In

^{2} + ''y''^{2} = 1, where the ''y''-coordinate is positive (indicated by the yellow arc in ''Figure 1''). Any point of this arc can be uniquely described by its ''x''-coordinate. So, projection onto the first coordinate is a ^{2} + ''y''^{2} = 1 for all values of ''s'' and ''t''. These two charts provide a second atlas for the circle, with the transition map
$$t\; =\; \backslash frac$$
(that is, one has this relation between ''s'' and ''t'' for every point where ''s'' and ''t'' are both nonzero).
Each chart omits a single point, either (−1, 0) for ''s'' or (+1, 0) for ''t'', so neither chart alone is sufficient to cover the whole circle. It can be proved that it is not possible to cover the full circle with a single chart. For example, although it is possible to construct a circle from a single line interval by overlapping and "gluing" the ends, this does not produce a chart; a portion of the circle will be mapped to both ends at once, losing invertibility.

_{top} mentioned above, a chart for the circle.

_{1} = 0.

^{1}⁄_{''s''} from the second half of the circle example. Start with two copies of the line. Use the coordinate ''s'' for the first copy, and ''t'' for the second copy. Now, glue both copies together by identifying the point ''t'' on the second copy with the point ''s'' = ^{1}⁄_{''t''} on the first copy (the points ''t'' = 0 and ''s'' = 0 are not identified with any point on the first and second copy, respectively). This gives a circle.

^{''n''} is a generalisation of the idea of a circle (1-sphere) and sphere (2-sphere) to higher dimensions. An ''n''-sphere S^{''n''} can be constructed by gluing together two copies of $\backslash R^n$. The transition map between them is inversion in a sphere, defined as
$$\backslash R^n\; \backslash setminus\; \backslash \; \backslash to\; \backslash R^n\; \backslash setminus\; \backslash :\; x\; \backslash mapsto\; x/\backslash ,\; x\backslash ,\; ^2.$$
This function is its own inverse and thus can be used in both directions. As the transition map is a

^{1} × S^{1} and S^{1} × ,1 respectively.

'). In this way he introduces a precursor to the notion of a

^{2}-dimensional disconnected manifold. The

Introduction to Smooth Manifolds

'. Springer-Verlag. . Detailed and comprehensive first-year graduate text; sequel to ''Introduction to Topological Manifolds''. * Massey, William S. (1977) ''Algebraic Topology: An Introduction''. Springer-Verlag. . * Milnor, John (1997) ''Topology from the Differentiable Viewpoint''. Princeton University Press. . Classic brief introduction to differential topology. * Munkres, James R. (1991)

Analysis on Manifolds

'. Addison-Wesley (reprinted by Westview Press) . Undergraduate text treating manifolds in $\backslash R^n$. * Munkres, James R. (2000) ''Topology''. Prentice Hall. . * Neuwirth, L. P., ed. (1975) ''Knots, Groups, and 3-Manifolds. Papers Dedicated to the Memory of R. H. Fox''. Princeton University Press. . * Riemann, Bernhard, ''Gesammelte mathematische Werke und wissenschaftlicher Nachlass'', Sändig Reprint. . **

Grundlagen für eine allgemeine Theorie der Functionen einer veränderlichen complexen Grösse.

' The 1851 doctoral thesis in which "manifold" (''Mannigfaltigkeit'') first appears. **

Ueber die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen.

' The 1854 Göttingen inaugural lecture (''Habilitationsschrift''). * Spivak, Michael (1965)

Calculus on Manifolds: A Modern Approach to Classical Theorems of Advanced Calculus

'. W.A. Benjamin Inc. (reprinted by Addison-Wesley and Westview Press). . Famously terse advanced undergraduate / first-year graduate text. * Spivak, Michael (1999) ''A Comprehensive Introduction to Differential Geometry'' (3rd edition) Publish or Perish Inc. Encyclopedic five-volume series presenting a systematic treatment of the theory of manifolds, Riemannian geometry, classical differential geometry, and numerous other topics at the first- and second-year graduate levels. * . Concise first-year graduate text.

Dimensions-math.org

(A film explaining and visualizing manifolds up to fourth dimension.) * Th

manifold atlas

project of th

Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn

{{Authority control Geometry processing

mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics ...

, a manifold is a topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called poi ...

that locally resembles Euclidean space
Euclidean space is the fundamental space of geometry, intended to represent physical space. Originally, that is, in Euclid's ''Elements'', it was the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean ...

near each point. More precisely, an $n$-dimensional manifold, or ''$n$-manifold'' for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood
A neighbourhood (British English, Irish English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area, ...

that is homeomorphic
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphi ...

to an open subset
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line.
In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are su ...

of $n$-dimensional Euclidean space.
One-dimensional manifolds include line
Line most often refers to:
* Line (geometry), object with zero thickness and curvature that stretches to infinity
* Telephone line, a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system
Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may also refer to:
Arts ...

s and circle
A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. Equivalently, it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is co ...

s, but not lemniscate
In algebraic geometry, a lemniscate is any of several figure-eight or -shaped curves. The word comes from the Latin "''lēmniscātus''" meaning "decorated with ribbons", from the Greek λημνίσκος meaning "ribbons",. or which alternativel ...

s. Two-dimensional manifolds are also called surface
A surface, as the term is most generally used, is the outermost or uppermost layer of a physical object or space. It is the portion or region of the object that can first be perceived by an observer using the senses of sight and touch, and is t ...

s. Examples include the plane, the sphere
A sphere () is a geometrical object that is a three-dimensional analogue to a two-dimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance from a given point in three-dimensional space.. That given point is the ...

, and the torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut or doughnut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle.
If the axis of revolution does no ...

, and also the Klein bottle
In topology, a branch of mathematics, the Klein bottle () is an example of a non-orientable surface; it is a two-dimensional manifold against which a system for determining a normal vector cannot be consistently defined. Informally, it is a ...

and real projective plane
In mathematics, the real projective plane is an example of a compact non- orientable two-dimensional manifold; in other words, a one-sided surface. It cannot be embedded in standard three-dimensional space without intersecting itself. It has ...

