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Manufacturing is the creation or
production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
of
goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...

goods
with the help of
equipmentEquipment most commonly refers to a set of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools ...

equipment
,
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
,
machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being ...

machine
s,
tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back hundreds of millennia, have been ob ...

tool
s, and
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., wit ...
or
biological process Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, propert ...
ing or
formulation Formulation is a term used in various senses in various applications, both the material and the abstract or formal. Its fundamental meaning is the putting together of components in appropriate relationships or structures, according to a formula ...
. It is the essence of
secondary sector of the economy In macroeconomics, the secondary sector of the economy is an economic sector in the three-sector theory which describes the role of manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (huma ...
. The term may refer to a range of
human activity Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity ( mentally, physically, and socially) of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairl ...
, from
handicraft A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand (hence the term handicraft) or by using only ...

handicraft
to
high-tech High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...
, but it is most commonly applied to
industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype ...

industrial design
, in which
raw material A raw material, also known as a feedstock, unprocessed material, or primary commodity, is a basic material that is used to produce goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in par ...
s from the
primary sector The primary sector of the economy includes any Industry (economics), industry involved in the extraction and production of raw materials, such as farming, logging, hunting, fishing, and mining. The primary sector tends to make up a larger portion ...
are transformed into
finished good Finished goods are Good (economics and accounting), goods that have completed the manufacturing process but have not yet been sold or distributed to the end user. Manufacturing Manufacturing has three classes of inventory: # Raw material # Work ...
s on a large scale. Such goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other more complex products (such as
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Lat ...
,
household appliances A major appliance, also known as a large domestic appliance or large electric appliance or simply a large appliance, large domestic, or large electric, is a non-portable or semi-portable machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power ...
,
furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a con ...

furniture
,
sports equipment Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, are the tools, materials, apparel, and gear used to compete in a sport and varies depending on the sport. The equipment ranges from balls, nets, and protective gear like helmets. Sporting equipment ...
or
automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to anothe ...
), or distributed via the
tertiary industry The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing Manufacturing is t ...
to
end user In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product, such as sysops, system administrato ...
s and
consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or Service (economics), services primarily for personal, social, family, household and similar needs, not directly related to entrepreneurial or bus ...
s (usually through
wholesale Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased ...
rs, who in turn sell to
retailer Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or Service (economics), services to customers through multiple distribution channel, channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term ...
s, who then sell them to individual
customer In sales, commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...
s).
Manufacturing engineering Manufacturing engineering is a branch of professional engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and ...
, or the manufacturing process, are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a
final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product that is ready for sale.Wouters, Mark; Selto, Frank H.; Hilton, Ronald W.; Maher, Michael W. (2012): ''Cost Management: Strategies for Busi ...

final product
. The manufacturing process begins with the
product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as
semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists electric curre ...
and
steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appea ...
manufacturers, use the term ''fabrication'' instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with the
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad rang ...

engineering
and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include
General Motors Corporation General Motors Company (GM) is an Passenger vehicles in the United States, American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, USA that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes Vehicle, vehicles and vehicle parts, and se ...
,
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviati ...
,
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final goods or consumer goods is a commodity that is used by the consumer to satisfy current wants or needs, unlike intermediate goods which is utilized to prod ...
,
General Dynamics General Dynamics Corporation (GD) is an American aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications ...
,
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, telecommunications equipment, and missiles worldwide. The company also provides leasing and product ...
,
Pfizer Pfizer Inc. ( ) is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. Pfizer is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, and was ranked 64th on the 2020 ''Fortune'' 500 list of the largest U.S. corporations by total revenue, ...

Pfizer
, and
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate organization that owns or controls the production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Bl ...
. Examples in Europe include
Volkswagen Group Volkswagen AG (), known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany and indirectly maj ...

Volkswagen Group
,
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad. The principal divisions of the corporation are ''Industry'', ' ...

Siemens
,
BASF BASF Societas Europaea, SE is a German multinational corporation, multinational chemical company and the List of largest chemical producers, largest chemical producer in the world. The BASF Group comprises subsidiary, subsidiaries and joint vent ...
,
Airbus Airbus SE (; ; ; ) is a European multinational aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applicati ...
,
Michelin Michelin (; ; full name: ) is a French multinational tyre manufacturing company based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes ''région France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République fran ...
and
Unilever Unilever is an Anglo-Dutch multinational corporation, multinational Fast moving consumer goods, consumer goods company headquartered in London, England, and Rotterdam, Netherlands. Unilever products include food, confections, energy drinks, baby f ...

