmerie became government guard with military organization and was tasked with maintenance of public law and order, law enforcement, and implementation of police rules issued by the authorities. The new structure was based on French and Austrian experience. Gendarmerie Corps Chief, subordinate to the Military Minister, was empowered to act as a liaison point between the military administration and the other ministries and institutions as well as to take independent decisions on any issues within his competence. Gendarmerie units' chiefs were independent of the provincial military chiefs and were empowered to issue orders to them. Drafting of bodies for security and interior order was based on the necessity of mastering and integrating this activity under the Military Ministry. With Decree of the Prince No. 73/ 3 July 1882, the Gendarmerie Corps was converted into the Dragoon Corps. The intention of the military minister was to be set up a cavalry unit authorized to carry out police duties as well. Of interest is Ministerial Order No. 193/ 1882 which tasked the Dragoon Corps with specific tasks on the Ruschuk-Varna, Bulgaria, Varna railway. Then existing Military Police Railway Command was disbanded on 1 October 1882. The names used in the documents mentioned above, "military police governorship" and "military police command", connote the meaning and sense of the specific activities of these bodies and prove that military police history dates back to the very beginning of the Third Bulgarian State. In 1883 started a process of purposeful legislative regulation on the activity of the police forces for public order and security and their gradual differentiation from the Military Ministry. Prince Alexander I tasked Prime Minister Dragan Tsankov with the establishment of a new police structure in Bulgaria. Its activity was to be legally based upon the Regulations on Police Guards, adopted in 1883. In compliance with the Decree of His Highness No. 756/ 17 September 1883, the Dragoon Corps was disbanded on 1 October 1883. Its property, clothing, armament and ammunition were to be given to the Ministry of the Interior. In the Act on the Armed Forces Regulation in the Bulgarian Principality, adopted by the Sixth Regular National Assembly on 3 December 1891, envisaged establishment of six semi-companies in stages. Each of them was to be added to a division and to be set military police tasks in wartime. Such units were not actually formed but this fact shows the political will for their creation in case of eventual military activities. Tasks and strength of the MPs were precisely defined in the eve of the 1912 Balkan Wars with the Ottoman Empire. A Military Police infantry platoon of 60 with an officer in charge and a mounted platoon of 50 were added to any division. The Military Police patrolled in the troops' areas and in the rear, maintaining the order and discipline. While Bulgaria was getting ready for the war, the Strategic Command assessed the need of military police presence in the army. In 1915 a military police sector of six squadrons was founded under the Staff of the acting army. In the same year was issued Instruction on the Officer Qualities and Posts in the Military Police Troops. The document reads their goals: to maintain order and law in the troops' areas and in the rear, to enforce laws, ordinances, regulations, and orders of senior commanders and chiefs. The Military Police were tasked with guarding staffs, transport, warehouses and other army installations. They were also empowered to implement specific tasks – crime investigation, protection of civilians against despoiling and abusing, fight against marauders, supervision and control over the civilians following the army and especially the unreliable and/ or espionage suspected individuals. MPs convoyed, secured refugees, prisoners-of-war, military posts and mail, collected and stored weapons left behind by its own or enemy troops, horses and other objects, checked on the regularity of troops at the railway stations. With Ministerial Order No.160/ 20 December 1916 was promulgated Instruction on Military Police Service within First Infantry Division of Sofia. It empowered the Military Police to apprehend, subject to search, and detain any suspected individuals as well as individuals without proper documents no matter whether they were civilian or military. In 1923 the Act on Military Police Replenishment was adopted due to the necessity of organizational and structural building of the Military Police. The criteria for personnel selection were too high for that time and met the high standards and specific requirements for performing military police duties. In 1940 the Ministry of Defence (Bulgaria), Ministry of War issued Recommendations on the Military Police Service. Military police units were tasked with maintenance of order, morale, and discipline in the army. The Recommendations also listed a lot of measures for securing staffs, communications and messages in the rear. In the last chapter, it was emphasized that the Recommendations were valid in wartime and were to be executed on maneuvers and under martial law declared in peacetime. The Military Police Group was set up under the Chief Army Command on 20 February 1941, shortly before Bulgaria entered
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Military Police School for Initial and Further Personnel Training was founded in Sofia in 1942. The Military Police Group was transformed into the Securing Group in compliance of the Order of the Military Ministry, dated 2 September 1944. In January 1945 this Military Securing Group was disbanded and a special group for implementation of specific tasks in the army was formed. In 1946 it became regiment. In 1947 under Ordinance No. 523 of 8 April the Regiment was disbanded under the Paris Peace Treaty clauses. In 1991 the Ministry of Defense tasked the General Staff with the planning of the Military Police organization and structure in order to re-establish the service. A few months later, on 5 November 1991 the Ministerial Council issued Decree No. 217 which proclaimed the establishment of the Military Police – based on regional principle, part of the Bulgarian Army, and to meet the needs of the Armed Forces, troops, ministries, administrations, and Civil Defense of the Republic of Bulgaria. The Military Police units are specialized bodies under the Minister of Defense for the purposes of law enforcement, prevention and disclosure of crimes and other violations, maintenance of army order and discipline within garrisons, control over army transport and protection of legal interests and rights of the Bulgarian Army personnel. The Military Police, due to the required specific knowledge, experience and skills, had become professional ten years earlier before the Bulgarian Army abolished conscription. The Military Police gradually turns into a modern NATO-modelled formation. With Order of the Minister of Defense No. OX-0082/ 29 January 1998 the Military Police Administration – GS was transferred from its immediate subordination to the Chief of the General Staff of the Bulgarian Army to subordination to the Minister of Defense. On 2 December 1999 with Ministerial Order No. 985 was founded the Security Service – Military Police and Military Counterintelligence under the Minister of Defense. It was the successor to the then existing administrations MPs and MCI. On 1 April 2008, as a result of reformation of the national security system, the Military Counterintelligence passed to the newly founded State Agency National Security. The Security Service – Military Police and Military Counterintelligence was transformed into the Military Police Service under the Minister of Defense. The fifth of November has been announced the Military Police Service Celebration Day with Order of the Minister of Defense No. OX-708/ 10 October 2008. The current chief of the Bulgarian Military Police Service is Brigadier General Borislav Sertov.


