The metre (Commonwealth spelling
) or meter (American spelling
; see spelling differences
) (from the French unit , from the Greek noun , "measure", and cognate with Sanskrit
, meaning "measured"
) is the base unit
in the International System of Units
(SI). The SI unit
symbol is m.
The metre is currently defined as the length of the path travelled by light
in a vacuum in of a second
The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator
to the North Pole
along a great circle
, so the Earth's circumference
is approximately km. In 1799, the metre was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86
. The current definition was adopted in 1983 and modified slightly in 2002 to clarify that the metre is a measure of proper length
''Metre'' is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use ''meter.'' Other Germanic languages
, such as German, Dutch, and the Scandinavian languages, likewise spell the word ''meter.''
Measuring devices (such as ammeter
) are spelled "-meter" in all variants of English. The suffix "-meter" has the same Greek origin as the unit of length.
The etymological roots of ''metre'' can be traced to the Greek verb () (to measure, count or compare) and noun () (a measure), which were used for physical measurement, for poetic metre and by extension for moderation or avoiding extremism (as in "be measured in your response"). This range of uses is also found in Latin (), French (), English and other languages. Ultimately the word came from the sanskrit "mita", meaning "measured".
The motto () in the seal of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
(BIPM), which was a saying of the Greek statesman and philosopher Pittacus of Mytilene
and may be translated as "Use measure!", thus calls for both measurement and moderation. The use of the word ''metre'' (for the French unit ) in English began at least as early as 1797.
[Oxford English Dictionary, Clarendon Press 2nd ed.1989, vol.IX p.697 col.3.]
History of definition
In 1671 Jean Picard
measured the length of a "seconds pendulum
" (a pendulum
with a period of two second
s) at the Paris observatory
. He found the value of 440.5 lines of the Toise
of Châtelet which had been recently renewed. He proposed a universal toise (French: ''Toise universelle'') which was twice the length of the seconds pendulum. However, it was soon discovered that the length of a seconds pendulum varies from place to place: French astronomer Jean Richer
had measured the 0.3% difference in length between Cayenne
(in French Guiana) and Paris
and Giovanni Domenico Cassini
measured the parallax of Mars between Paris
in French Guiana
when Mars was at its closest to Earth
in 1672. They arrived at a figure for the solar parallax of 9.5 arcseconds, equivalent to an Earth–Sun distance of about Earth radii. They were also the first astronomers to have access to an accurate and reliable value for the radius of Earth, which had been measured by their colleague Jean Picard
in 1669 as 3269 thousand toise
s. Picard's geodetic observations had been confined to the determination of the magnitude of the Earth considered as a sphere, but the discovery made by Jean Richer turned the attention of mathematicians to its deviation from a spherical form.
, the measurement of meridian arcs
had been used by geographers to assess the size of the globe. Since the end of the 17th century, geodesy
has been concerned with measuring the Earth, in order to determine not only its size, but also its shape. Indeed, first taken for a sphere, the Earth was then considered as a spheroid
of revolution. In the 18th century, geodesy was at the center of the debates between Cartesians
in France, because it was the means of empirically demonstrating the theory of gravity
. In addition to its importance for mapping, determining the figure of the Earth
was then a problem of the utmost importance in astronomy
, since the radius of the Earth
was the unit to which all celestial distances were to be referred.
As a result of the French Revolution
, the French Academy of Sciences
charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. On 7 October 1790 that commission advised the adoption of a decimal system, and on 19 March 1791 advised the adoption of the term ''mètre'' ("measure"), a basic unit of length, which they defined as equal to one ten-millionth of the distance between the North Pole
and the Equator
along the meridian
through Paris. In 1793, the French National Convention
adopted the proposal.
