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In
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
, a middle power is a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
that is not a great power nor a
superpower A superpower is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

superpower
, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition. The concept of the "middle power" dates back to the origins of the European state system. In the late 16th century, Italian political thinker
Giovanni Botero
Giovanni Botero
divided the world into three types of states: ''grandissime'' (empires), ''mezano'' (middle powers), and ''piccioli'' (
small power The international system is for the most part made up by small powers or small states. While a small power in the international system may never equal or surpass the effect of larger powers, they can nevertheless influence the workings of the i ...
s). According to Botero, a ''mezano'' or middle power "has sufficient strength and authority to stand on its own without the need of help from others."Rudd K (2006
Making Australia a force for good
''Labor eHerald''


History and definition

No agreed standard method defines which states are middle powers, aside from the broad idea that middle powers are states that have a 'moderate' ability to influence the behaviour of other states, in contrast to small power, which have 'little' ability to influence. Some researchers use
Gross National Product The Gross National Income (GNI), previously known as Gross National Product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of Gross Domestic Product ( GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign ...
(GNP) statistics to draw lists of middle powers around the world. Economically, middle powers are generally those that are not considered too "big" or too "small", however that is defined. However, economy is not always the defining factor. Under the original sense of the term, a middle power was one that had some degree of influence globally, but did not dominate in any one area. However, this usage is not universal, and some define middle power to include nations that can be regarded as
regional power In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit ti ...
s. According to academics at the
University of Leicester , mottoeng = So that they may have life , established = 1921 – Leicestershire and Rutland University College1957 – gained Universities in the United Kingdom, university status by royal charter , type = public university, Public , endowment ...
and
University of Nottingham , mottoeng = A city is built on wisdom , established = 1798 – teacher training college1881 – University College Nottingham1948 – university status , type = Public , chancellor = Lola Young, Baroness Young of Ho ...
:
Middle power status is usually identified in one of two ways. The traditional and most common way is to aggregate critical physical and material criteria to rank states according to their relative capabilities. Because countries' capabilities differ, they are categorized as superpowers (or great powers), middle powers or
small power The international system is for the most part made up by small powers or small states. While a small power in the international system may never equal or surpass the effect of larger powers, they can nevertheless influence the workings of the i ...
s. More recently, it is possible to discern a second method for identifying middle power status by focusing on behavioural attributes. This posits that middle powers can be distinguished from superpowers and smaller powers because of their
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...
behaviour – middle powers carve out a niche for themselves by pursuing a narrow range and particular types of foreign policy interest. In this way middle powers are countries that use their relative
diplomatic Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or me ...

diplomatic
skills in the service of international peace and stability.
According to Eduard Jordaan of
Singapore Management University Singapore Management University (SMU) is the third autonomous university in Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one ...
:
All middle powers display foreign policy behaviour that stabilises and legitimises the global order, typically through multilateral and cooperative initiatives. However, emerging and traditional middle powers can be distinguished in terms of their mutually-influencing constitutive and behavioural differences. Constitutively, traditional middle powers are wealthy, stable,
egalitarian Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. Egalitarian doctrines are generally characterized by the idea that all hu ...
,
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individu ...
and not regionally influential. Behaviourally, they exhibit a weak and ambivalent regional orientation, constructing identities distinct from powerful states in their regions and offer appeasing concessions to pressures for global reform. Emerging middle powers by contrast are semi-peripheral, materially inegalitarian and recently democratised states that demonstrate much regional influence and self-association. Behaviourally, they opt for reformist and not radical global change, exhibit a strong regional orientation favouring regional integration but seek also to construct identities distinct from those of the weak states in their region.
Another definition, by the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), a program of the
Global Security Institute The Global Security Institute (GSI) is a largely private (though partly bipartisan), non-governmental international organization with a mission to eliminate nuclear weapons through international cooperation and security. It aims to influence nati ...
, is that "middle power countries are politically and economically significant, internationally respected countries that have renounced the nuclear arms race, a standing that give them significant international credibility."Middle Powers Initiative (2004
Building Bridges: What Middle Power Countries Should Do To Strengthen the NPT
, ''GSI''
Under this definition however, nuclear-armed states like India and Pakistan, and every state participant of the
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
nuclear sharing Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 ...
, would not be middle powers.