.
The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry
Geometry (; ) is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is c ...

and modern mathematical physics
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The '' Journal of Mathematical Physics'' defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the developm ...

because it allows complicated structures to be described in terms of well-understood topological properties of simpler spaces. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations
In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought. An equation system is usually classified in the same manner as single e ...

and as graphs
Graph may refer to:
Mathematics
*Graph (discrete mathematics), a structure made of vertices and edges
**Graph theory, the study of such graphs and their properties
* Graph (topology), a topological space resembling a graph in the sense of discr ...

of functions. The concept has applications in computer-graphics given the need to associate pictures with coordinates (e.g. CT scans).
Manifolds can be equipped with additional structure. One important class of manifolds are differentiable manifold
In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a vector space to allow one to apply calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts (atlas). One ma ...

s; their differentiable structure allows calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of ari ...

to be done. A Riemannian metric on a manifold allows distance
Distance is a numerical or occasionally qualitative measurement of how far apart objects or points are. In physics or everyday usage, distance may refer to a physical length or an estimation based on other criteria (e.g. "two counties over"). ...

s and angle
In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the '' sides'' of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the '' vertex'' of the angle.
Angles formed by two rays lie in the plane that contains the rays. Angles ...

s to be measured. Symplectic manifold
In differential geometry, a subject of mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold, M , equipped with a closed nondegenerate differential 2-form \omega , called the symplectic form. The study of symplectic manifolds is called sy ...

s serve as the phase space
In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space. For mechanical systems, the phase space usuall ...

s in the Hamiltonian formalism of classical mechanics
Classical mechanics is a physical theory describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. For objects governed by class ...

, while four-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds model spacetime
In physics, spacetime is a mathematical model that combines the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects, such as why diff ...

in general relativity
General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity and Einstein's theory of gravity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and is the current description of gravitation in modern physics ...

.
The study of manifolds requires working knowledge of calculus and topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closin ...

.
Motivating examples

Circle

After a line, a circle is the simplest example of a topological manifold. Topology ignores bending, so a small piece of a circle is treated the same as a small piece of a line. Considering, for instance, the top part of theunit circle
In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle of unit radius—that is, a radius of 1. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, the unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Eucl ...

, ''x''continuous
Continuity or continuous may refer to:
Mathematics
* Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include
** Continuous probability distribution or random variable in probability and statistics
** Continuous ...

and invertible
In mathematics, the concept of an inverse element generalises the concepts of opposite () and reciprocal () of numbers.
Given an operation denoted here , and an identity element denoted , if , one says that is a left inverse of , and that ...

mapping
Mapping may refer to:
* Mapping (cartography), the process of making a map
* Mapping (mathematics), a synonym for a mathematical function and its generalizations
** Mapping (logic), a synonym for functional predicate
Types of mapping
* Animate ...

from the upper arc to the open interval
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Othe ...

(−1, 1):
$$\backslash chi\_(x,y)\; =\; x\; .\; \backslash ,$$
Such functions along with the open regions they map are called ''charts
A chart (sometimes known as a graph) is a graphical representation for data visualization, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represent ...

''. Similarly, there are charts for the bottom (red), left (blue), and right (green) parts of the circle:
$$\backslash begin\; \backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm(x,\; y)\; \&=\; x\; \backslash \backslash \; \backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm(x,\; y)\; \&=\; y\; \backslash \backslash \; \backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm(x,\; y)\; \&=\; y.\; \backslash end$$
Together, these parts cover the whole circle, and the four charts form an atlas
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or of a region of Earth.
Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats. In addition to presenting geograph ...

for the circle.
The top and right charts, $\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm$ and $\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm$ respectively, overlap in their domain: their intersection lies in the quarter of the circle where both $x$ and $y$-coordinates are positive. Both map this part into the interval $(0,1)$, though differently. Thus a function $T:(0,1)\backslash rightarrow(0,1)=\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm\; \backslash circ\; \backslash chi^\_\backslash mathrm$ can be constructed, which takes values from the co-domain of $\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm$ back to the circle using the inverse, followed by $\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm$ back to the interval. For any number ''a'' in $(0,1)$, then:
$$\backslash begin\; T(a)\; \&=\; \backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm\backslash left(\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm^\backslash left;\; href="/html/ALL/s/\backslash right.html"\; ;"title="\backslash right">\backslash right$$
Such a function is called a ''transition map''.
The top, bottom, left, and right charts do not form the only possible atlas. Charts need not be geometric projections, and the number of charts is a matter of choice. Consider the charts
$$\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm(x,\; y)\; =\; s\; =\; \backslash frac$$
and
$$\backslash chi\_\backslash mathrm(x,\; y)\; =\; t\; =\; \backslash frac$$
Here ''s'' is the slope of the line through the point at coordinates (''x'', ''y'') and the fixed pivot point (−1, 0); similarly, ''t'' is the opposite of the slope of the line through the points at coordinates (''x'', ''y'') and (+1, 0). The inverse mapping from ''s'' to (''x'', ''y'') is given by
$$\backslash begin\; x\; \&=\; \backslash frac\; \backslash \backslash ;\; href="/html/ALL/s/pt.html"\; ;"title="pt">pt$$
It can be confirmed that ''x''Sphere

Thesphere
A sphere () is a geometrical object that is a three-dimensional analogue to a two-dimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance from a given point in three-dimensional space.. That given point is the ...

is an example of a surface. The unit sphere
In mathematics, a unit sphere is simply a sphere of radius one around a given center. More generally, it is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where different norms can be used as general notions of "distance". A uni ...

of implicit equation
In mathematics, an implicit equation is a relation of the form R(x_1, \dots, x_n) = 0, where is a function of several variables (often a polynomial). For example, the implicit equation of the unit circle is x^2 + y^2 - 1 = 0.
An implicit fun ...

:
may be covered by an atlas of six chart
A chart (sometimes known as a graph) is a graphical representation for data visualization, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represen ...

s: the plane divides the sphere into two half spheres ( and ), which may both be mapped on the disc by the projection on the plane of coordinates. This provides two charts; the four other charts are provided by a similar construction with the two other coordinate planes.
As with the circle, one may define one chart that covers the whole sphere excluding one point. Thus two charts are sufficient, but the sphere cannot be covered by a single chart.
This example is historically significant, as it has motivated the terminology; it became apparent that the whole surface of the Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. While large volumes of water can be found throughout the Solar System, only Earth sustains liquid surface water. About 71% of Earth's sur ...

cannot have a plane representation consisting of a single map
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Altho ...

(also called "chart", see nautical chart
A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a sea area and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land ( topographic map), natural features of the seabed, details of the co ...

), and therefore one needs atlas
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or of a region of Earth.
Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats. In addition to presenting geograph ...

es for covering the whole Earth surface.
Other curves

Manifolds need not be connected (all in "one piece"); an example is a pair of separate circles. Manifolds need not be closed; thus a line segment without its end points is a manifold. They are nevercountable
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbe ...

, unless the dimension of the manifold is 0. Putting these freedoms together, other examples of manifolds are a parabola
In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits several superficially different mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to define exactly the same curves.
One descri ...

, a hyperbola
In mathematics, a hyperbola (; pl. hyperbolas or hyperbolae ; adj. hyperbolic ) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set. A hyperbola has two pieces, ca ...