The French Academy of Sciences
commissioned an expedition led by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
and Pierre Méchain
, lasting from 1792 to 1799, which attempted to accurately measure the distance between a belfry in Dunkerque
and Montjuïc castle
at the longitude
of the Paris Panthéon
(see meridian arc of Delambre and Méchain
). The expedition was fictionalised in Denis Guedj, ''Le Mètre du Monde''. Ken Alder wrote factually about the expedition in ''The Measure of All Things: the seven year odyssey and hidden error that transformed the world''. This portion of the Paris meridian
, was to serve as the basis for the length of the half meridian connecting the North Pole with the Equator. From 1801 to 1812 France adopted this definition of the metre as its official unit of length based on results from this expedition combined with those of the Geodesic Mission to Peru
The latter was related by Larrie D. Ferreiro in ''Measure of the Earth: The Enlightenment Expedition that Reshaped Our World''.
In the 19th century, geodesy underwent a revolution with advances in mathematics and observation instruments. The application of the least squares
method to meridian arc
measurements demonstrated the importance of the scientific method
in geodesy. On the other hand, the invention of the telegraph
made it possible to measure parallel
arcs, and the improvement of the reversible pendulum
gave rise to the study of the Earth's gravitational field
. A more accurate determination of the Figure of the Earth
would soon result from the measurement of the Struve Geodetic Arc
(1816–1855) and would have given another value for the definition of this standard of length. This did not invalidate the metre but highlighted that progresses in science would allow better measurement of Earth's size and shape.
In 1832, Carl Friedrich Gauss
studied the Earth's magnetic field
and proposed adding the second
to the basic units of the metre and the kilogram
in the form of the CGS system
, second). In 1836, he founded the ''Magnetischer Verein'', the first international scientific association, in collaboration with Alexander von Humboldt
and Wilhelm Edouard Weber
or the study of the Earth by the means of physics
preceded physics and contributed to the development of its methods. It was primarily a natural philosophy
whose object was the study of natural phenomena such as the Earth's magnetic field, lightning
. The coordination of the observation of geophysical phenomena in different points of the globe was of paramount importance and was at the origin of the creation of the first international scientific associations. The foundation of the ''Magnetischer Verein'' would be followed by that of the Central European Arc Measurement (German: ''Mitteleuropaïsche Gradmessung''
) on the initiative of Johann Jacob Baeyer
in 1863, and by that of the International Meteorological Organisation
whose second president, the Swiss meteorologist
, Heinrich von Wild
would represent Russia
at the International Committee for Weights and Measures
International prototype metre bar
Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler
was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society
on April 17th, 1807. He had carried to America a large collection of scientific books and numerous scientific instruments and standards, among them a standard metre, made at Paris in 1799. A long course of special training secured in Switzerland
had made him the foremost practical geodesist
living in the United States
in the beginning of the 19th century. In 1816, he was appointed first Superintendent of the Survey of the Coast
. The creative side of Hassler was seen in the design of new surveying instruments. Most original was Hassler’s baseline apparatus which involved an idea worked out by him in Switzerland and perfected in America. Instead of bringing different bars in actual contact during the process of baseline measurements, he used four two-metre iron bars fastened together totaling eight meters in length and optical contact. As early as February-March 1817, Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, standardized the bars of his device which were actually calibrated on the metre. The latter became the unit of length for geodesy
in the United States.
Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler's use of the metre in coastal survey contributed to the introduction of the Metric Act of 1866
allowing the use of the metre in the United States, and probably also played a role in the choice of the metre as international scientific unit of length and the proposal by the European Arc Measurement
(German: ''Europäische Gradmessung'') to “establish a European international bureau for weights and measures
In 1867 at the second general conference of the International Association of Geodesy
held in Berlin, the question of an international standard unit of length was discussed in order to combine the measurements made in different countries to determine the size and shape of the Earth.
The conference recommended the adoption of the metre in replacement of the toise
and the creation of an international metre commission, according to the proposal of Johann Jacob Baeyer
, Adolphe Hirsch
and Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero
who had devised two geodetic standards calibrated on the metre for the map of Spain.
between the toise and the metre was ensured by comparison of the Spanish standard with the standard devised by Borda
for the survey of the meridian arc
A member of the Preparatory Committee since 1870 and Spanish representative at the Paris Conference in 1875, Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero
intervened with the French Academy of Sciences
to rally France to the project to create an International Bureau of Weights and Measures
equipped with the scientific means necessary to redefine the units of the metric system
according to the progress of sciences.