Croatia

The Croatian Military Police ( hr, Vojna policija) is a part of the Croatian Armed Forces (). The Croatian Military Police was formed on 27 August 1991, shortly after the Croatian National Guard, National Guard Corps () – now the Croatian Army – was formed. Parts of Croatian Military Police are: * NSVP – Military Police Education center "Bojnik Alfred Hill" * 66th Military Police Battalion * 67th Military Police Battalion * 68th Military Police Battalion * 69th Military Police Company * 70th Military Police Company * 71st Military Police Battalion * 72nd Military Police Battalion * 73rd Military Police Battalion (HRM (Croatian Navy)) * 74th Military Police Company (HRZ (Croatian Air Force)) * 75th Military Police Battalion


Czech Republic

The (Czech language, Czech ''vojenská policie'') was set up on 21 January 1991. Within the provisions of the Czechoslovak Law No. 124/1992 Dig. regarding the Military Police, they are responsible for police protection of armed forces, military facilities, military material and other state property controlled by the Ministry of Defence. The Military Police are a professional force. Since 1 January 1993, Czechoslovak Military Police Corps were divided to Czech and Slovak separate Military Police Corps. The Military Police are headed by a Chief, who directly reports to the Minister of Defence. As of 1 July 2003, the Military Police officers are equipped with accessories black in colour, including their distinctive feature – the black beret. The structure is based on the territorial principle. The Military Police subordinated headquarters are located in Prague, Tábor, and Olomouc. Military police officers are assigned directly to military units, and they form also part of military contingents of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic in foreign deployments. Foreign Deployments: The military police officers serve within contingents of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic on foreign operations on the territory of Iraq and on the Balkans, and as of March 2007 its Special Operation Group (SOG) also in southern Afghanistan in the Helmand Province. Military Police of the Czech republic also contain
active reserve
units. Members of the active reserve have a civilian profession but several times a year participate in training or other MP activities.


Denmark

In Denmark the military police (Danish: ''militærpoliti'') services are carried out as independent units under each branch. In the Royal Danish Army, army all military police tasks are done as an integral part of the ''Trænregimentet'', whereas the Royal Danish Navy, navy military police is an independent unit under command and control of the commanding officer of the Danish Frogman Corps and the Royal Danish Air Force, air force, as a part of the force protection squadron (''Squadron 660'') of the air force ''Combat Support Wing''. Unlike the two other branches, the navy military police also handles installation guard duties (which is carried out by regular soldiers in the army and by an installation protection unit under ''Squadron 660'' in the air force) of naval installations as well as certain military installations in the Danish capital region, such as the Defence Command (Denmark), Danish Defence Command and the Ministry of Defence (Denmark), Ministry of Defence. MP personnel typically wear either branch-specific display dress uniforms with white shoulder markings with the text ''MP'' or the branch-common daily Uniforms of the Royal Danish Army#M/11, combat uniform, with a red beret. In the air force the MP-shoulder markings is typically replaced with markings saying either ''VAGT'' or ''GUARD'', but for international missions they also use the ''MP''-markings. MP personnel generally do not have legal authority over civilians in non-military areas but only over military personnel and on military installations (also publicly accessible places like Holmen Naval Base in Copenhagen). On some occasions MP personnel can support civilian police in certain tasks, but will only have slightly more legal authority than civilians—similar to the police home guard. In the army military police are almost without exception Non-commissioned officer, NCOs or Officer (armed forces), officers, whereas the navy and air force rely mainly of Other ranks (Denmark) (disambiguation), Danish ranks OR-1 to OR-3. Furthermore, the Danish Home Guard, home guard has a police branch, which supports both the civilian Police of Denmark, Danish police and the military police. Typical MP jobs are: * Installation/perimeter guard * Personnel protection * Traffic control * Courier services * Prisoner transport