, and the locus
Locus (plural loci) is Latin for "place". It may refer to:
Entertainment
* Locus (comics), a Marvel Comics mutant villainess, a member of the Mutant Liberation Front
* ''Locus'' (magazine), science fiction and fantasy magazine
** '' Locus Awar ...

of points on a cubic curve
In mathematics, a cubic plane curve is a plane algebraic curve defined by a cubic equation
:
applied to homogeneous coordinates for the projective plane; or the inhomogeneous version for the affine space determined by setting in such a ...

(a closed loop piece and an open, infinite piece).
However, excluded are examples like two touching circles that share a point to form a figure-8; at the shared point, a satisfactory chart cannot be created. Even with the bending allowed by topology, the vicinity of the shared point looks like a "+", not a line. A "+" is not homeomorphic to a line segment, since deleting the center point from the "+" gives a space with four components
Circuit Component may refer to:
•Are devices that perform functions when they are connected in a circuit.
In engineering, science, and technology Generic systems
*System components, an entity with discrete structure, such as an assemb ...

(i.e. pieces), whereas deleting a point from a line segment gives a space with at most two pieces; topological operations always preserve the number of pieces.
Mathematical definition

Informally, a manifold is aspace
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. In classical physics, physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually con ...

that is "modeled on" Euclidean space.
There are many different kinds of manifolds. In geometry and topology, all manifolds are topological manifolds, possibly with additional structure. A manifold can be constructed by giving a collection of coordinate charts, that is, a covering by open sets with homeomorphisms to a Euclidean space, and patching functions: homeomorphisms from one region of Euclidean space to another region if they correspond to the same part of the manifold in two different coordinate charts. A manifold can be given additional structure if the patching functions satisfy axioms beyond continuity. For instance, differentiable manifold
In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a vector space to allow one to apply calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts (atlas). One ma ...

s have homeomorphisms on overlapping neighborhoods diffeomorphic
In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another such that both the function and its inverse are differentiable.
Definition
Given tw ...

with each other, so that the manifold has a well-defined set of functions which are differentiable in each neighborhood, thus differentiable on the manifold as a whole.
Formally, a (topological) manifold is a second countable Hausdorff space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the many ...

that is locally homeomorphic to Euclidean space.
''Second countable'' and ''Hausdorff'' are point-set conditions; ''second countable'' excludes spaces which are in some sense 'too large' such as the long line, while ''Hausdorff'' excludes spaces such as "the line with two origins" (these generalizations of manifolds are discussed in non-Hausdorff manifolds).
''Locally homeomorphic'' to Euclidean space means that every point has a neighborhood homeomorphic
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphi ...

to an open Euclidean ''n''-ball,
$$\backslash mathbf^n\; =\; \backslash left\backslash .$$
More precisely, locally homeomorphic here means that each point ''m'' in the manifold ''M'' has an open neighborhood homeomorphic to an open neighborhood in Euclidean space. However, given such a homeomorphism, the pre-image of an $\backslash epsilon$-ball gives a homeomorphism between the unit ball and a smaller neighborhood of ''m'', so this is no loss of generality. For topological or differentiable manifolds, one can also ask that every point have a neighborhood homeomorphic to all of Euclidean space (as this is diffeomorphic to the unit ball), but this cannot be done for complex manifold
In differential geometry and complex geometry, a complex manifold is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disc in \mathbb^n, such that the transition maps are holomorphic.
The term complex manifold is variously used to mean a ...

s, as the complex unit ball is not holomorphic to complex space.
Generally manifolds are taken to have a fixed dimension (the space must be locally homeomorphic to a fixed ''n''-ball), and such a space is called an ''n''-manifold; however, some authors admit manifolds where different points can have different dimension
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus, a line has a dimension of one (1D) because only one coord ...

s. If a manifold has a fixed dimension, it is called a pure manifold. For example, the (surface of a) sphere has a constant dimension of 2 and is therefore a pure manifold whereas the disjoint union
In mathematics, a disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets (A_i : i\in I) is a set A, often denoted by \bigsqcup_ A_i, with an injection of each A_i into A, such that the images of these injections form a partition of A ( ...

of a sphere and a line in three-dimensional space is ''not'' a pure manifold. Since dimension is a local invariant (i.e. the map sending each point to the dimension of its neighbourhood over which a chart is defined, is locally constant), each connected component has a fixed dimension.
Sheaf-theoretically, a manifold is a locally ringed space
In mathematics, a ringed space is a family of (commutative) rings parametrized by open subsets of a topological space together with ring homomorphisms that play roles of restrictions. Precisely, it is a topological space equipped with a sheaf of ...

, whose structure sheaf is locally isomorphic to the sheaf of continuous (or differentiable, or complex-analytic, etc.) functions on Euclidean space. This definition is mostly used when discussing analytic manifolds in algebraic geometry
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly from commutative algebra, for solving geometric ...

.
Charts, atlases, and transition maps

The spherical Earth is navigated using flat maps or charts, collected in an atlas. Similarly, a differentiable manifold can be described using mathematical maps, called ''coordinate charts'', collected in a mathematical ''atlas''. It is not generally possible to describe a manifold with just one chart, because the global structure of the manifold is different from the simple structure of the charts. For example, no single flat map can represent the entire Earth without separation of adjacent features across the map's boundaries or duplication of coverage. When a manifold is constructed from multiple overlapping charts, the regions where they overlap carry information essential to understanding the global structure.Charts

A ''coordinate map'', a ''coordinate chart'', or simply a ''chart'', of a manifold is an invertible map between a subset of the manifold and a simple space such that both the map and its inverse preserve the desired structure. For a topological manifold, the simple space is a subset of some Euclidean space $\backslash R^n$ and interest focuses on the topological structure. This structure is preserved byhomeomorphisms
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphi ...

, invertible maps that are continuous in both directions.
In the case of a differentiable manifold, a set of ''charts'' called an ''atlas'' allows us to do calculus on manifolds. Polar coordinates
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point (analogous to the ...

, for example, form a chart for the plane $\backslash R^2$ minus the positive ''x''-axis and the origin. Another example of a chart is the map χAtlases

The description of most manifolds requires more than one chart. A specific collection of charts which covers a manifold is called an ''atlas
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or of a region of Earth.
Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats. In addition to presenting geograph ...