Middle power diplomacy

According to Laura Neak of the
International Studies Association The International Studies Association (ISA) is a professional association for scholars, practitioners and graduate students in the field of international studies. Founded in 1959, ISA now has over 7,000 members in 110 countries and is the most res ...
:
Although there is some conceptual ambiguity surrounding the term middle power, middle powers are identified most often by their international behavior–called 'middle power diplomacy'—the tendency to pursue multilateral solutions to international problems, the tendency to embrace compromise positions in international disputes, and the tendency to embrace notions of 'good international citizenship' to guide...diplomacy. Middle powers are states who commit their relative affluence, managerial skills, and international prestige to the preservation of the international order and peace. Middle powers help to maintain the international order through coalition-building, by serving as mediators and "go-betweens," and through international conflict management and resolution activities, such as UN peacekeeping. Middle powers perform these internationalist activities because of an idealistic imperative they associate with being a middle power. The imperative is that the middle powers have a moral responsibility and collective ability to protect the international order from those who would threaten it, including, at times, the great or principal powers. This imperative was particularly profound during the most intense periods of the Cold War.Bishai LS (2000
From Recognition to Intervention: The Shift from Traditional to Liberal International Law
According to international relations scholar
Annette Baker Fox Image:Anne Fox 1995 crop.jpg, up160px, Annette Baker Fox in the offices of Columbia University's Institute of War and Peace Studies, 1995Annette May Baker Fox (1912 – December 26, 2011) was an American international relations scholar, who spent mu ...
, relationships between middle powers and great powers reveal more intricate behaviors and bargaining schemes than has often been assumed. According to Soeya Yoshihide, "Middle Power does not just mean a state's size or military or economic power. Rather, 'middle power diplomacy' is defined by the issue area where a state invests its resources and knowledge. Middle Power States avoid a direct confrontation with great powers, but they see themselves as 'moral actors' and seek their own role in particular issue areas, such as human rights, environment, and arms regulations. Middle powers are the driving force in the process of transnational institutional-building." Characteristics of middle power diplomacy include: *Commitment to
multilateralism In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal. Definitions Multilateralism, in the form of membership in international institutions, serves to bind powerful nations, discourage ...
through global institutions and allying with other middle powers. *High degree of
civil society Civil society can be understood as the "third sector" of society, distinct from government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad ...
penetration in the country's foreign policy. *A country that reflects and forms its national identity through a 'novel foreign policy':
Peacekeeping Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare. Within the United Na ...
, Human Security, the
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizatio ...

International Criminal Court
, and the
Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of ru ...

Kyoto Protocol
The Middle Powers Initiative highlights the importance of middle powers diplomacy. Through MPI, eight international non-governmental organizations are able to work primarily with middle power governments to encourage and educate the nuclear weapons states to take immediate practical steps that reduce nuclear dangers, and commence negotiations to eliminate nuclear weapons. Middle power countries are particularly influential in issues related to arms control, being that they are politically and economically significant, internationally respected countries that have renounced the
nuclear arms race 300px, United States and Soviet Union/Russia">Soviet_Union.html" ;"title="United States and Soviet Union">United States and Soviet Union/Russia nuclear weapon stockpiles The nuclear arms race was an arms race competition for supremacy in nuclear ...
, a standing that gives them significant political credibility.


Self-defined by nation states

The term first entered Canadian political discourse after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
.
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Louis St. Laurent, for example, called
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
"a power of the middle rank" and helped to lay out the classical definition of Canadian middle power diplomacy. When he was advocating for Canada's election to the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international security, international peace and security, recommending the admission ...

United Nations Security Council
, he said that while "...the special nature of anada'srelationship to the United Kingdom and the United States complicates our responsibilities," Canada was not a "
satellite In the context of spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spaceflight ...
" of either but would "continue to make our decisions objectively, in the light of our obligations to our own people and their interest in the welfare of the international community." Canadian leaders believed Canada was a middle power because it was a junior partner in larger alliances (e.g.
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
,
NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD ), known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a Combined operations, combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereig ...
), was actively involved in resolving disputes outside its own region (e.g.
Suez Crisis The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war, also called the Tripartite Aggression ( ar, العدوان الثلاثي, Al-ʿUdwān aṯ-Ṯulāṯiyy) in the Arab world and the Sinai War in Israel,Also known as the Suez War or 1956 War ...
), was not a former colonial power and therefore neutral in anti-colonial struggles, worked actively in the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
to represent the interests of smaller nations and to prevent the dominance of the superpowers (often being elected to the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international security, international peace and security, recommending the admission ...

United Nations Security Council
for such reasons), and because it was involved in humanitarian and peacekeeping efforts around the world. In March 2008,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
n
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Kevin Rudd Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957) is an Australian former politician and diplomat who served as the 26th prime minister of Australia, from December 2007 to June 2010 and again from June 2013 to September 2013. He held office as the ...