Unilever
. Examples in Asia include
BYD Auto BYD or Byd may refer to: Companies * BYD Company, an automobile and rechargeable battery producer in China ** BYD Auto, a subsidiary automobile manufacturer in China ** BYD Electronic, a subsidiary handset component and mobile phone manufacturer * ...
,
Haier Haier Group Corporation () is a Chinese multinational home appliances and consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic ( analog or digital) equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. ...
,
MideaMidea may refer to: * Midea (company) Midea Group () is a Chinese electrical appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Beijiao town, Shunde District, Foshan Foshan, postal map romanization, alternately romanization of Chinese, romanized as Fa ...
,
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational technology company headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong. It designs, develops, and sells telecommunications equipment and consumer electronics. The company was founded in 19 ...
,
Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( , Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencie ...

Lenovo
,
Hisense Hisense Group is a Chinese multinational white goods and electronics manufacturer headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List o ...

Hisense
,
Toyota is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign sta ...
,
Panasonic formerly known as , founded by Kōnosuke Matsushita in 1918 as a lightbulb socket manufacturer, is a major Japanese multinational corporation, multinational electronics company, headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Kadoma, Osaka Prefecture, Osaka. I ...

Panasonic
,
LG
LG
,
Samsung The Samsung Group ( ko, 삼성, stylized as SΛMSUNG) is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul Seoul (, like ''soul''; ko, 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the Capital city ...

Samsung
, Baowu,
Godrej & Boyce Godrej and Boyce, a Godrej Group Company, began in 1897 with the manufacture of locks, then extending to other durables (refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, home security systems and safes, furniture), products for institutions (o ...
and
Tata Motors Tata Motors Limited is an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and de ...

Tata Motors
.


Largest manufacturers

The manufacturing sector has changed, bringing new chances and difficulties to business pioneers. All the possible largest manufacturing nations in the world have advantages and disadvantages as far as their capacities to take on global manufacturing. Manufacturing will remain the most grounded differential when top manufacturing nations are evaluated on their competitiveness. A new study examination on future worldwide competitiveness, by Deloitte Global and the U.S. Committee on Competitiveness, predicts that the U.S. will displace China as the most competitive manufacturing nation in the world in 2020. The 2016 Global manufacturing competitive index predicts that the best manufacturing nations in the world will stay steady among now and 2020, with some trade of rankings. The Deloitte study requested global CEOs to rank top manufacturing countries regarding current and future manufacturing competitiveness. As per the reports
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
is expected to be in the first spot followed by
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
,
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
and
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
.


Etymology

The
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th centur ...

Modern English
word ''manufacture'' is likely derived from the
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured ...
''
manufacture Manufacturing is the production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Co ...
'' ("process of making") which itself originates from the
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, when it deve ...
'''' ("hand") and Middle French '' facture'' ("making"). Alternatively, the English word may have been independently formed from the earlier English ''manufact'' ("made by human hands") and ''facture''. Its earliest usage in the English language was recorded in the mid-16th century to refer to the making of products by hand.


History and development


Prehistory and ancient history

Human ancestors have manufactured objects using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal ...

Homo sapiens
'' approximately 200,000 years ago. The earliest methods of
stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistory, prehisto ...

stone tool
making, known as the
Oldowan The Oldowan (or Mode I) was a widespread stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animal ...

Oldowan
"
industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one might refer to the wood industry ...
", date back to at least 2.3 million years ago, with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
within the
Great Rift Valley The Great Rift Valley is a series of contiguous geographic trenches, approximately in total length, that runs from the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon Lebanon (), officially known as the Lebanese Republic,''Republic of Lebanon'' is the most co ...
, dating back to 2.5 million years ago. To manufacture a stone tool, a "
core Core or cores may refer to: Science and technology * Core (anatomy) In common parlance, the core of the body is broadly considered to be the torso. Functional movements are highly dependent on this part of the body, and lack of core muscular dev ...
" of hard stone with specific flaking properties (such as
flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation Sedimentation is the tendency fo ...