''. An atlas is not unique as all manifolds can be covered in multiple ways using different combinations of charts. Two atlases are said to be equivalent if their union is also an atlas.
The atlas containing all possible charts consistent with a given atlas is called the ''maximal atlas'' (i.e. an equivalence class containing that given atlas). Unlike an ordinary atlas, the maximal atlas of a given manifold is unique. Though useful for definitions, it is an abstract object and not used directly (e.g. in calculations).
Transition maps

Charts in an atlas may overlap and a single point of a manifold may be represented in several charts. If two charts overlap, parts of them represent the same region of the manifold, just as a map of Europe and a map of Russia may both contain Moscow. Given two overlapping charts, a ''transition function'' can be defined which goes from an open ball in $\backslash R^n$ to the manifold and then back to another (or perhaps the same) open ball in $\backslash R^n$. The resultant map, like the map ''T'' in the circle example above, is called a ''change of coordinates'', a ''coordinate transformation'', a ''transition function'', or a ''transition map''.Additional structure

An atlas can also be used to define additional structure on the manifold. The structure is first defined on each chart separately. If all transition maps are compatible with this structure, the structure transfers to the manifold. This is the standard way differentiable manifolds are defined. If the transition functions of an atlas for a topological manifold preserve the natural differential structure of $\backslash R^n$ (that is, if they arediffeomorphism
In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another such that both the function and its inverse are differentiable.
Definition
Given ...

s), the differential structure transfers to the manifold and turns it into a differentiable manifold. Complex manifold
In differential geometry and complex geometry, a complex manifold is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disc in \mathbb^n, such that the transition maps are holomorphic.
The term complex manifold is variously used to mean a ...

s are introduced in an analogous way by requiring that the transition functions of an atlas are holomorphic function
In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is complex differentiable in a neighbourhood of each point in a domain in complex coordinate space . The existence of a complex der ...

s. For symplectic manifold
In differential geometry, a subject of mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold, M , equipped with a closed nondegenerate differential 2-form \omega , called the symplectic form. The study of symplectic manifolds is called sy ...

s, the transition functions must be symplectomorphism
In mathematics, a symplectomorphism or symplectic map is an isomorphism in the category of symplectic manifolds. In classical mechanics, a symplectomorphism represents a transformation of phase space that is volume-preserving and preserves the s ...

s.
The structure on the manifold depends on the atlas, but sometimes different atlases can be said to give rise to the same structure. Such atlases are called ''compatible''.
These notions are made precise in general through the use of pseudogroups.
Manifold with boundary

A manifold with boundary is a manifold with an edge. For example, a sheet of paper is a2-manifold
In the part of mathematics referred to as topology, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold. Some surfaces arise as the boundaries of three-dimensional solids; for example, the sphere is the boundary of the solid ball. Other surfaces arise as ...

with a 1-dimensional boundary. The boundary of an ''n''-manifold with boundary is an -manifold. A disk (circle plus interior) is a 2-manifold with boundary. Its boundary is a circle, a 1-manifold. A square
In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90- degree angles, π/2 radian angles, or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle with two equal-lengt ...

with interior is also a 2-manifold with boundary. A ball
A ball is a round object (usually spherical, but can sometimes be ovoid) with several uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can also be used ...

(sphere plus interior) is a 3-manifold with boundary. Its boundary is a sphere, a 2-manifold. (Do not confuse with Boundary (topology)
In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset of a topological space is the set of points in the closure of not belonging to the interior of . An element of the boundary of is called a boundary point of . The term bound ...

).
In technical language, a manifold with boundary is a space containing both interior points and boundary points. Every interior point has a neighborhood homeomorphic to the open ''n''-ball Every boundary point has a neighborhood homeomorphic to the "half" ''n''-ball . The homeomorphism must send each boundary point to a point with ''x''Boundary and interior

Let ''M'' be a manifold with boundary. The interior of ''M'', denoted Int ''M'', is the set of points in ''M'' which have neighborhoods homeomorphic to an open subset of $\backslash R^n$. The boundary of ''M'', denoted ∂''M'', is thecomplement
A complement is something that completes something else.
Complement may refer specifically to:
The arts
* Complement (music), an interval that, when added to another, spans an octave
** Aggregate complementation, the separation of pitch-clas ...

of Int''M'' in ''M''. The boundary points can be characterized as those points which land on the boundary hyperplane of $\backslash R^n\_+$ under some coordinate chart.
If ''M'' is a manifold with boundary of dimension ''n'', then Int''M'' is a manifold (without boundary) of dimension ''n'' and ∂''M'' is a manifold (without boundary) of dimension .
Construction

A single manifold can be constructed in different ways, each stressing a different aspect of the manifold, thereby leading to a slightly different viewpoint.Charts

Perhaps the simplest way to construct a manifold is the one used in the example above of the circle. First, a subset of $\backslash R^2$ is identified, and then an atlas covering this subset is constructed. The concept of ''manifold'' grew historically from constructions like this. Here is another example, applying this method to the construction of a sphere:Sphere with charts

A sphere can be treated in almost the same way as the circle. In mathematics a sphere is just the surface (not the solid interior), which can be defined as a subset of $\backslash R^3$: $$S\; =\; \backslash left\backslash .$$ The sphere is two-dimensional, so each chart will map part of the sphere to an open subset of $\backslash R^2$. Consider the northern hemisphere, which is the part with positive ''z'' coordinate (coloured red in the picture on the right). The function defined by $$\backslash chi(x,\; y,\; z)\; =\; (x,\; y),\backslash $$ maps the northern hemisphere to the openunit disc
In mathematics, the open unit disk (or disc) around ''P'' (where ''P'' is a given point in the plane), is the set of points whose distance from ''P'' is less than 1:
:D_1(P) = \.\,
The closed unit disk around ''P'' is the set of points whose d ...

by projecting it on the (''x'', ''y'') plane. A similar chart exists for the southern hemisphere. Together with two charts projecting on the (''x'', ''z'') plane and two charts projecting on the (''y'', ''z'') plane, an atlas of six charts is obtained which covers the entire sphere.
This can be easily generalized to higher-dimensional spheres.
Patchwork

A manifold can be constructed by gluing together pieces in a consistent manner, making them into overlapping charts. This construction is possible for any manifold and hence it is often used as a characterisation, especially for differentiable and Riemannian manifolds. It focuses on an atlas, as the patches naturally provide charts, and since there is no exterior space involved it leads to an intrinsic view of the manifold. The manifold is constructed by specifying an atlas, which is itself defined by transition maps. A point of the manifold is therefore anequivalence class
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation), then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes. These equivalence classes are constructed so that elements ...

of points which are mapped to each other by transition maps. Charts map equivalence classes to points of a single patch. There are usually strong demands on the consistency of the transition maps. For topological manifolds they are required to be homeomorphisms; if they are also diffeomorphisms, the resulting manifold is a differentiable manifold.
This can be illustrated with the transition map ''t'' = Intrinsic and extrinsic view

The first construction and this construction are very similar, but represent rather different points of view. In the first construction, the manifold is seen as embedded in some Euclidean space. This is the ''extrinsic view''. When a manifold is viewed in this way, it is easy to use intuition from Euclidean spaces to define additional structure. For example, in a Euclidean space, it is always clear whether a vector at some point istangential
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve. Mor ...

or normal to some surface through that point.
The patchwork construction does not use any embedding, but simply views the manifold as a topological space by itself. This abstract point of view is called the ''intrinsic view''. It can make it harder to imagine what a tangent vector might be, and there is no intrinsic notion of a normal bundle, but instead there is an intrinsic stable normal bundle.
''n''-Sphere as a patchwork

The ''n''-sphere Ssmooth function
In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of continuous derivatives it has over some domain, called ''differentiability class''. At the very minimum, a function could be considered smooth i ...

