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Manufacturing is the creation or
production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
of
goods In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...

goods
with the help of
equipmentEquipment most commonly refers to a set of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tool ...

equipment
,
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * , the delivery of a baby * , or work ** , physical work ** , a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * , an American quarterly on the history of the labor movement * ', an academic ...
,
machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, forces and control Motion, moveme ...

machine
s,
tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back Paleolithic, hun ...

tool
s, and
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
or
biological process Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms ...
ing or
formulation Formulation is a term used in various senses in various applications, both the material and the abstract or formal. Its fundamental meaning is the putting together of components in appropriate relationships or structures, according to a formula ...
. It is the essence of
secondary sector of the economy In macroeconomics Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' meaning "large" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics dealing with performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole. For example, using inter ...
. The term may refer to a range of
human activity Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity ( mentally, physically, and socially) of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairl ...
, from
handicraft A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...

handicraft
to
high-tech High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...
, but it is most commonly applied to
industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype ...

industrial design
, in which
raw material A raw material, also known as a feedstock, unprocessed material, or primary commodity, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished Product (business), products, energy, or intermediate materials that are feedstock for future finis ...
s from the
primary sector The primary sector of the economy includes any industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or se ...
are transformed into
finished good Finished goods are goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economic ...
s on a large scale. Such goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other more complex products (such as
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in ...

aircraft
,
household appliances A major appliance, also known as a large domestic appliance or large electric appliance or simply a large appliance, large domestic, or large electric, is a non-portable or semi-portable machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power ...
,
furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a con ...

furniture
,
sports equipment Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, are the tools, materials, apparel, and gear used to compete in a sport and varies depending on the sport. The equipment ranges from balls, nets, and protective gear Personal protective equipme ...
or
automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumbering regular bicycles A motor vehicle, also k ...
), or distributed via the
tertiary industry The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, This figure illustrates the percentages of a country's economy made up by differen ...
to
end user In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product, such as sysop A sysop (; an abbrev ...
s and
consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or Service (economics), services primarily for personal, social, family, household and similar needs, not directly related to entrepreneurial or bu ...
s (usually through
wholesale Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purch ...
rs, who in turn sell to
retailer Retail is the sale of and to s, in contrast to , which is sale to business or institutional customers. A retailer purchases goods in large quantities from , directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells in smaller quantities to consumers f ...
s, who then sell them to individual
customer In sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, complet ...

customer
s).
Manufacturing engineering Manufacturing engineering is a branch of professional that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the abilit ...
, or the manufacturing process, are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a
final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product that is ready for sale.Wouters, Mark; Selto, Frank H.; Hilton, Ronald W.; Maher, Michael W. (2012): ''Cost Management: Strategies for Bus ...

final product
. The manufacturing process begins with the
product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as
semiconductor A semiconductor material has an value falling between that of a , such as metallic copper, and an , such as glass. Its falls as its temperature rises; metals behave in the opposite way. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways ...
and
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...
manufacturers, use the term ''fabrication'' instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with the
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include
General Motors Corporation General Motors Company (GM) is an Passenger vehicles in the United States, American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, USA that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes Vehicle, vehicles and vehicle parts, and se ...
,
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
,
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final goods or consumer goods is a commodity that is used by the consumer to satisfy current wants or needs, unlike intermediate goods which is utilized to produ ...
,
General Dynamics General Dynamics Corporation (GD) is an American Public company, publicly traded, Aerospace manufacturer, aerospace and Military, defense corporation headquartered in Reston, Virginia. As of 2020, it was the third-largest defense contractor in th ...
,
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personal ...

Boeing
,
Pfizer Pfizer Inc. ( ) is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. Pfizer is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, and was ranked 64th on the 2020 ''Fortune'' 500 list of the largest U.S. corporations by total revenue, ...

Pfizer
, and
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) was an Italian-American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as ...
. Examples in Europe include
Volkswagen Group Volkswagen AG (), known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military bod ...

Volkswagen Group
,
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens
,
BASF BASF Societas Europaea, SE is a German multinational corporation, multinational chemical company and the List of largest chemical producers, largest chemical producer in the world. The BASF Group comprises subsidiary, subsidiaries and joint vent ...

BASF
,
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational s ...
,
Michelin Michelin (; ; full name: ) is a French multinational tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Herita ...
and
Unilever Unilever PLC is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...