In the 1870s and in light of modern precision, a series of international conferences was held to devise new metric standards. The Metre Convention
(''Convention du Mètre'') of 1875 mandated the establishment of a permanent International Bureau of Weights and Measures
(BIPM: ') to be located in Sèvres
, France. This new organisation was to construct and preserve a prototype metre bar, distribute national metric prototypes, and maintain comparisons between them and non-metric measurement standards. The organisation distributed such bars in 1889 at the first General Conference on Weights and Measures
(CGPM: '), establishing the ''International Prototype Metre
'' as the distance between two lines on a standard bar composed of an alloy of 90% platinum
and 10% iridium
, measured at the melting point of ice.
The comparison of the new prototypes of the metre with each other and with the Committee metre (French: ''Mètre des Archives
'') involved the development of special measuring equipment and the definition of a reproducible temperature scale. The BIPM's thermometry
work led to the discovery of special alloys of iron-nickel, in particular invar
, for which its director, the Swiss physicist Charles-Edouard Guillaume
, was granted the Nobel Prize for physics
As Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero
stated, the progress of metrology
combined with those of gravimetry
through improvement of Kater's pendulum
led to a new era of geodesy
. If precision metrology had needed the help of geodesy, the latter could not continue to prosper without the help of metrology. It was then necessary to define a single unit in order to express all the measurements of terrestrial arcs, and all determinations of the force of gravity
by the mean of pendulum. Metrology had to create a common unit, adopted and respected by all civilized nations. Moreover, at that time, statistician
s knew that scientific observations are marred by two distinct types of errors, constant errors
on the one hand, and fortuitous
errors, on the other hand. The effects of the latters can be mitigated by the least squares
method. Constant or regular errors on the contrary must be carefully avoided, because they arise from one or more causes which constantly act in the same way, and have the effect of always altering the result of the experiment in the same direction. They therefore deprive of any value the observations that they impinge. For metrology the matter of expansibility
was fundamental; as a matter of fact the temperature
related to the length measurement in proportion to the expansibility of the standard and the constantly renewed efforts of metrologists to protect their measuring instruments against the interfering influence of temperature revealed clearly the importance they attached to the expansion-induced errors. It was thus crucial to compare at controlled temperatures with great precision and to the same unit all the standards for measuring geodetic baselines, and all the pendulum rods. Only when this series of metrological comparisons would be finished with a probable error of a thousandth of a millimetre would geodesy be able to link the works of the different nations with one another, and then proclaim the result of the measurement of the Globe.
As the figure of the Earth
could be inferred from variations of the seconds pendulum
length with latitude
, the United States Coast Survey
instructed Charles Sanders Peirce
in the spring of 1875 to proceed to Europe for the purpose of making pendulum experiments to chief initial stations for operations of this sort, in order to bring the determinations of the forces of gravity in America into communication with those of other parts of the world; and also for the purpose of making a careful study of the methods of pursuing these researches in the different countries of Europe. In 1886 the association of geodesy changed name for the International Geodetic Association
, which Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero
presided up to his death in 1891. During this period the International Geodetic Association
(German: ''Internationale Erdmessung'') gained worldwide importance with the joining of United States
Efforts to supplement the various national surveying
systems, which begun in the 19th century with the foundation of the ''Mitteleuropäische Gradmessung
'', resulted in a series of global ellipsoid
s of the Earth (e.g., Helmert
1910 and 1924) which would later lead to develop the World Geodetic System
. Nowadays the practical realisation of the metre is possible everywhere thanks to the atomic clock
s embedded in GPS satellites
In 1873, James Clerk Maxwell
suggested that light emitted by an element be used as the standard both for the metre and for the second. These two quantities could then be used to define the unit of mass.
In 1893, the standard metre was first measured with an interferometer
by Albert A. Michelson
, the inventor of the device and an advocate of using some particular wavelength
as a standard of length. By 1925, interferometry
was in regular use at the BIPM. However, the International Prototype Metre remained the standard until 1960, when the eleventh CGPM defined the metre in the new International System of Units
(SI) as equal to wavelength
s of the orange
-red emission line
in the electromagnetic spectrum
of the krypton-86 atom
in a vacuum
Speed of light definition
To further reduce uncertainty, the 17th CGPM in 1983 replaced the definition of the metre with its current definition, thus fixing the length of the metre in terms of the second
and the speed of light
::The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of of a second.