Kevin Rudd
defined his country's foreign policy as one of "middle power diplomacy", along the lines of similar criteria. Australia would "influence international decision-makers" on issues such as "global economic, security and environmental challenges".Shanahan D (2008
Time to go global, urges Rudd
, ''The Australian''


Overlaps between great powers and middle powers

The overlaps between the lists of middle powers and great powers show that there is no unanimous agreement among authorities. Nations such as
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
are generally considered to be great powers due to their economic, military or strategic importance, their status as recognised nuclear powers and their permanent seats on the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international security, international peace and security, recommending the admission ...

United Nations Security Council
. Some academics also believe that
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
are great powers, but due to their large advanced economies and global influence as opposed to military and strategic capabilities, yet sources have at times referred to these nations as middle powers.P. Shearman, M. Sussex,
European Security After 9/11
'(Ashgate, 2004) - According to Shearman and Sussex, both the UK and France were great powers now reduced to middle power status.
People in the field of international relations, such as Professor Kirton and Roberto Gimeno, support the claim that
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
is a great power due to its status and membership in the G7 and
NATO Quint , Matteo Renzi Matteo Renzi (; born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy from 2014 to 2016. He has been a Senate of the Republic (Italy), Senator for Florence since 2018. Renzi has been described as a ...
. Moreover, according to a 2014 report by the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS), Italy is listed among the great powers. Although broad academic support for India as a great power is uncommon, some in the field of political science, such as Malik Mohan and Dr.
Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski ( , ; March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017), or Zbig, was a Polish-American Polish Americans ( pl, Polonia amerykańska) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United State ...
, consider
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
to be a great power too.
Strategic Vision: America & the Crisis of Global Power
' by Dr.
Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski ( , ; March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017), or Zbig, was a Polish-American Polish Americans ( pl, Polonia amerykańska) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United State ...
, pp 43–45. Published 2012.
In addition to it, Brazil is sometimes referred as a great power due to its economic power and influence.Heine J (2006
On the Manner of Practising the New Diplomacy
''ISN''
Brazil, India and Italy are also described at times as middle powers. The following is a list of 8 countries that have been, at some point in time since the
post–Cold War era The post–Cold War era is a period of history that follows the end of the Cold War (which represents history after 1991 when the USSR collapsed) Because the Cold War was not an active war but rather a period of geopolitical tensions punctuated by ...
, considered great powers, but sometimes also listed as middle powers by academics or other experts;
the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
, considered by many scholars to exceed the traditional criterion of great power or instead to be a
superpower A superpower is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

superpower
, are not listed: * * * Otte M, Greve J (2000
A Rising Middle Power?: German Foreign Policy in Transformation, 1989-1999
''St. Martin's Press''
* * * * *


List of middle powers

As with the great powers, there is no unanimous agreement among authorities as to which countries are considered middle powers. Lists are often the subject of much debate and tend to place comparatively large countries (e.g.
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
) alongside relatively small ones (e.g.
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
).Solomon S (1997
South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership
, ''ISS''
Clearly not all middle powers are of equal status; some are considered
regional power In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit ti ...
s and members of the
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...

G20
(e.g.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
), while others could very easily be considered
small power The international system is for the most part made up by small powers or small states. While a small power in the international system may never equal or surpass the effect of larger powers, they can nevertheless influence the workings of the i ...
s (e.g.
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
). Some larger middle powers also play important roles in the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and other international organisations such as the
WTO The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
. The following is a list of 52 countries that have been, at some point in time since the
post–Cold War era The post–Cold War era is a period of history that follows the end of the Cold War (which represents history after 1991 when the USSR collapsed) Because the Cold War was not an active war but rather a period of geopolitical tensions punctuated by ...
, considered middle powers by academics or other experts (Members of the
G-20 major economies The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...

G-20 major economies
are in bold font, except for the
EU member states The European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total populat ...
which are attended under a collective membership of the EU): *Africa (6 countries) ** Wurst J (2006
Middle Powers Initiative Briefing Paper
''GSI''
Cooper AF (1997
Niche Diplomacy - Middle Powers after the Cold War
''palgrave''
Bernard Wood, 'Towards North-South Middle Power Coalitions', in ''Middle Power Internationalism: The North-South Dimension'', edited by Cranford Pratt (Montreal, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990). ** ** Ploughshares Monitor (1997