Estonia

The ''Military Police (Estonia), Sõjaväepolitsei'' are the Military Police of the Estonian Defence Force

The Estonian MP organization was created in 1994 and is today divided into tactical (patrol) and investigative units. Additionally, conscript-based reserve MP platoons are trained in Guard Battalion every year. MP tasks include investigation of serious disciplinary cases and some armed service-related crimes, supervision of military discipline within the Forces, military traffic control and various security tasks. Within conflict/crises areas (Afghanistan) the MP may provide close protection of the Estonian national representative and other visiting VIPs. When on regular patrol assignment, Estonian MPs wear a black brassard on their right shoulder, with the letters ''SP'' in silver, and are usually equipped with an HK USP 9 mm pistol, spare magazines, radio, handcuffs, pepper spray and an expandable police baton.


Finland

The ' (literally, "Soldier Police") are the military police of the Finnish Defence Forces. The Finnish MPs wear a black brassard on the left shoulder with the letters 'SP' in white. A military policeman is usually armed with a 9 mm pistol, a baton, pepper spray and handcuffs on his belt. The military police includes both career and conscript personnel, and is primarily used to guard military installations and supervise military traffic. All military police personnel are trained with basic police techniques and usually receive training for Urban combat, fighting in urban areas. In wartime, the tasks are more extensive and include protection of key personnel and targets, especially against enemy special forces, and surveillance, control, pursuit, arrest and destruction missions. For training, almost all brigades have military police companies. The companies are part of and subordinate to the brigade. The military police has jurisdiction over military personnel, military areas, installations and exercise areas. However, a military police patrol may stop a crime that it witnesses in process in a civilian area. Additionally, if a military police unit is near to a serious crime taking place, such as a robbery or an assault, and the civilian police are delayed, a military police unit that is near to the scene can offer to handle the situation until the civilian police arrive. As with some other Finnish Defence Forces units, the military police can be used to provide assistance to the civilian police when they are undermanned or lack special resources. In such case, the military police may take measures deemed necessary by the civilian police. For example, during the 2005 Helsinki World Athletic Championship Games, military police conscripts and career personnel were placed along the marathon route to prevent the large numbers of spectators from obstructing the runners. Before and during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Finland did not have military police in peacetime, but only temporary ''sotapoliisi'' ("war police"). Ex-police officers were conscripted for police officer duty in the armed forces; usually only the officers had police training. Planning for ''sotapoliisi'' was still unfinished at the break of war, so regular reservists could not be conscripted. Thus personnel had to be recruited without regard to quality; conscripts found unfit for field duty for e.g. health reasons, and even those with previous criminal record were recruited, and the reputation suffered. For a long time, ''sotapoliisi'' existed only in wartime. However, improvement to this came eventually: the military police school was founded in 1963, and civilian police background was no longer required. The crimes committed by military personnel are, as a rule, investigated by the military. Minor infractions are usually investigated by the career personnel of the unit, while more serious crimes are investigated by the investigative section of the General Staff of the Finnish Defence Forces. In minor matters, the company commander or his superiors may use disciplinary powers, but more serious cases are deferred to the civilian prosecutor who will take the case to the district court.


France

The ''French Gendarmerie, Gendarmerie Nationale'' acts as both the military police and one of the two national law enforcement forces of France. Provost missions are assumed by local units for the garrisons of the Armée de terre, Ground Army on French soil and by special divisions : * The 1100 personnel of the ''Gendarmerie Navale'' (also called the ''Gendarmerie Maritime'') police the French Navy, Navy (and also acts as a coast guard and water police force). National critical merchant ports are protected by specialized units of the Gendarmerie Navale, the Pelotons de Sécurité Maritime et Portuaire, Naval and Harbor Safety Platoons''. * The 860 members of the ''Gendarmerie de l'Air'' polices the French Air Force, Air Force fulfills police and security missions in the air bases, and goes on the site of an accident involving military aircraft. This branch is separate from the ''Air Transport Gendarmerie'' (Gendarmerie des Transports Aériens), which is placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the direction of civilian aviation and fulfills police and security missions in civilian airfields and airports. They also perform immigration and emigration checks on military flights. * The 280 personnel of the ''Ordnance Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie de l'Armement)'' fulfill police and security missions in the establishments of the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (France's defence procurement agency) and ensure VIP close-protection for the head of the DGA and a few other high-rankings. * The 50 personnel of the ''Gendarmerie de la Sécurité des Armements Nucléaires, Gendarmerie of the Safety of Nuclear Armaments'', backed by 250 members of the ''Mobile Gendarmerie'' monitor all the nuclear armaments of the French Republic. * The 70 members of the ''Gendarmerie Prévôtale, Provost Gendarerie (Gendarmerie Prévôtale)'' conduct judiciary and disciplinary investigations in foreign garrisons. The Gendarmerie Navale, Gendarmerie de l'Air, Ordnance Gendarmerie and Provost Gendarmerie are placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the relevant military branch. However, for judiciary duties, they are under exclusive command of the relevant court. In addition to the Gendarmerie, ''Fusiliers Marins, Naval Fusiliers (Fusiliers Marins)'', ''Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air, Fusilier commandos of the Air Force (Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air)'' and dedicated regimental platoons maintain order for their respective branches.