Unilever
. Examples in Asia include
BYD Auto BYD or Byd may refer to: Companies * BYD Company, an automobile and rechargeable battery producer in China ** BYD Auto, a subsidiary automobile manufacturer in China ** BYD Electronic, a subsidiary handset component and mobile phone manufacturer * ...
,
Haier Haier Group Corporation () is a Chinese Multinational corporation, multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong. It designs, develops, manufactures and sells products including refrigerators, ...
,
MideaMidea may refer to: * Midea (company) Midea Group () is a Chinese electrical appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Beijiao town, Shunde District, Foshan Foshan, postal map romanization, alternately romanization of Chinese, romanized as Fa ...
,
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese headquartered in , , China. It designs, develops and sells , and various s. The corporation was founded in 1987 by , a former Deputy Regimental Head in the . Initially focused on manufacturi ...
,
Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( , Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencie ...

Lenovo
,
Hisense Hisense Group is a Chinese multinational white goods and electronics manufacturer headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List o ...

Hisense
,
Toyota is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture, Aichi, Japan. It was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda and incorporated on . Toyota is one of the larg ...
,
Panasonic formerly is a major Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state ...

Panasonic
,
LG
LG
,
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
,
Baowu China Baowu Steel Group Corp., Ltd., commonly known as Baowu, is a state-owned State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry, asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, ...
,
Godrej & Boyce Godrej and Boyce, a Godrej Group Company, began in 1897 with the manufacture of locks, then extending to other durables (refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, home security systems and safes, furniture), products for institutions (o ...
and
Tata Motors Tata Motors Limited is an Indian Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing company, headquartered in the city of Mumbai, India which is part of Tata Group. The company produces passenger cars, trucks ...

Tata Motors
.


Largest manufacturers

The manufacturing sector has changed, bringing new chances and difficulties to business pioneers. All the possible largest manufacturing nations in the world have advantages and disadvantages as far as their capacities to take on global manufacturing. Manufacturing will remain the most grounded differential when top manufacturing nations are evaluated on their competitiveness. A new study examination on future worldwide competitiveness, by Deloitte Global and the U.S. Committee on Competitiveness, predicts that the U.S. will displace China as the most competitive manufacturing nation in the world in 2020. The 2016 Global manufacturing competitive index predicts that the best manufacturing nations in the world will stay steady among now and 2020, with some trade of rankings. The Deloitte study requested global CEOs to rank top manufacturing countries regarding current and future manufacturing competitiveness. As per the reports
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
is expected to be in the first spot followed by
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
.


Etymology

The
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th cen ...

Modern English
word ''manufacture'' is likely derived from the
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured ...
''
manufacture Manufacturing is the production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Co ...
'' ("process of making") which itself originates from the
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ...
'''' ("hand") and Middle French '' facture'' ("making"). Alternatively, the English word may have been independently formed from the earlier English ''manufact'' ("made by human hands") and ''facture''. Its earliest usage in the English language was recorded in the mid-16th century to refer to the making of products by hand.


History and development


Prehistory and ancient history

Human ancestors have manufactured objects using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread of , characterized by and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced , , and . Humans are highly social and tend to live in complex s composed of many ...

Homo sapiens
'' approximately 200,000 years ago. The earliest methods of
stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistory, prehisto ...

stone tool
making, known as the
Oldowan The Oldowan (or Mode I) was a widespread stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, ...

Oldowan
"
industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one might refer to the wood industry ...
", date back to at least 2.3 million years ago, with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the sout ...

Ethiopia
within the
Great Rift Valley The Great Rift Valley is a series of contiguous geographic trenches, approximately in total length, that runs from the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon Lebanon (), officially known as the Lebanese Republic,''Republic of Lebanon'' is the most co ...
, dating back to 2.5 million years ago. To manufacture a stone tool, a "
core Core or cores may refer to: Science and technology * Core (anatomy) In common parlance, the core of the body is broadly considered to be the torso. Functional movements are highly dependent on this part of the body, and lack of core muscular dev ...
" of hard stone with specific flaking properties (such as
flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology ...