, this atlas defines a smooth manifold.
In the case ''n'' = 1, the example simplifies to the circle example given earlier.
Identifying points of a manifold

It is possible to define different points of a manifold to be same. This can be visualized as gluing these points together in a single point, forming a quotient space. There is, however, no reason to expect such quotient spaces to be manifolds. Among the possible quotient spaces that are not necessarily manifolds,orbifold
In the mathematical disciplines of topology and geometry, an orbifold (for "orbit-manifold") is a generalization of a manifold. Roughly speaking, an orbifold is a topological space which is locally a finite group quotient of a Euclidean space.
D ...

s and CW complex
A CW complex (also called cellular complex or cell complex) is a kind of a topological space that is particularly important in algebraic topology. It was introduced by J. H. C. Whitehead (open access) to meet the needs of homotopy theory. This c ...

es are considered to be relatively well-behaved
In mathematics, when a mathematical phenomenon runs counter to some intuition, then the phenomenon is sometimes called pathological. On the other hand, if a phenomenon does not run counter to intuition,
it is sometimes called well-behaved. Th ...

. An example of a quotient space of a manifold that is also a manifold is the real projective space, identified as a quotient space of the corresponding sphere.
One method of identifying points (gluing them together) is through a right (or left) action of a group
A group is a number of persons or things that are located, gathered, or classed together.
Groups of people
* Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity
* Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic ide ...

, which acts
The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum) is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian Church and the spread of its message ...

on the manifold. Two points are identified if one is moved onto the other by some group element. If ''M'' is the manifold and ''G'' is the group, the resulting quotient space is denoted by ''M'' / ''G'' (or ''G'' \ ''M'').
Manifolds which can be constructed by identifying points include tori and real projective spaces (starting with a plane and a sphere, respectively).
Gluing along boundaries

Two manifolds with boundaries can be glued together along a boundary. If this is done the right way, the result is also a manifold. Similarly, two boundaries of a single manifold can be glued together. Formally, the gluing is defined by abijection
In mathematics, a bijection, also known as a bijective function, one-to-one correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other ...

between the two boundaries. Two points are identified when they are mapped onto each other. For a topological manifold, this bijection should be a homeomorphism, otherwise the result will not be a topological manifold. Similarly, for a differentiable manifold, it has to be a diffeomorphism. For other manifolds, other structures should be preserved.
A finite cylinder may be constructed as a manifold by starting with a strip ,1nbsp;× ,1and gluing a pair of opposite edges on the boundary by a suitable diffeomorphism. A projective plane
In mathematics, a projective plane is a geometric structure that extends the concept of a plane. In the ordinary Euclidean plane, two lines typically intersect in a single point, but there are some pairs of lines (namely, parallel lines) that do ...

may be obtained by gluing a sphere with a hole in it to a Möbius strip
In mathematics, a Möbius strip, Möbius band, or Möbius loop is a surface that can be formed by attaching the ends of a strip of paper together with a half-twist. As a mathematical object, it was discovered by Johann Benedict Listing and A ...

along their respective circular boundaries.
Cartesian products

TheCartesian product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of set-builder notation, that is
: A\ti ...

of manifolds is also a manifold.
The dimension of the product manifold is the sum of the dimensions of its factors. Its topology is the product topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the Cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology. This topology differs from another, perhaps more natural-seemi ...

, and a Cartesian product of charts is a chart for the product manifold. Thus, an atlas for the product manifold can be constructed using atlases for its factors. If these atlases define a differential structure on the factors, the corresponding atlas defines a differential structure on the product manifold. The same is true for any other structure defined on the factors. If one of the factors has a boundary, the product manifold also has a boundary. Cartesian products may be used to construct tori and finite cylinder
A cylinder (from ) has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. In elementary geometry, it is considered a prism with a circle as its base.
A cylinder may also be defined as an inf ...

s, for example, as SHistory

The study of manifolds combines many important areas of mathematics: it generalizes concepts such ascurve
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line, but that does not have to be straight.
Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point. This is the definition that ...

s and surfaces as well as ideas from linear algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as:
:a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b,
linear maps such as:
:(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n,
and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices ...

and topology.
Early development

Before the modern concept of a manifold there were several important results.Non-Euclidean geometry
In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those that specify Euclidean geometry. As Euclidean geometry lies at the intersection of metric geometry and affine geometry, non-Euclidean g ...

considers spaces where Euclid
Euclid (; grc-gre, Εὐκλείδης; BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the '' Elements'' treatise, which established the foundations of ...

's parallel postulate
In geometry, the parallel postulate, also called Euclid's fifth postulate because it is the fifth postulate in Euclid's ''Elements'', is a distinctive axiom in Euclidean geometry. It states that, in two-dimensional geometry:
''If a line segment ...

fails. Saccheri
Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (; 5 September 1667 – 25 October 1733) was an Italian Jesuit priest, scholastic philosopher, and mathematician.
Saccheri was born in Sanremo. He entered the Jesuit order in 1685 and was ordained as a priest in 1694. ...

first studied such geometries in 1733, but sought only to disprove them. Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes refer ...

, Bolyai and Lobachevsky
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky ( rus, Никола́й Ива́нович Лобаче́вский, p=nʲikɐˈlaj ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ləbɐˈtɕɛfskʲɪj, a=Ru-Nikolai_Ivanovich_Lobachevsky.ogg; – ) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, kn ...

independently discovered them 100 years later. Their research uncovered two types of spaces whose geometric structures differ from that of classical Euclidean space; these gave rise to hyperbolic geometry
In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry (also called Lobachevskian geometry or Bolyai– Lobachevskian geometry) is a non-Euclidean geometry. The parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced with:
:For any given line ''R'' and point ''P ...

and elliptic geometry
Elliptic geometry is an example of a geometry in which Euclid's parallel postulate does not hold. Instead, as in spherical geometry, there are no parallel lines since any two lines must intersect. However, unlike in spherical geometry, two lines a ...

. In the modern theory of manifolds, these notions correspond to Riemannian manifolds with constant negative and positive curvature
In mathematics, curvature is any of several strongly related concepts in geometry. Intuitively, the curvature is the amount by which a curve deviates from being a straight line, or a surface deviates from being a plane.
For curves, the canon ...