Germany

The ''Feldjäger'' is the military police of the German ''Bundeswehr''. The term ''Feldjäger'' ("field hunter") has a long tradition and dates back to the mid-17th century. Their motto is ''Suum Cuique'' ("To each his own", derived from Cicero, ''De Finibus, Bonorum et Malorum'', ''liber V'', 67: "''(...) ut fortitudo in laboribus periculisque cernatur, (...), iustitia in'' suo cuique ''tribuendo.''"). The first modern ''Feldjäger'' unit was activated on 6 October 1955 when the bill creating the ''Bundeswehr'' was signed. The ''Feldjäger'' corps serves all component forces of the German Federal Armed Forces (''Bundeswehr'') i.e., German Army, German Navy, German Air Force, ''Zentraler Sanitätsdienst'' (Joint Medical Corps) and ''Streitkräftebasis'' (Joint Support Service). The Military Police Command has its headquarters in Scharnhorst Kaserne in Hanover and is under the operational command of the Kommando Territoriale Aufgaben der Bundeswehr, Bundeswehr's Territorial Tasks Command of the ''Streitkräftebasis''. The ''Feldjäger'' have three regiments of military police stationed around Germany which are subordinate to the Military Police Command.


Greece

The paramilitary Greek Gendarmerie fulfilled most security and order duties in Greece until
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. In 1951, Law 1746/51 established the framework of the Hellenic Army's Greek Military Police ( el, Ελληνική Στρατιωτική Αστυνομία or ΕΣΑ, ''Ellinikí Stratiotikí Astynomía''). The organization—and particularly its Special Interrogative Department, EAT-ESA—became notorious for its brutality during the 1967–1974 Greek military junta of 1967–1974, military junta. Law 276/76 renamed it simply to "Military Police" (Στρατονομία). Corresponding organizations exist also for other two branches of the Greek armed forces: for the Hellenic Air Force (Αερονομία, ''Aeronomia''), founded in 1945 as the Greek Air Force Police (Ελληνική Αεροπορική Αστυνομία, ΕΑΑ), and for the Hellenic Navy (Ναυτονομία, ''Naftonomia'', properly Υπηρεσία Ναυτονομίας or Y.ΝΑ.) These three forces work together often but are independent from each other. Most of the personnel are draftee soldiers undergoing their regular military service.


Hungary

As part of the Hungarian Defence Forces the Hungarian Military Police (''Katonai Rendészet'') is a military law enforcement organization with duties of protecting selected objects, investigating accidents involving military vehicles, accompanying military delegations and military forces passing through Hungary, traffic control, personal protection of designated military leaders, performing military police duties in international missions, military law enforcement activities in Hungary.


Ireland

The Póilíní Airm, Irish Military Police (colloquially "PA"s, deriving from the official title, ''Póilíní Airm'') are responsible for the prevention and detection of crime in the Irish Defence Forces. Entry to the PA is restricted to serving members of the Defence Forces. All members of the Corps are NCOs, with Officers being transferred in for temporary assignments. Unlike many Military Police Services, they retain responsibility for controlling access to many, but not all, military posts. In addition, they provide a military detachment to the Oireachtas (Houses of Parliament) and have a large ceremonial role. In the past they had a role in training armed elements of the Garda Síochána but in recent times this has decreased. Historically, they were responsible for detaining political prisoners in military prisons (until the handing over of Military Prisons at Cork, Spike Island, Arbour Hill and the Curragh to the Civil Authorities) and in the past occasionally provided firing squads for executions (the last time being the "Emergency" period of 1939–1946).