** ** **Gladys Lechini, ''Middle Powers: IBSA and the New South-South Cooperation. NACLA Report on the Americas'', Vol. 40, No. 5 (2007): 28-33: 'Today, a new, more selective South-South cooperation has appeared, bringing some hope to the people of our regions. The trilateral alliance known as the India, Brazil, and South Africa Dialogue Forum, or IBSA, exemplifies the trend … The three member countries face the same problems and have similar interests. All three consider themselves "middle powers" and leaders of their respective regions, yet they have also been subject to pressures from 'Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspective of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. Hamburg: GIGA, 2007.Pfister R (2006
The Apartheid Republuc and African States
, ''H-Net''
Flemes, Daniel, Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA Dialogue Forum (1 August 2007). GIGA Working Paper No. 57. *Americas (6 countries) ** **Behringer RM (2005
Middle Power Leadership on the Human Security Agenda
''SAGE''
Crosby AD (1997
A Middle-Power Military in Alliance: Canada and NORAD
''JSTOR''
Petersen K (2003

''Dissident Voice''
** Heine J (2006
On the Manner of Practising the New Diplomacy
''ISN''
** ** Louis Belanger and Gordon Mace, 'Middle Powers and Regionalism in the Americas: The Cases of Argentina and Mexico', in ''Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War'', edited by Andrew F. Cooper (London: Macmillan, 1997).Pierre G. Goad, 'Middle Powers to the Rescue?', ''Far Eastern Economic Review'', Vol. 163, No. 24 (2000), p. 69.Pellicer O (2006)
Mexico – a Reluctant Middle Power?
, ''FES''
** *Asia (21 countries) ** ** Jonathan H. Ping, ''Middle Power Statecraft: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Asia Pacific'' (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2005). ** Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Raymond Hinnesbusch, ''Syria and Iran: Middle Power in a Penetrated Regional System'' (London: Routledge, 1997).Ahouie M (2004

''MIT''
Foreign Affairs Committee (2006

/ref> ** ** ** ** ** Armstrong DF (1997
South Korea's foreign policy in the post-Cold War era: A middle power perspective
** ** Mace G, Belanger L (1999
The Americas in Transition: The Contours of Regionalism
(p 153)
** ** Jonathan H. Pin
Middle Power Statecraft
(p 104)
** ** ** ** ** ** ** Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', ''International Studies Review'', Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687. ** ** *Europe (17 countries) ** ** Inoguchi K (2002

Caplan G (2006
From Rwanda to Darfur: Lessons learned?
''SudanTribune''
** ** Pratt C (1990
Middle Power Internationalism
''MQUP''
** ** Thanos Veremēs (1997

"Black Rose Books"
** Higgott RA, Cooper AF (1990
Middle Power Leadership and Coalition Building
/ref> ** ** ** ** Kirton J (2006
Harper’s Foreign Policy Success?
/ref> ** according to Yves Lacoste, ''Géopolitique'', Larousse, 2009,p. 134, both Spain and Portugal exert a real influence in Africa and in the Americas. ** ** ** Rudengren J, Gisle P, Brann K (1995
Middle Power Clout: Sweden And The Development Banks
** ** *Oceania (2 countries) ** Tobias Harris, 'Japan Accepts its "Middle-Power" Fate'. ''Far Eastern Economic Review'' Vol. 171, No. 6 (2008), p. 45: 'Japan is settling into a position as a middle power in Asia, sitting uneasily between the U.S., its security ally, and China, its most important economic partner. In this it finds itself in a situation similar to Australia, India, South Korea and the members of Asean.'Yasmi Adriansyah, 'Questioning Indonesia's place in the world', ''Asia Times'' (20 September 2011): 'Countries often categorized as middle power (MP) include Australia, Canada and Japan. The reasons for this categorization are the nations' advanced political-economic stature as well as their significant contribution to international cooperation and development. India and Brazil have recently become considered middle powers because of their rise in the global arena—particularly with the emerging notion of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China).'Hazleton WA (2005

''allacademic''
**


See also

* JACKSNNZ *
MINT MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted ver ...
*
Power (international relations) In international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scienti ...
*
Regional power In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit ti ...
*
Soft Power In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distr ...
*
Uniting for Consensus Uniting for Consensus (UfC) is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) i ...


References


Further reading


Shifting Power in Asia-Pacific? The Rise of China, Sino-US Competition and Regional Middle Power Allegiance
(by Enrico Fels (
Bonn University The Rhenish Friedrich Wilhelm University of Bonn (german: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is ...
))
Weak States in the International System
(By Michael I. Handel)
Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order
(Book info)
Middle Power Internationalism
(Book info)

(A Queen's Centre for International Relations annual report)


External links


Middle Powers Initiative
{{DEFAULTSORT:Middle Power Military terminology Hegemony International relations theory States by power status Political science terminology 16th-century neologisms
Political terminology Technical terminology of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The ...