, respectively.
Carl Friedrich Gauss may have been the first to consider abstract spaces as mathematical objects in their own right. His theorema egregium gives a method for computing the curvature of a surface
A surface, as the term is most generally used, is the outermost or uppermost layer of a physical object or space. It is the portion or region of the object that can first be perceived by an observer using the senses of sight and touch, and is t ...

without considering the ambient space in which the surface lies. Such a surface would, in modern terminology, be called a manifold; and in modern terms, the theorem proved that the curvature of the surface is an intrinsic property. Manifold theory has come to focus exclusively on these intrinsic properties (or invariants), while largely ignoring the extrinsic properties of the ambient space.
Another, more topological example of an intrinsic property
Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, ...

of a manifold is its Euler characteristic
In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space ...

. Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler ( , ; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in ...

showed that for a convex polytope
In elementary geometry, a polytope is a geometric object with flat sides ('' faces''). Polytopes are the generalization of three-dimensional polyhedra to any number of dimensions. Polytopes may exist in any general number of dimensions as an ...

in the three-dimensional Euclidean space with ''V'' vertices (or corners), ''E'' edges, and ''F'' faces,$$V\; -\; E\; +\; F\; =\; 2.\backslash $$The same formula will hold if we project the vertices and edges of the polytope onto a sphere, creating a topological map
In cartography and geology, a topological map is a type of diagram that has been simplified so that only vital information remains and unnecessary detail has been removed. These maps lack scale, also distance and direction are subject to change a ...

with ''V'' vertices, ''E'' edges, and ''F'' faces, and in fact, will remain true for any spherical map, even if it does not arise from any convex polytope. Thus 2 is a topological invariant of the sphere, called its Euler characteristic. On the other hand, a torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut or doughnut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle.
If the axis of revolution does no ...

can be sliced open by its 'parallel' and 'meridian' circles, creating a map with ''V'' = 1 vertex, ''E'' = 2 edges, and ''F'' = 1 face. Thus the Euler characteristic of the torus is 1 − 2 + 1 = 0. The Euler characteristic of other surfaces is a useful topological invariant
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space that is invariant under homeomorphisms. Alternatively, a topological property is a proper class of topological space ...

, which can be extended to higher dimensions using Betti numbers. In the mid nineteenth century, the Gauss–Bonnet theorem linked the Euler characteristic to the Gaussian curvature.
Synthesis

Investigations ofNiels Henrik Abel
Niels Henrik Abel ( , ; 5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields. His most famous single result is the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solvin ...

and Carl Gustav Jacobi on inversion of elliptic integrals in the first half of 19th century led them to consider special types of complex manifolds, now known as Jacobians. Bernhard Riemann
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (; 17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first ri ...

further contributed to their theory, clarifying the geometric meaning of the process of analytic continuation
In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, analytic continuation is a technique to extend the domain of definition of a given analytic function. Analytic continuation often succeeds in defining further values of a function, for example in a ...

of functions of complex variables.
Another important source of manifolds in 19th century mathematics was analytical mechanics
In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics. It was developed by many scientists and mathematicians during the ...

, as developed by Siméon Poisson, Jacobi, and William Rowan Hamilton
Sir William Rowan Hamilton LL.D, DCL, MRIA, FRAS (3/4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. He was the Andrews Professor of Astronomy at Trinity College Dublin, and Royal Astronomer of Irel ...

. The possible states of a mechanical system are thought to be points of an abstract space, phase space
In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space. For mechanical systems, the phase space usuall ...

in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of classical mechanics. This space is, in fact, a high-dimensional manifold, whose dimension corresponds to the degrees of freedom of the system and where the points are specified by their generalized coordinates. For an unconstrained movement of free particles the manifold is equivalent to the Euclidean space, but various conservation laws constrain it to more complicated formations, e.g. Liouville tori. The theory of a rotating solid body, developed in the 18th century by Leonhard Euler and Joseph-Louis Lagrange
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Luigi LagrangiaHenri Poincaré
Jules Henri Poincaré ( S: stress final syllable ; 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as "The ...

, one of the founders of topology.
Riemann was the first one to do extensive work generalizing the idea of a surface to higher dimensions. The name ''manifold'' comes from Riemann's original German
German(s) may refer to:
* Germany (of or related to)
**Germania (historical use)
* Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language
** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law
**Ge ...

term, ''Mannigfaltigkeit'', which William Kingdon Clifford
William Kingdon Clifford (4 May 18453 March 1879) was an English mathematician and philosopher. Building on the work of Hermann Grassmann, he introduced what is now termed geometric algebra, a special case of the Clifford algebra named in h ...

translated as "manifoldness". In his Göttingen inaugural lecture, Riemann described the set of all possible values of a variable with certain constraints as a ''Mannigfaltigkeit'', because the variable can have ''many'' values. He distinguishes between ''stetige Mannigfaltigkeit'' and ''diskrete'' ''Mannigfaltigkeit'' (''continuous manifoldness'' and ''discontinuous manifoldness''), depending on whether the value changes continuously or not. As continuous examples, Riemann refers to not only colors and the locations of objects in space, but also the possible shapes of a spatial figure. Using induction, Riemann constructs an ''n-fach ausgedehnte Mannigfaltigkeit'' (''n times extended manifoldness'' or ''n-dimensional manifoldness'') as a continuous stack of (n−1) dimensional manifoldnesses. Riemann's intuitive notion of a ''Mannigfaltigkeit'' evolved into what is today formalized as a manifold. Riemannian manifolds and Riemann surface
In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a Riemann surface is a connected one-dimensional complex manifold. These surfaces were first studied by and are named after Bernhard Riemann. Riemann surfaces can be thought of as deformed ver ...

s are named after Riemann.
Poincaré's definition

In his very influential paper, Analysis Situs, Henri Poincaré gave a definition of a differentiable manifold (''variété'') which served as a precursor to the modern concept of a manifold. In the first section of Analysis Situs, Poincaré defines a manifold as the level set of acontinuously differentiable
In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. In other words, the graph of a differentiable function has a non- vertical tangent line at each interior point ...

function between Euclidean spaces that satisfies the nondegeneracy hypothesis of the implicit function theorem. In the third section, he begins by remarking that the graph
Graph may refer to:
Mathematics
* Graph (discrete mathematics), a structure made of vertices and edges
**Graph theory, the study of such graphs and their properties
* Graph (topology), a topological space resembling a graph in the sense of disc ...