Italy

The ''Arma dei Carabinieri'' is a gendarmerie force acting as both the military police and one of the four national police forces in Italy. Formed on 13 July 1814, it has been for almost two centuries the senior branch of the Italian Army, until on 5 October 2000 it became a fully independent Service of the Italian military. With a strength of about 120,000, the Arma dei Carabinieri is a very large organization, including its own air and naval services, but most of its personnel is used for civilian police duties. The properly Military Police components of the Arma dei Carabinieri are grouped into the "Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri" (Carabinieri Mobile Units Division), organized as follows: 2nd Brigade: * 1st Carabinieri Parachutist Regiment "Tuscania" * 7th Carabinieri Battalion "Trentino – Alto Adige" * 13th Carabinieri Battalion "Friuli – Venezia Giulia" * Gruppo Intervento Speciale. From these units are drawn most of the elements that form the Carabinieri MP coys, platoons and detachments assigned to all the major Italian Army, Italian Navy, Navy and Italian Air Force, Air Force units, as well as many of the personnel forming the MSU Regiments (Multinational Specialist Units) and the IPUs (Integrated Police Units) serving abroad in support of European Union, NATO and United Nation missions. The Arma dei Carabinieri have gained a very good reputation for the professionalism and organization of their MP units in support of international missions, so much that during the 2004 G8 Sea Island Conference the Carabinieri have been tasked to organize and run the CoESPU (Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units), to centralize the training of multinational MP units for international missions. The 1st Brigade of the same "Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri", organized on 11 Mobile battalions and 1 Cavalry Regiment, does contribute to form the same Military Police components as the 1st Brigade, but is mostly tasked to riot control civilian police duties. During some NATO military mission abroad, the Italian carabinieri contributed to military police operations with the Multinational Specialized Unit. The ''Guardia di Finanza'' acts as a specialized Military Police force when called upon. Its normal duties include being a force acting in border control, customs duties, and police investigations into financial crimes and illegal drug trafficking.


Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the function of military police is performed by the ''Koninklijke Marechaussee'' ("Royal Constabulary"), a separate branch of the Military of the Netherlands, military independent of the Royal Netherlands Army, Army, Royal Netherlands Navy, Navy and Royal Netherlands Air Force, Air Force. Besides performing military duties, the ''Marechaussee'' is also a gendarmerie force. The word ''marshal, Marechaussee'' seems to derive from the old French name ''Marecheaux'' given to an ancient court of justice in Paris called the "Tribunal of Constables and Marshals of France". These constables and marshals were to become members of the Gendarmerie, which served as a model for the police forces of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The term ''Marechaussee'' was also used for the Continental Army's military police during the American Revolution.


Norway

In Norway, military police are service members of the Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy or Royal Norwegian Air Force. Since about 2002, all are trained at Sessvollmoen Camp. MPs in the Army are assigned to the Military Police Battalion, located at Bardufoss, Troms county. The first battalion commander and Provost Marshal of 6. division Norwegian Army was Maj M Langvik, the current battalion commander is Lieutenant Colonel Jan Henry Norvalls. The battalion consists of approximately 50 officers and NCOs, and 150 privates and corporals. Norwegian MPs first go through a six-month selection/educational period, before being assigned to the battalion or to regimental duties with other units for the remainder of their twelve-month service. Norwegian MPs do not have authority over civilians, except on or in the vicinity of military installations, vehicles or other property or under martial law. They do have authority over military personnel, including in certain circumstances reservists, anywhere, including when such personnel are off duty. The ''Norwegian Home Guard, Heimevernet'' ("Home Guard") also has MPs in its ranks. Usually each District (regiment) has one or two platoons, consisting exclusively of former regular or conscript military police personnel. Norwegian MPs wear a red beret and a red lanyard around the left shoulder extending to the left front pocket. Only personnel currently serving as MPs are allowed to wear this. When on official duty, they also wear the MP armband, which is black with "MP" in red letters. It was previously worn on the right shoulder but is now worn on the left shoulder, following NATO practice. They can also wear white webbing, or a number of items for special duties, like high visibility vests for traffic duty, or as mounted personnel while performing motorcycle escort for the Royal Family or their official guests, etc. Army canine units are also assigned to the MP battalion, but the personnel in such units are not necessarily MPs. Such personnel do not hold military police authority, and do not wear the MP insignia. MPs have no other powers over civilians than ordinary members of the public, except inside, or in the immediate vicinity of military installations. More serious cases, like narcotics, are handed over to civilian police for investigation.


Poland

The Military Gendarmerie (''Żandarmeria Wojskowa'', ŻW) are the MPs for the entire Polish Armed Forces, Polish military.