This definition fixed the speed of light in vacuum
at exactly metres per second (≈).
An intended by-product of the 17th CGPM's definition was that it enabled scientists to compare lasers accurately using frequency, resulting in wavelengths with one-fifth the uncertainty involved in the direct comparison of wavelengths, because interferometer errors were eliminated. To further facilitate reproducibility from lab to lab, the 17th CGPM also made the iodine-stabilised helium–neon laser
"a recommended radiation" for realising the metre.
For the purpose of delineating the metre, the BIPM currently considers the HeNe laser wavelength, , to be with an estimated relative standard uncertainty (''U'') of .
[The term "relative standard uncertainty" is explained by NIST on their web site: ]
This uncertainty is currently one limiting factor in laboratory realisations of the metre, and it is several orders of magnitude poorer than that of the second, based upon the caesium fountain atomic clock
(). Consequently, a realisation of the metre is usually delineated (not defined) today in labs as wavelengths of helium-neon laser light in a vacuum, the error stated being only that of frequency determination.
This bracket notation expressing the error is explained in the article on measurement uncertainty
Practical realisation of the metre is subject to uncertainties in characterising the medium, to various uncertainties of interferometry, and to uncertainties in measuring the frequency of the source.
A commonly used medium is air, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) has set up an online calculator to convert wavelengths in vacuum to wavelengths in air.
[The formulas used in the calculator and the documentation behind them are found at The choice is offered to use either th]
modified Edlén equation
The documentation provide
a discussion of how to choose
between the two possibilities.
As described by NIST, in air, the uncertainties in characterising the medium are dominated by errors in measuring temperature and pressure. Errors in the theoretical formulas used are secondary.
By implementing a refractive index correction such as this, an approximate realisation of the metre can be implemented in air, for example, using the formulation of the metre as wavelengths of helium–neon laser light in vacuum, and converting the wavelengths in a vacuum to wavelengths in air. Air is only one possible medium to use in a realisation of the metre, and any partial vacuum
can be used, or some inert atmosphere like helium gas, provided the appropriate corrections for refractive index are implemented.
The metre is ''defined'' as the path length travelled by light in a given time, and practical laboratory length measurements in metres are determined by counting the number of wavelengths of laser light of one of the standard types that fit into the length, and converting the selected unit of wavelength to metres. Three major factors limit the accuracy attainable with laser interferometers
for a length measurement:
A more detailed listing of errors can be found in
] [Zagar, 1999, pp. 6–65''ff''.]
* uncertainty in vacuum wavelength of the source,
* uncertainty in the refractive index of the medium,
* least count
resolution of the interferometer.
Of these, the last is peculiar to the interferometer itself. The conversion of a length in wavelengths to a length in metres is based upon the relation
which converts the unit of wavelength ''λ'' to metres using ''c'', the speed of light in vacuum in m/s. Here ''n'' is the refractive index
of the medium in which the measurement is made, and ''f'' is the measured frequency of the source. Although conversion from wavelengths to metres introduces an additional error in the overall length due to measurement error in determining the refractive index and the frequency, the measurement of frequency is one of the most accurate measurements available.