flint
) was struck with a
hammerstone An example of a cobble used as a hammerstone In archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthr ...
. This flaking produced sharp edges which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers. These tools greatly aided the early humans in their
hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
lifestyle to form other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood. The
Middle Paleolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identifie ...
, approximately 300,000 years ago, saw the introduction of the
prepared-core technique The prepared-core technique is means of producing stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many a ...
, where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone. Pressure flaking, in which a wood, bone, or antler
punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat) A punch is a striking blow with the fist. It is used in most martial arts and combat sports, most notably boxing Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing boxing glove, protec ...
could be used to shape a stone very finely was developed during the
Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the Late Stone Age The Later Stone Age (LSA) is a period in African prehistory that follows the Middle Stone Age. The Later Stone Age is associated with the advent of modern human beha ...
, beginning approximately 40,000 years ago. During the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
period, polished
stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of Rock (geology), stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistory, prehisto ...

stone tool
s were manufactured from a variety of hard rocks such as
flint Flint is a sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation Sedimentation is the tendency fo ...

flint
,
jade Jade is a mineral, much used in some cultures as jewellery and for ornaments, mostly known for its green varieties, though it appears naturally in other colors as well, notably yellow and white. Jade can refer to either of two different silicat ...

jade
,
jadeite Jadeite is a pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. Pyroxenes have the general formula XY(Si,Al)2O6, where X represents ...

jadeite
, and greenstone. The polished axes were used alongside other stone tools including
projectiles A projectile is any object thrown by the exertion of a force. It can also be defined as an object launched into the space and allowed to move free under the influence of gravity and air resistance. Although any object in motion through space (for e ...
, knives, and scrapers, as well as tools manufactured from organic materials such as wood, bone, and antler. Copper
smelting Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore ore – psilomelane (size: 6.7 × 5.8 × 5.1 cm) ore – galena and anglesite (size: 4.8 × 4.0 × 3.0 cm) ore (size: 7.5 × 6.1 × 4.1 cm) File:OreCartPachuca.JPG, upMinecart on ...
is believed to have originated when the technology of pottery
kiln , Wrecclesham, Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, and Greater London to the northea ...

kiln
s allowed sufficiently high temperatures. The concentration of various elements such as arsenic increase with depth in copper ore deposits and smelting of these ores yields
arsenical bronze Arsenical bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous ...
, which can be sufficiently work hardened to be suitable for manufacturing tools.
Bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminum, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or ...
is an alloy of copper with tin; the latter being found in relatively few deposits globally caused a long time to elapse before true tin bronze became widespread. During the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age syst ...
, bronze was a major advance over stone as a material for making tools, both because of its mechanical properties like strength and ductility and because it could be cast in molds to make intricately shaped objects. Bronze significantly advanced shipbuilding technology with better tools and bronze nails, which replaced the old method of attaching boards of the hull with cord woven through drilled holes. The
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic) and the Bronze Age ...
is conventionally defined by the widespread manufacturing of weapons and tools using iron and steel rather than bronze.Waldbaum, Jane C. ''From Bronze to Iron''. Göteburg: Paul Astöms Förlag (1978): 56–58. Iron smelting is more difficult than tin and copper smelting because smelted iron requires hot-working and can be melted only in specially designed furnaces. The place and time for the discovery of iron smelting is not known, partly because of the difficulty of distinguishing metal extracted from nickel-containing ores from hot-worked meteoritic iron. During the growth of the ancient civilizations, many ancient technologies resulted from advances in manufacturing. Several of the six classic
simple machines A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature' ...

simple machines
were invented in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamians have been credited with the invention of the
wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a hole through which is placed an axle An axle or axle ...

wheel
. The
wheel and axle The windlass is a well-known application of the wheel and axle. The wheel and axle is a machine consisting of a wheel attached to a smaller axle so that these two parts rotate together in which a force is transferred from one to the other. The whe ...

wheel and axle
mechanism first appeared with the
potter's wheel , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , ...

potter's wheel
, invented in
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
(modern Iraq) during the 5th millennium BC. Egyptian
paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre ev ...

paper
made from
papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a doc ...

papyrus
, as well as
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcel ...

pottery
, were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. Early construction techniques utilized by the Ancient Egyptians made use of bricks composed mainly of clay, sand, silt, and other minerals.