Portugal

In Portugal, each branch of the Armed Forces has its own military police force. The Portuguese Navy has the ''Polícia Naval'' (Naval Police), the Portuguese Army has the ''Army Police (Portugal), Polícia do Exército'' (Army Police), and the Portuguese Air Force has the ''Polícia Aérea'' (Air Police). The Air Police is an arm of its own inside the Air Force, but the Army Police is only a speciality of the cavalry arm and the Naval Police is a unit of the Marine Corps (''Portuguese Marines, Fuzileiros''). A military criminal investigation police, common for the three branches of Armed Forces, also exists, this being the ''Polícia Judiciária Militar'' (Military Judiciary Police), that is under the direct dependency of the Ministry of National Defence (Portugal), Minister of National Defense. Portugal, also, has a gendarmerie type force, the ''Guarda Nacional Republicana'' (GNR, National Republican Guard), that is a special corps of troops that executes both civil public security missions and military missions. In time of peace, GNR is under operational command of the Minister of Internal Affairs, but in time of war it can be put under the command of the Armed Forces. GNR is not tasked with enforcing the law within the Armed Forces. Included in the Portuguese Navy organization also exist two special police forces. The first one is the ''Polícia Maritima'' (Maritime Police), that serves as a coast guard and maritime law enforcement agency in the scope of the civil role of the Portuguese Navy as the National Maritime Authority. The other one is the ''Polícia dos Estabelecimentos da Marinha'' (Navy's Establishments Police), a small gendarmerie type agency responsible for guarding the Lisbon Naval Base and some other naval facilities.


Romania

In Romania, the Romanian Military Police (''Poliția Militară'') carries out police duties for the Romanian Armed Forces. It usually handles military security and military crimes and it has national jurisdiction. The Romanian military police is organized in four battalions (two of them are headquartered in Bucharest, one in Iași and one in Târgu Mureș). The Jandarmeria Română, Romanian Gendarmerie, although a military force with national jurisdiction, is not tasked with enforcing the law within the armed forces (in contrast to the French Gendarmerie, which acts as both military and national police force).


Russia

The Russian Military Police (Военная полиция России) are the MPs for the entire Russian military. They carry out police duties for the Russian Armed Forces. In April 2012 Chief Military Prosecutor Sergei Fridinsky said Russia's military police will be instituted in two stages: first, the integration of the relevant Defence Ministry services and second, granting the new agency investigative functions. In early February 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin signed into law the Law on Military Police, the State Duma adopted on 24 January and approved by the Federation Council on 29 January. During consideration of the bill in the lower house of the parliament, presidential envoy to the State Duma Garry Minkh explained that military police has already been created and running, but its activities are governed by departmental orders. President's initiative is aimed at strengthening the legal framework of the forces. On 27 March 2015, Russian President approved the Official Charter of the military police of the Russian Federation. The Military Police have five main functions: * Maneuver and mobility support operations * Area security operations * Law and order operations * Internment and resettlement operations * Police intelligence operations


Serbia

(Serbian Latin, Latin: Vojna Policija, Serbian Cyrillic, Cyrillic: Војна полиција) The Military Police are considered to be among the best qualified and most combat-prepared organizations within the Military of Serbia, Serbian military. Their responsibilities include counterterrorist operations, combating organized crime, close protection, securing hostages and search and rescue. Specific training is provided for members of special units of the Military Police. Drills for Military Police units, from squad to battalion, are based on their anticipated tactical employment, including training in putting down civil disorder. The Military Police Directorate of the Serbian General Staff, General Staff of the Serbian Military is responsible for overseeing the units of the Military Police. Similar units include: * Military Police Battalion Cobra * Counter-terrorist Battalion of MP Serbian Special Brigade, Military Police Counter-terrorist Battalion


Spain

Each branch of the Spanish Armed Forces (Army, Navy and Air Force) has its own military police (''Policia Militar'', ''Policia Naval'' and ''Policia Aerea'' respectively). They are only recognized as constabularies with jurisdiction over military installations and military personnel. They have no jurisdiction over civilians (except fragrant crime) off of military installations. They are also in charge of the security of military installations, play a role as bodyguards of generals, admirals and other relevant military personnel, provide security services to military transports and police military personnel abroad. The Civil Guard (in Spanish ''Guardia Civil'') is the Spanish gendarmerie force. Along with their civilian law enforcement functions, due to their military nature the Civil Guard is also assigned several functions as a Military Police under the Ministry of Defence (Spain), Minister of Defence, the most important of which is Criminal Investigations in military facilities and vessels, other MP functions include traffic and customs enforcement in international missions.


Soviet Union

The Soviet Armed Forces did not have any units technically named 'military police'. Two separate agencies handled military police duties on a day-to-day basis. The ''Komendantskaya sluzhba'' or "Commandant's Service" of the Soviet Army wore a yellow letter "K" on a red patch on the sleeve to indicate their membership of this service—the "de facto" army police. A second organisation called the Traffic Guard, Traffic Regulators existed within the Rear Services of the Armed Forces of Russia, Rear Services. Traffic Regulators served to control military highway and motor vehicle traffic. Traffic Regulators also wear a white painted helmet with red stripes to indicate their status and either an armband ar patch with the Cyrillic letter "P" (R). In the Soviet Navy and (later in the present day Russian Navy) the role of Provost (military police), Naval provosts was primarily filled by personnel from the Naval Infantry (Russia), Naval Infantry.