of a continuously differentiable function is a manifold in the latter sense. He then proposes a new, more general, definition of manifold based on a 'chain of manifolds' (''une chaîne des variétés'').
Poincaré's notion of a ''chain of manifolds'' is a precursor to the modern notion of atlas. In particular, he considers two manifolds defined respectively as graphs of functions $\backslash theta(y)$ and $\backslash theta\text{'}\backslash left(y\text{'}\backslash right)$. If these manifolds overlap (''a une partie commune''), then he requires that the coordinates $y$ depend continuously differentiably on the coordinates $y\text{'}$ and vice versa (...les $y$ sont fonctions analytiques des $y\text{'}$ et inversement''chart
A chart (sometimes known as a graph) is a graphical representation for data visualization, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represen ...

and of a transition map.
For example, the unit circle in the plane can be thought of as the graph of the function $y\; =\; \backslash sqrt$ or else the function $y\; =\; -\backslash sqrt$ in a neighborhood of every point except the points (1, 0) and (−1, 0); and in a neighborhood of those points, it can be thought of as the graph of, respectively, $x\; =\; \backslash sqrt$ and $x\; =\; -\backslash sqrt$. The circle can be represented by a graph in the neighborhood of every point because the left hand side of its defining equation $x^2\; +\; y^2\; -\; 1\; =\; 0$ has nonzero gradient at every point of the circle. By the implicit function theorem, every submanifold
In mathematics, a submanifold of a manifold ''M'' is a subset ''S'' which itself has the structure of a manifold, and for which the inclusion map satisfies certain properties. There are different types of submanifolds depending on exactly which p ...

of Euclidean space is locally the graph of a function.
Hermann Weyl
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (; 9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher. Although much of his working life was spent in Zürich, Switzerland, and then Princeton, New Jersey, he is assoc ...

gave an intrinsic definition for differentiable manifolds in his lecture course on Riemann surfaces in 1911–1912, opening the road to the general concept of a topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called poi ...

that followed shortly. During the 1930s Hassler Whitney
Hassler Whitney (March 23, 1907 – May 10, 1989) was an American mathematician. He was one of the founders of singularity theory, and did foundational work in manifolds, embeddings, immersions, characteristic classes, and geometric integration ...

and others clarified the foundational aspects of the subject, and thus intuitions dating back to the latter half of the 19th century became precise, and developed through differential geometry
Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that studies the geometry of smooth shapes and smooth spaces, otherwise known as smooth manifolds. It uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and mult ...

and Lie group
In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced ) is a group that is also a differentiable manifold. A manifold is a space that locally resembles Euclidean space, whereas groups define the abstract concept of a binary operation along with the addi ...

theory. Notably, the Whitney embedding theorem showed that the intrinsic definition in terms of charts was equivalent to Poincaré's definition in terms of subsets of Euclidean space.
Topology of manifolds: highlights

Two-dimensional manifolds, also known as a 2D ''surfaces'' embedded in our common 3D space, were considered by Riemann under the guise ofRiemann surface
In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a Riemann surface is a connected one-dimensional complex manifold. These surfaces were first studied by and are named after Bernhard Riemann. Riemann surfaces can be thought of as deformed ver ...

s, and rigorously classified in the beginning of the 20th century by Poul Heegaard and Max Dehn
Max Wilhelm Dehn (November 13, 1878 – June 27, 1952) was a German mathematician most famous for his work in geometry, topology and geometric group theory. Born to a Jewish family in Germany, Dehn's early life and career took place in Germany. ...

. Poincaré pioneered the study of three-dimensional manifolds and raised a fundamental question about them, today known as the Poincaré conjecture
In the mathematical field of geometric topology, the Poincaré conjecture (, , ) is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.
Originally conjecture ...

. After nearly a century, Grigori Perelman
Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman ( rus, links=no, Григорий Яковлевич Перельман, p=ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲɪj ˈjakəvlʲɪvʲɪtɕ pʲɪrʲɪlʲˈman, a=Ru-Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman.oga; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathemati ...

proved the Poincaré conjecture (see the Solution of the Poincaré conjecture
Solution may refer to:
* Solution (chemistry), a mixture where one substance is dissolved in another
* Solution (equation), in mathematics
** Numerical solution, in numerical analysis, approximate solutions within specified error bounds
* Solut ...

). William Thurston's geometrization program, formulated in the 1970s, provided a far-reaching extension of the Poincaré conjecture to the general three-dimensional manifolds. Four-dimensional manifolds were brought to the forefront of mathematical research in the 1980s by Michael Freedman and in a different setting, by Simon Donaldson
Sir Simon Kirwan Donaldson (born 20 August 1957) is an English mathematician known for his work on the topology of smooth (differentiable) four-dimensional manifolds, Donaldson–Thomas theory, and his contributions to Kähler geometry. H ...

, who was motivated by the then recent progress in theoretical physics (Yang–Mills theory
In mathematical physics, Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on a special unitary group SU(''N''), or more generally any Compact Lie algebra, compact, reductive Lie algebra. Yang–Mills theory seeks to describe the behavior of elementar ...

), where they serve as a substitute for ordinary 'flat' spacetime
In physics, spacetime is a mathematical model that combines the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects, such as why diff ...

. Andrey Markov Jr. showed in 1960 that no algorithm exists for classifying four-dimensional manifolds. Important work on higher-dimensional manifolds, including analogues of the Poincaré conjecture, had been done earlier by René Thom
René Frédéric Thom (; 2 September 1923 – 25 October 2002) was a French mathematician, who received the Fields Medal in 1958.
He made his reputation as a topologist, moving on to aspects of what would be called singularity theory; he becam ...

, John Milnor
John Willard Milnor (born February 20, 1931) is an American mathematician known for his work in differential topology, algebraic K-theory and low-dimensional holomorphic dynamical systems. Milnor is a distinguished professor at Stony Brook Uni ...

, Stephen Smale
Stephen Smale (born July 15, 1930) is an American mathematician, known for his research in topology, dynamical systems and mathematical economics. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1966 and spent more than three decades on the mathematics faculty ...

and Sergei Novikov. A very pervasive and flexible technique underlying much work on the topology of manifolds is Morse theory.
Additional structure

Topological manifolds

The simplest kind of manifold to define is the topological manifold, which looks locally like some "ordinary" Euclidean space $\backslash R^n$. By definition, all manifolds are topological manifolds, so the phrase "topological manifold" is usually used to emphasize that a manifold lacks additional structure, or that only its topological properties are being considered. Formally, a topological manifold is a topological space locally homeomorphic to a Euclidean space. This means that every point has a neighbourhood for which there exists ahomeomorphism
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomo ...