Medieval and early modern

The
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
witnessed a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth.
Papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining t ...
, a 2nd-century Chinese technology, was carried to the Middle East when a group of Chinese papermakers were captured in the 8th century. Papermaking technology was spread to Europe by the
Umayyad conquest of Hispania The Umayyad conquest of Hispania, also known as the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula or the Umayyad conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom, was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar ...
. A paper mill was established in Sicily in the 12th century. In Europe the fiber to make pulp for making paper was obtained from linen and cotton rags. Lynn Townsend White Jr. credited the spinning wheel with increasing the supply of rags, which led to cheap paper, which was a factor in the development of printing. Due to the casting of cannon, the
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of metallurgy, metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper. ''Blast'' refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atm ...
came into widespread use in France in the mid 15th century. The blast furnace had been used in China since the 4th century BC. The
stocking frame Stocking frame at Ruddington Framework Knitters' Museum A stocking frame was a mechanical knitting machine used in the textiles A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarns or threads, which are p ...
, which was invented in 1598, increased a knitter's number of knots per minute from 100 to 1000.


First and Second Industrial Revolutions

The
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be ...
was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States from 1760 to the 1830s. This transition included going from hand production methods to
machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being ...

machine
s, new
chemical manufacturing The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be ...
and
iron production Iron () is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same num ...
processes, the increasing use of
steam power from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...
and
water power Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water to produce electricity or to power machines. This is achieved by converting the water's kinetic energy In physics, the kineti ...
, the development of
machine tool A machine tool is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...
s and the rise of the mechanized
factory system (Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous ...
. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth.
Textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, o ...

Textile
s were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
invested. The
textile industry The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also kn ...
was also the first to use modern production methods. Rapid
industrialization Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based ...
first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and
coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata (Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half o ...

coal
emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the Industrial Revolution's early innovations, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed down and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, and new technologies, such as the
electrical telegraph An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until the mid 20th century when it was slowly replaced by other telecommunication systems. At the sending station switches connected a source of current to ...
, were widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the
Second Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technical standard is ...
. These innovations included new steel making processes,
mass-production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch product ...
, assembly lines,
electrical grid An electrical grid is an interconnected network for electricity delivery Electricity delivery is the process that starts after generation of electricity in the power stationPower Station or The Power Station may refer to: * Power station, a ...
systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories. Building on improvements in vacuum pumps and materials research,
incandescent light bulb image of the tungsten Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost exclusively as compounds with other elements. It was identif ...

incandescent light bulb
s became practical for general use in the late 1870s. This invention had a profound effect on the workplace because factories could now have second and third shift workers. Shoe production was mechanized during the mid 19th century. Mass production of
sewing machine A sewing machine is a machine used to sew fabric and materials together with Thread (yarn), thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. ...

sewing machine
s and
agricultural machinery Agricultural machinery relates to the machine (mechanical), mechanical structures and devices used in farming or other agriculture. There are list of agricultural machinery, many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tract ...

agricultural machinery
such as reapers occurred in the mid to late 19th century. The mass production of bicycles started in the 1880s. Steam-powered factories became widespread, although the conversion from water power to steam occurred in England earlier than in the U.S.


Modern manufacturing

Electrification Electrification is the process of powering by electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, mot ...