flint
) was struck with a
hammerstone An example of a cobble used as a hammerstone In archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthr ...
. This flaking produced sharp edges which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers. These tools greatly aided the early humans in their
hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
lifestyle to form other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood. The
Middle Paleolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, lithos - stone), ...
, approximately 300,000 years ago, saw the introduction of the
prepared-core technique The prepared-core technique is means of producing stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many a ...
, where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone. Pressure flaking, in which a wood, bone, or antler
punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat) A punch is a striking blow with the fist. It is used in most martial arts and combat sports, most notably boxing Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing boxing glove, protec ...
could be used to shape a stone very finely was developed during the
Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the is the third and last subdivision of the or Old . Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and years ago (the beginning of the ), according to some theories coinciding with the ...
, beginning approximately 40,000 years ago. During the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
period, polished
stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistory, prehisto ...

stone tool
s were manufactured from a variety of hard rocks such as
flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology ...

flint
,
jade Jade is a mineral, much used in some cultures as jewellery and for ornaments, mostly known for its green varieties, though it appears naturally in other colors as well, notably yellow and white. Jade can refer to either of two different silicat ...

jade
,
jadeite Jadeite is a pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of m ...

jadeite
, and greenstone. The polished axes were used alongside other stone tools including
projectiles A projectile is any object thrown by the exertion of a force. It can also be defined as an object launched into the space and allowed to move free under the influence of gravity and air resistance. Although any object in motion through space (for e ...
, knives, and scrapers, as well as tools manufactured from organic materials such as wood, bone, and antler. Copper
smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore ore – psilomelane (size: 6.7 × 5.8 × 5.1 cm) ore – galena and anglesite (size: 4.8 × 4.0 × 3.0 cm) ore (size: 7.5 × 6.1 × 4.1 cm) File:OreCartPachuca.JPG, upMinecart on ...
is believed to have originated when the technology of pottery
kiln , Wrecclesham Wrecclesham is a village on the southern outskirts of the large town of Farnham Farnham is a market town in Surrey, England, within the Borough of Waverley Borough Council, Waverley.OS Explorer map 145:Guildford and Farnham ...

kiln
s allowed sufficiently high temperatures. The concentration of various elements such as arsenic increase with depth in copper ore deposits and smelting of these ores yields
arsenical bronze Arsenical bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous ...
, which can be sufficiently work hardened to be suitable for manufacturing tools.
Bronze Bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...

Bronze
is an alloy of copper with tin; the latter being found in relatively few deposits globally caused a long time to elapse before true tin bronze became widespread. During the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the , as proposed in modern times by , for classifying and studying a ...
, bronze was a major advance over stone as a material for making tools, both because of its mechanical properties like strength and ductility and because it could be cast in molds to make intricately shaped objects. Bronze significantly advanced shipbuilding technology with better tools and bronze nails, which replaced the old method of attaching boards of the hull with cord woven through drilled holes. The
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
is conventionally defined by the widespread manufacturing of weapons and tools using iron and steel rather than bronze.Waldbaum, Jane C. ''From Bronze to Iron''. Göteburg: Paul Astöms Förlag (1978): 56–58. Iron smelting is more difficult than tin and copper smelting because smelted iron requires hot-working and can be melted only in specially designed furnaces. The place and time for the discovery of iron smelting is not known, partly because of the difficulty of distinguishing metal extracted from nickel-containing ores from hot-worked meteoritic iron. During the growth of the ancient civilizations, many ancient technologies resulted from advances in manufacturing. Several of the six classic
simple machines A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature' ...

simple machines
were invented in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamians have been credited with the invention of the
wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the ...

wheel
. The
wheel and axle The windlass is a well-known application of the wheel and axle. The wheel and axle is a simple machine A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, ...

wheel and axle
mechanism first appeared with the
potter's wheel , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , ...

potter's wheel
, invented in
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
(modern Iraq) during the 5th millennium BC. Egyptian
paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition ...

paper
made from
papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a do ...

papyrus
, as well as
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with and other materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include , and . The place where such wares are mad ...

pottery
, were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. Early construction techniques utilized by the Ancient Egyptians made use of bricks composed mainly of clay, sand, silt, and other minerals.