Sweden

The Swedish military police are part of the Life Guards (Sweden), Life Guards, stationed in Stockholm. There are two MP companies, the 14th and the 15th companies. The 14th MP company serve a so-called GSS/T contract (two years of service over a period of eight years, the remaining time the soldiers can have a civilian job or study) and the 15th MP company serve a so-called GSS/K contract (hired continually for eight years). The Life Guards are also the seat of the Swedish military police unit (''MP-enheten'') which is responsible for the education of new MPs and is in charge of all MP activities in Sweden. Part of 13th security battalion, which is a counter-intelligence battalion, is also part of the Life Guards and has some soldiers who are trained MPs (mostly corporals and sergeants).


Switzerland

In the Swiss Armed Forces, the Military Police is responsible for law enforcement on military property and for all incidents where military personnel or equipment is involved. Unlike, for example, the United States, a military policeman in Switzerland has the same power to arrest any person that has committed an offense he witnessed or if he has reasonable grounds to believe the person has committed a violent offense. Furthermore, the military police provides protection of Swiss representatives abroad and is in part responsible for the guarding of embassies and foreign VIPs in Switzerland, as well as maintaining personal security for members of the Swiss Federal Council. In addition, the Swiss Explosive Ordnance Disposal Center is a branch of the MP for the disposal of unexploded ordnance and also participates in various demining operations around the world. The professional MP units comprise 758 officers and are divided into four Regions, each consisting of two companies and additional groups specialised on criminal investigations and training. The professional MP maintains a standing tactical team, capable of interventions in Switzerland and abroad, headquartered in Bern. In addition, there are four militia MP battalions with a head count of roughly 2000 men. Each MP Battalion has one tactical company who can be called to support either the primary MP tactical team or cantonal police teams if needed. Unlike regular army personnel, professional military policemen wear olive uniforms in order to provide distinct identification. Militia MP wear the regular Swiss Army TAZ 90 camouflage. Moreover, the (both the professional and the militia) MP is equipped uniquely, armed with Glock side arms, MP5, H&K MP5 submachine guns, the Remington 870, Mzgw91 pump-action rifle and the SG550, SG553 assault rifle (compared to the standard issue SIG P220 pistol and SIG 550 assault rifle). Professional MP units drive Police car, patrol cars similar to those of the Cantonal police, civilian police, but also use MOWAG Piranha, Piranha and MOWAG Duro, Duro Armoured personnel carrier, APCs.


Ukraine

The Ukrainian Military Police (VSP) is the military police for the Military of Ukraine, Ukrainian Armed Forces


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the term ''Military Police'' usually refers to the Royal Military Police. The Royal Military Police is the branch of the Adjutant General's Corps, responsible for policing the British Army (both in the United Kingdom and overseas). The term ''Service Police'' refers to the three separate police organisations for each of the three branches of the UK's Armed Forces: * The Royal Navy is policed by the Royal Navy Police (RNP), the members of which are traditionally known as Regulators (or Master-at-Arms if a Chief Petty Officer or Warrant Officer). :The Royal Navy Police also provides Royal Marines specialising as service policemen. Prior to 2009, the Royal Marines Police was an independent organisation. * The British Army is policed by the Royal Military Police (RMP). :In addition to the Royal Military Police, most British Army units have their own Regimental Provost (RP) staff. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as Regimental Police, they do not have any police powers or policing function, but are soldiers responsible for discipline within their own units. They are normally located in the Guardroom. * The Royal Air Force is policed by the Royal Air Force Police (RAFP). The RAFP provides not only a full Policing function, but they also fulfil a security and counter intelligence function for the RAF and the wider defence community. In addition, each of the three service police has its own Special Investigation Branch (SIB) to undertake investigation of more serious crime and plain-clothes investigations, and use the joint Service Police Crime Bureau operated by the RNP, RMP and RAFP.


Oceania


Australia

In Australia, ''Service Police'' refers to services policing three different agencies: *The 1st Military Police Battalion (Australia), 1st Military Police Battalion is the field component of the Military Police and the Domestic Policing Unit is the garrison policing component. In the Australian Army, the Royal Australian Corps of Military Police also performs the role of a secondary communications network in the front battle zone. Army MP's wear a red shoulder patch with MP in black. *In the Royal Australian Navy, the Naval Police Coxswain Branch performs dual roles of performing general police duties, investigation of criminal offences and a secondary role of ships' coxswain staff responsible for administration of ships' personnel. *In the Royal Australian Air Force, the Air Force Police perform the military police role. The Air Force Police organisation falls within Security Forces, therefore their role is largely providing force protection and enforcing military and civilian laws. Air Force Police members wear either a black brassard or patch with white SP meaning Service Police. The Royal Australian Corps of Military Police train their own working dogs for a more Infantry/combat role. All major crimes committed by or against personnel of the Australian Defence Force are investigated by the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service.