Early adoptions of the metre internationally
Triangulation near New York City
After the July Revolution of 1830
the metre became the definitive French standard from 1840. At that time it had already been adopted by Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler
for the U.S Survey of the Coast
"The unit of length to which all distances measured in the Coast Survey are referred is the French metre, an authentic copy of which is preserved in the archives of the Coast Survey Office. It is the property of the American Philosophical Society, to whom it was presented by Mr. Hassler, who had received it from Tralles
, a member of the French Committee charged with the construction of the standard metre by comparison with the toise, which had served as unit of length in the measurement of the meridional arcs in France and Peru. It possesses all the authenticity of any original metre extant, bearing not only the stamp of the Committee but also the original mark by which it was distinguished from the other bars during the operation of standardising. It is always designated as the Committee metre" (French : ''Mètre des Archives
In 1830 President Andrew Jackson
mandated Ferdinand Rudolf Hassler to work out new standards for all U.S. state
s. According to the decision of the Congress of the United States
, the British Parliamentary Standard from 1758 was introduced as the unit of length
Another geodesist with metrology
skills was to play a pivotal role in the process of internationalization of weights and measures
, Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero
who would become the first president of both the International Geodetic Association
and the International Committee for Weights and Measures
SI prefixed forms of metre
es can be used to denote decimal multiples and submultiples of the metre, as shown in the table below. Long distances are usually expressed in km, astronomical unit
s (149.6 Gm), light-year
s (10 Pm), or parsec
s (31 Pm), rather than in Mm, Gm, Tm, Pm, Em, Zm or Ym; "30 cm", "30 m", and "300 m" are more common than "3 dm", "3 dam", and "3 hm", respectively.
The terms ''micron'' and ''millimicron'' can be used instead of ''micrometre'' (μm) and ''nanometre'' (nm), but this practice may be discouraged.
Equivalents in other units
Within this table, "inch" and "yard" mean "international inch" and "international yard" respectively, though approximate conversions in the left column hold for both international and survey units.
: "≈" means "is approximately equal to";
: "≡" means "equal by definition" or "is exactly equal to".
One metre is exactly equivalent to inches and to yards.
A simple mnemonic
aid exists to assist with conversion, as three "3"s:
: 1 metre is nearly equivalent to 3feet
inches. This gives an overestimate of 0.125mm; however, the practice of memorising such conversion formulas has been discouraged in favour of practice and visualisation of metric units.
The ancient Egyptian cubit
was about 0.5m (surviving rods are 523–529mm). Scottish and English definitions of the ell
(two cubits) were 941mm (0.941m) and 1143mm (1.143m) respectively. The ancient Parisian ''toise'' (fathom) was slightly shorter than 2m and was standardised at exactly 2m in the mesures usuelles
system, such that 1m was exactly toise.
The Russian verst
was 1.0668km. The Swedish mil
was 10.688km, but was changed to 10km when Sweden converted to metric units.
* Conversion of units
for comparisons with other units
* International System of Units
* Introduction to the metric system
* ISO 1
standard reference temperature for length measurements
* Length measurement
* Metre Convention
* Metric system
* Metric prefix
* Orders of magnitude (length)
* SI prefix
* Speed of light
* Vertical metre
* Astin, A. V. & Karo, H. Arnold, (1959)''Refinement of values for the yard and the pound''
Washington DC: National Bureau of Standards, republished on National Geodetic Survey web site and the Federal Register (Doc. 59-5442, Filed, 30 June 1959)
Retrieved 26 May 2010.
* National Institute of Standards and Technology. (27 June 2011). NIST-F1 Cesium Fountain Atomic Clock
* National Physical Laboratory. (25 March 2010). Iodine-Stabilised Lasers
* Republic of the Philippines. (2 December 1978).
* Republic of the Philippines. (10 October 1991). ''ttps://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/downloads/1991/10oct/19911010-RA-7160-CCA.pdf Republic Act No. 7160: The Local Government Code of the Philippines
* Supreme Court of the Philippines (Second Division). (20 January 2010). G.R. No. 185240
* Taylor, B.N. and Thompson, A. (Eds.). (2008a)''The International System of Units (SI)''
United States version of the English text of the eighth edition (2006) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures publication ''Le Système International d’ Unités (SI)'' (Special Publication 330). Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
* Taylor, B.N. and Thompson, A. (2008b)''Guide for the Use of the International System of Units''
(Special Publication 811). Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
* Turner, J. (Deputy Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology). (16 May 2008"Interpretation of the International System of Units (the Metric System of Measurement) for the United States"
''Federal Register'' Vol. 73, No. 96, p.28432-3.
* Zagar, B.G. (1999)Laser interferometer displacement sensors
in J.G. Webster (ed.). ''The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook.'' CRC Press. .
Category:SI base units
Category:UCUM base units
Category:Units of length