Electrification
of factories, which had begun gradually in the 1890s after the introduction of the practical
DC motor 200px, The PRR DD1, Pennsylvania Railroad's class DD1 locomotive running gear was a semi-permanently coupled pairing of third rail direct current electric locomotive motors built for the railroad's initial New York-area electrification when stea ...
and the AC motor, was fastest between 1900 and 1930. This was aided by the establishment of electric utilities with central stations and the lowering of electricity prices from 1914 to 1917. Electric motors allowed more flexibility in manufacturing and required less maintenance than line shafts and belts. Many factories witnessed a 30% increase in output owing to the increasing shift to electric motors. Electrification enabled modern mass production, and the biggest impact of early mass production was in manufacturing of everyday items, such as at the
Ball Brothers Image:Ball Brothers 1.jpg, The Ball brothers from left to right: George A. Ball, Lucius L. Ball, Frank C. Ball, Edmund B. Ball, and William C. Ball The Ball brothers (Lucius, William, Edmund, Frank, and George) were five American industrialists a ...
Glass Manufacturing Company, which electrified its
mason jar The Mason jar is a molded glass jar used in home canning to food preservation, preserve food. It was named after American tinsmith John Landis Mason, who patented it in 1858. The jar's mouth has a screw thread on its outer perimeter to accept a me ...
plant in
Muncie, Indiana Muncie ( ) is an incorporated city and the county seat, seat of Delaware County, Indiana, Delaware County, Indiana. Previously known as Buckongahelas Town, named after the legendary Delaware Chief. It is located in East Central Indiana, about nor ...
, U.S. around 1900. The new automated process used glass blowing machines to replace 210 craftsman glass blowers and helpers. A small electric truck was now used to handle 150 dozen bottles at a time whereas previously used hand trucks could only carry 6 dozen bottles at a time. Electric mixers replaced men with shovels handling sand and other ingredients that were fed into the glass furnace. An electric overhead crane replaced 36
day labor Day labor (or day labour in Commonwealth spelling) is work done where the worker is hired and paid one day at a time, with no promise that more work will be available in the future. It is a form of contingent work. Types Day laborers (also kn ...
ers for moving heavy loads across the factory. Mass production was popularized in the late 1910s and 1920s by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company, which introduced electric motors to the then-well-known technique of chain or sequential production. Ford also bought or designed and built special purpose machine tools and fixtures such as multiple spindle Drill#Drill press, drill presses that could drill every hole on one side of an engine block in one operation and a multiple head milling machine that could simultaneously machine 15 engine blocks held on a single fixture. All of these machine tools were arranged systematically in the production flow and some had special carriages for rolling heavy items into machining position. Production of the Ford Model T used 32,000 machine tools. Lean manufacturing (also known as just-in-time manufacturing), was developed in Japan in the 1930s. It is a production method aimed primarily at reducing times within the production system as well as response times from suppliers and to customers.Shingo, Shigeo. 1985. ''A Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System''. Stamford, Connecticut: Productivity Press It was introduced in Australia in the 1950s by the British Motor Corporation (Australia) at its Victoria Park plant in Sydney, from where the idea later migrated to Toyota. News spread to western countries from Japan in 1977 in two English-language articles: one referred to the methodology as the "Ohno system", after Taiichi Ohno, who was instrumental in its development within Toyota. The other article, by Toyota authors in an international journal, provided additional details. Finally, those and other publicity were translated into implementations, beginning in 1980 and then quickly multiplying throughout industry in the United States and other countries.


Manufacturing systems

* Agile manufacturing * Fabrication (metal), Fabrication * Flexible manufacturing * Just in time (business), Just-in-time manufacturing * Lean manufacturing *
Manufacturing engineering Manufacturing engineering is a branch of professional engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and ...
* Mass customization * Mass production * Numerical control * Prefabrication * Rapid manufacturing * Reconfigurable manufacturing system * High performance positioning system


Industrial policy


Economics of manufacturing

Emerging technologies have offered new growth methods in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Rust Belt, Manufacturing Belt in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and also for defense (military), national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing processes may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and Environmental policy, environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and Ecotax, pollution taxes to offset the Environmental impact of manufacturing, environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.


Safety

Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.


Manufacturing and investment

Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: * The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth; * Competitiveness; and * Attractiveness to foreign direct investors. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand.Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009
GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal
. ''UK Guardian''. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007. In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organisation has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda.


List of countries by manufacturing output

These are the top 50 countries by total value of manufacturing output in US dollars for its noted year according to World Bank.


Manufacturing processes

* List of manufacturing processes * Manufacturing Process Management


Control

* Management ** List of management topics ** Total quality management ** Quality control ** Six Sigma ** Production planning ** Production control ** Master production schedule


See also


References


Sources

*


External links


How Everyday Things Are Made
video presentations
Grant Thornton IBR 2008 Manufacturing industry focus


* [https://www.nist.gov/el/msid/infotest/digital-thread-manufacturing.cfm Enabling the Digital Thread for Smart Manufacturing]
Evidences of Metal Manufacturing History


of the National Occupational Research Agenda, USA, 2018. * {{Authority control Manufacturing, Production and manufacturing,