Medieval and early modern

The
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
witnessed a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth.
Papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper and cardboard, which are used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes. Today almost all paper is Pulp and paper industry, made using industrial machinery, while handmade pape ...
, a 2nd-century Chinese technology, was carried to the Middle East when a group of Chinese papermakers were captured in the 8th century. Papermaking technology was spread to Europe by the
Umayyad conquest of Hispania The Umayyad conquest of Hispania, also known as the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula or the Umayyad conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom, was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar ...
. A paper mill was established in Sicily in the 12th century. In Europe the fiber to make pulp for making paper was obtained from linen and cotton rags. Lynn Townsend White Jr. credited the spinning wheel with increasing the supply of rags, which led to cheap paper, which was a factor in the development of printing. Due to the casting of cannon, the
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of used for to produce industrial metals, generally , but also others such as or . ''Blast'' refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel (), , and ( ...
came into widespread use in France in the mid 15th century. The blast furnace had been used in China since the 4th century BC. The
stocking frame Stocking frame at Ruddington Framework Knitters' Museum A stocking frame was a mechanical knitting machine used in the textiles A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarns or threads, which are p ...

stocking frame
, which was invented in 1598, increased a knitter's number of knots per minute from 100 to 1000.


First and Second Industrial Revolutions

The
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States from 1760 to the 1830s. This transition included going from hand production methods to
machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, forces and control Motion, moveme ...

machine
s, new
chemical manufacturing The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be ...
and
iron production Iron () is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same num ...
processes, the increasing use of
steam power from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...
and
water power Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and th ...
, the development of
machine tool A machine tool is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...
s and the rise of the mechanized
factory system (Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Au ...
. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth.
Textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, o ...

Textile
s were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
invested. The
textile industry The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, ...
was also the first to use modern production methods. Rapid
industrialization Factories, refineries, mines, and agribusiness are all elements of industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian societ ...
first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and
coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen ...

coal
emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the Industrial Revolution's early innovations, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed down and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, and new technologies, such as the
electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. At the sending station switches connected a source of current to ...
, were widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the
Second Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid and from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. The , which ended in the middle of the 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdow ...
. These innovations included new es,
mass-production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch product ...
, s,
electrical grid An electrical grid is an interconnected network for from producers to consumers. Electrical grids vary in size and can cover whole countries or continents. It consists of:Kaplan, S. M. (2009). Smart Grid. Electrical Power Transmission: Backgr ...
systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories. Building on improvements in vacuum pumps and materials research,
incandescent light bulb An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an with a wire heated until it glows. The filament is enclosed in a glass bulb with a vacuum or inert gas to protect the filament from . Current is supplied to the ...

incandescent light bulb
s became practical for general use in the late 1870s. This invention had a profound effect on the workplace because factories could now have second and third shift workers. Shoe production was mechanized during the mid 19th century. Mass production of
sewing machine A sewing machine is a used to and materials together with . Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual work performed in clothing companies. Since the invention of the first sewing m ...

sewing machine
s and
agricultural machinery Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring ...

agricultural machinery
such as reapers occurred in the mid to late 19th century. The mass production of bicycles started in the 1880s. Steam-powered factories became widespread, although the conversion from water power to steam occurred in England earlier than in the U.S.


Modern manufacturing

Electrification Electrification is the process of powering by electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, mo ...

Electrification
of factories, which had begun gradually in the 1890s after the introduction of the practical
DC motor 200px, The PRR DD1, Pennsylvania Railroad's class DD1 locomotive running gear was a semi-permanently coupled pairing of third rail direct current electric locomotive motors built for the railroad's initial New York-area electrification when stea ...
and the , was fastest between 1900 and 1930. This was aided by the establishment of electric utilities with central stations and the lowering of electricity prices from 1914 to 1917. Electric motors allowed more flexibility in manufacturing and required less maintenance than line shafts and belts. Many factories witnessed a 30% increase in output owing to the increasing shift to electric motors. Electrification enabled modern mass production, and the biggest impact of early mass production was in manufacturing of everyday items, such as at the
Ball Brothers Image:Ball Brothers 1.jpg, The Ball brothers from left to right: George A. Ball, Lucius L. Ball, Frank C. Ball, Edmund B. Ball, and William C. Ball The Ball brothers (Lucius, William, Edmund, Frank, and George) were five American industrialists a ...
Glass Manufacturing Company, which electrified its
mason jar The Mason jar is a molded glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and opt ...
plant in
Muncie, Indiana Muncie ( ) is an incorporated city and the of , . Previously known as Town, named after the legendary Delaware Chief. It is located in , about northeast of . The reported the city's population was 70,085. It is the principal city of the Munci ...
, U.S. around 1900. The new automated process used glass blowing machines to replace 210 craftsman glass blowers and helpers. A small electric truck was now used to handle 150 dozen bottles at a time whereas previously used hand trucks could only carry 6 dozen bottles at a time. Electric mixers replaced men with shovels handling sand and other ingredients that were fed into the glass furnace. An electric overhead crane replaced 36
day labor Day labor (or day labour in Commonwealth spelling) is work done where the worker is hired and paid one day at a time, with no promise that more work will be available in the future. It is a form of contingent work. Types Day laborers (also kn ...
ers for moving heavy loads across the factory. Mass production was popularized in the late 1910s and 1920s by Henry Ford's
Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple c ...
, which introduced electric motors to the then-well-known technique of chain or sequential production. Ford also bought or designed and built special purpose machine tools and fixtures such as multiple spindle that could drill every hole on one side of an engine block in one operation and a multiple head
milling machine Milling is the process of machining truck of the US Army with machinists working on automotive parts Machining is a process in which a material (often metal) is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The ...