New Zealand

The New Zealand Defence Force Military Police (NZDF MP) is a tri-service Military Police unit formed on 1 December 2014. The three Military Police units from the Navy, Army, and Air Force were amalgamated to form the tri service NZDF MP. The New Zealand Defence Force Military Police comprises military police personnel from the RNZN Naval Police, Royal New Zealand Military Police, and the RNZAF Police. Personnel still maintain their own single service identity but operate under a single Provost Marshal and investigate offences against the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971. The New Zealand Defence Force Military Police operates outside of the normal Navy, Army and Air Force command structure. The current Provost Marshal is a Group Captain who reports directly to the Vice Chief of the NZDF. For all serious and complex investigations that are outside the scope of regular Military Police personnel a specialised unit known as the Special Investigations Branch (SIB) handles all high-profile investigations. SIB personnel attend courses with the New Zealand Police Criminal Investigation Branch. SIB have a similar role to the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service (ADFIS). SIB are also seconded to the NZ Police Criminal Investigation Branch, CIB. New Zealand Defence Force Military Police also provide the close protection function for the NZDF. Only personnel from within the unit are able to attend the Tier 1 course and undergo a rigorous selection process. From time to time NZ Police officers from the Diplomatic Protection Squad and the Armed Offenders Squad have been known to also complete the course. New Zealand Defence Force Military Police also complete NZ Police courses such as Urgent Duty Driving, Disaster Victim Identification, Basic and Intermediate Crash Investigation with the NZ Police Serious Crash Unit, and the Diplomatic Protection Squad training course. New Zealand Defence Force Military Police are responsible for all detainee handling both in peacetime and in an operational environment such as custody and escort of POWs. Military Police are responsible for maintaining discipline at the Services Correction Establishment (SCE) which is located at Burnham Military Camp. SCE is the NZDF Military Prison and consists of guards who are all serving members of the NZDF MP. The guards are responsible for rehabilitation of service personnel who have been sent to the facility as a result of serious offences committed against the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971. All New Zealand Defence Force Military Police are identifiable by the blue and white "MP" patch they wear on their uniform and the blue beret as head dress, the wearing of the Blue beret differs from many commonwealth military police units as traditionally a red beret is worn. NZDF MP wear their respective service dress for each service. During peacetime NZDF MP wear Multiterrain Camouflage Uniform more commonly known as MCU with SRBA vest.


Air force police

Air force police or sometimes known as "Air police" refers to certain units that are part of a country's air force that perform law enforcement duties such as force protection and air patrols, dealing primarily with the enforcement of aviation law at air force bases. It also indirectly plays a part in ensuring the air sovereignty of a country. It serves similarly to military and Paramilitary police (disambiguation), paramilitary police forces around the world and are commonly set up as a branch of a nation's military police or even a separate institution altogether. In some countries, the Air force police are also responsible for conducting
Provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
duties in the scope of a country's air force, such as implementing crime investigation and enforcing discipline/order towards members of the Air force.


By country

* Royal Australian Air Force Airfield Defence Guards * Royal Australian Air Force Security Police *
Canadian Forces Military Police Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atla ...
The Air Force Military Police Group * Air Gendarmerie * Indian Air Force Police (India), Indian Air Force Police * Indonesian Air Force Military Police Command (Puspomau).Video profile of the Indonesian Air Force Military Police
/ref> * Air Apply Japan Air Self-Defense Force * Air Force Police, Royal Air Force Regiment * RNZAF Security Forces * RNZAF Police * Pakistan Air Force * Polícia Aérea * Military police of the Republic of Korea Air Force * Sri Lanka Air Force * Turkish Air Force * Royal Air Force Police * No. 3 (Royal Auxiliary Air Force) Police Squadron *
United States Air Force Security Forces The United States Air Force Security Forces (SF) are the ground combat force and military police service of the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Space Force. USAF Security Forces (SF) were formerly known as Military Police (MP), Air Police (AP), and Se ...
* Venezuela Air Force Police


See also

* Regimental Police * Provost (military police) * Commandant's Service *
Gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

Gendarmerie


References


External links


Hill’s National Guard Advocates Hold News Conference To Protest DOD Bill’s Proposed Decisions On National Guard
{{Authority control Military police, Military life Law enforcement Combat support occupations Military law, Police Law enforcement occupations