milling machine
that could simultaneously machine 15 engine blocks held on a single fixture. All of these machine tools were arranged systematically in the production flow and some had special carriages for rolling heavy items into machining position. Production of the
Ford Model T The Ford Model T (colloquially Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual (informal) communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in ...

Ford Model T
used 32,000 machine tools.
Lean manufacturing Lean manufacturing (also known as lean production, just-in-time manufacturing and just-in-time production, or JIT) is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers a ...
(also known as just-in-time manufacturing), was developed in Japan in the 1930s. It is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers and to customers.Shingo, Shigeo. 1985. ''A Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System''. Stamford, Connecticut: Productivity Press It was introduced in Australia in the 1950s by the British Motor Corporation (Australia) at its Victoria Park plant in Sydney, from where the idea later migrated to Toyota. News spread to western countries from Japan in 1977 in two English-language articles: one referred to the methodology as the "Ohno system", after
Taiichi Ohno was a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = I ...
, who was instrumental in its development within Toyota. The other article, by Toyota authors in an international journal, provided additional details. Finally, those and other publicity were translated into implementations, beginning in 1980 and then quickly multiplying throughout industry in the United States and other countries.


Manufacturing systems

*
Agile manufacturing Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. It's mostly related to lean ...
*
Fabrication Fabrication may refer to: * Manufacturing, specifically the crafting of individual parts as a solo product or as part of a larger combined product. Processes in arts, crafts and manufacturing *Semiconductor device fabrication, the process used to ...
* Flexible manufacturing *
Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing (also known as lean production, just-in-time manufacturing and just-in-time production, or JIT) is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers an ...
*
Lean manufacturing Lean manufacturing (also known as lean production, just-in-time manufacturing and just-in-time production, or JIT) is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers a ...
*
Manufacturing engineering Manufacturing engineering is a branch of professional that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the abilit ...
*
Mass customization Mass customization, in , , , and , is the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output. Such systems combine the low unit costs of processes with the flexibility of individual customization.Mass customization is t ...
*
Mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technic ...
*
Numerical control Numerical control (also computer numerical control, and commonly called CNC) is the automated control of machining truck of the US Army with machinists working on automotive parts Machining is a process in which a material (often metal) is cut ...
*
Prefabrication Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated ele ...
*
Rapid manufacturing 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model. The term "3D printing" can refer to a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidifi ...
* Reconfigurable manufacturing system * High performance positioning system


Industrial policy


Economics of manufacturing

Emerging technologies have offered new growth methods in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Rust Belt, Manufacturing Belt in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and also for defense (military), national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing processes may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and Environmental policy, environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and Ecotax, pollution taxes to offset the Environmental impact of manufacturing, environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.


Safety

Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.


Manufacturing and investment

Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: * The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth; * Competitiveness; and * Attractiveness to foreign direct investors. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand.Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009
GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal
. ''UK Guardian''. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007. In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organisation has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda.


List of countries by manufacturing output

These are the top 50 countries by total value of manufacturing output in US dollars for its noted year according to World Bank.


Manufacturing processes

* List of manufacturing processes * Manufacturing Process Management


Control

* Management ** List of management topics ** Total quality management ** Quality control ** Six Sigma ** Production planning ** Production control ** Master production schedule


See also


References


Sources

*


External links


How Everyday Things Are Made
video presentations
Grant Thornton IBR 2008 Manufacturing industry focus


* [https://www.nist.gov/el/msid/infotest/digital-thread-manufacturing.cfm Enabling the Digital Thread for Smart Manufacturing]
Evidences of Metal Manufacturing History


of the National Occupational Research Agenda, USA, 2018. * {{Authority control Manufacturing, Production and manufacturing,