(a bijective
In mathematics, a bijection, also known as a bijective function, one-to-one correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other ...

continuous function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in va ...

whose inverse is also continuous) mapping that neighbourhood to $\backslash R^n$. These homeomorphisms are the charts of the manifold.
A ''topological'' manifold looks locally like a Euclidean space in a rather weak manner: while for each individual chart it is possible to distinguish differentiable functions or measure distances and angles, merely by virtue of being a topological manifold a space does not have any ''particular'' and ''consistent'' choice of such concepts. In order to discuss such properties for a manifold, one needs to specify further structure and consider differentiable manifolds
In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a vector space to allow one to apply calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts (atlas). One ma ...

and Riemannian manifolds discussed below. In particular, the same underlying topological manifold can have several mutually incompatible classes of differentiable functions and an infinite number of ways to specify distances and angles.
Usually additional technical assumptions on the topological space are made to exclude pathological cases. It is customary to require that the space be Hausdorff and second countable.
The ''dimension'' of the manifold at a certain point is the dimension of the Euclidean space that the charts at that point map to (number ''n'' in the definition). All points in a connected manifold have the same dimension. Some authors require that all charts of a topological manifold map to Euclidean spaces of same dimension. In that case every topological manifold has a topological invariant, its dimension.
Differentiable manifolds

For most applications, a special kind of topological manifold, namely, a differentiable manifold, is used. If the local charts on a manifold are compatible in a certain sense, one can define directions, tangent spaces, and differentiable functions on that manifold. In particular it is possible to usecalculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of ari ...

on a differentiable manifold. Each point of an ''n''-dimensional differentiable manifold has a tangent space
In mathematics, the tangent space of a manifold generalizes to higher dimensions the notion of '' tangent planes'' to surfaces in three dimensions and '' tangent lines'' to curves in two dimensions. In the context of physics the tangent space to ...

. This is an ''n''-dimensional Euclidean space consisting of the tangent vectors of the curves through the point.
Two important classes of differentiable manifolds are smooth and analytic manifolds. For smooth manifolds the transition maps are smooth, that is, infinitely differentiable. Analytic manifolds are smooth manifolds with the additional condition that the transition maps are analytic (they can be expressed as power series
In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form
\sum_^\infty a_n \left(x - c\right)^n = a_0 + a_1 (x - c) + a_2 (x - c)^2 + \dots
where ''an'' represents the coefficient of the ''n''th term and ''c'' is a con ...

). The sphere can be given analytic structure, as can most familiar curves and surfaces.
A rectifiable set
In mathematics, a rectifiable set is a set that is smooth in a certain measure theory, measure-theoretic sense. It is an extension of the idea of a rectifiable curve to higher dimensions; loosely speaking, a rectifiable set is a rigorous formulatio ...

generalizes the idea of a piecewise smooth or rectifiable curve to higher dimensions; however, rectifiable sets are not in general manifolds.
Riemannian manifolds

To measure distances and angles on manifolds, the manifold must be Riemannian. A ''Riemannian manifold'' is a differentiable manifold in which eachtangent space
In mathematics, the tangent space of a manifold generalizes to higher dimensions the notion of '' tangent planes'' to surfaces in three dimensions and '' tangent lines'' to curves in two dimensions. In the context of physics the tangent space to ...

is equipped with an inner product
In mathematics, an inner product space (or, rarely, a Hausdorff pre-Hilbert space) is a real vector space or a complex vector space with an operation called an inner product. The inner product of two vectors in the space is a scalar, often ...

in a manner which varies smoothly from point to point. Given two tangent vectors and , the inner product gives a real number. The dot (or scalar) product is a typical example of an inner product. This allows one to define various notions such as length, angle
In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the '' sides'' of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the '' vertex'' of the angle.
Angles formed by two rays lie in the plane that contains the rays. Angles ...

s, area
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a region on the plane or on a curved surface. The area of a plane region or ''plane area'' refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while '' surface area'' refers to the area of an ...

s (or volume
Volume is a measure of occupied three-dimensional space. It is often quantified numerically using SI derived units (such as the cubic metre and litre) or by various imperial or US customary units (such as the gallon, quart, cubic inch). ...

s), curvature
In mathematics, curvature is any of several strongly related concepts in geometry. Intuitively, the curvature is the amount by which a curve deviates from being a straight line, or a surface deviates from being a plane.
For curves, the canon ...

and divergence
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of th ...

of vector fields.
All differentiable manifolds (of constant dimension) can be given the structure of a Riemannian manifold. The Euclidean space itself carries a natural structure of Riemannian manifold (the tangent spaces are naturally identified with the Euclidean space itself and carry the standard scalar product of the space). Many familiar curves and surfaces, including for example all -spheres, are specified as subspaces of a Euclidean space and inherit a metric from their embedding in it.
Finsler manifolds

A Finsler manifold allows the definition of distance but does not require the concept of angle; it is an analytic manifold in which each tangent space is equipped with anorm
Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) consist of materials, usually industrial wastes or by-products enriched with radioactive elements found in the envir ...

, , , ·, , , in a manner which varies smoothly from point to point. This norm can be extended to a metric
Metric or metrical may refer to:
* Metric system, an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement
* An adjective indicating relation to measurement in general, or a noun describing a specific type of measurement
Mathematics
In mathem ...

, defining the length of a curve; but it cannot in general be used to define an inner product.
Any Riemannian manifold is a Finsler manifold.
Lie groups

Lie groups, named after Sophus Lie, are differentiable manifolds that carry also the structure of agroup
A group is a number of persons or things that are located, gathered, or classed together.
Groups of people
* Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity
* Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic ide ...

which is such that the group operations are defined by smooth maps.
A Euclidean vector space with the group operation of vector addition is an example of a non-compact Lie group. A simple example of a compact
Compact as used in politics may refer broadly to a pact or treaty; in more specific cases it may refer to:
* Interstate compact
* Blood compact, an ancient ritual of the Philippines
* Compact government, a type of colonial rule utilized in Brit ...

Lie group is the circle: the group operation is simply rotation. This group, known as U(1), can be also characterised as the group of complex number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= -1; every complex number can be expressed in the fo ...

s of modulus 1 with multiplication as the group operation.
Other examples of Lie groups include special groups of matrices
Matrix most commonly refers to:
* ''The Matrix'' (franchise), an American media franchise
** ''The Matrix'', a 1999 science-fiction action film
** "The Matrix", a fictional setting, a virtual reality environment, within ''The Matrix'' (franchis ...

, which are all subgroups of the general linear group
In mathematics, the general linear group of degree ''n'' is the set of invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication. This forms a group, because the product of two invertible matrices is again invertible ...

, the group of ''n'' by ''n'' matrices with non-zero determinant. If the matrix entries are real number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one- dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every ...

s, this will be an ''n''orthogonal group
In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension , denoted , is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations. ...

s, the symmetry group
In group theory, the symmetry group of a geometric object is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant, endowed with the group operation of composition. Such a transformation is an invertible mapping of the am ...

s of the sphere and hypersphere
In mathematics, an -sphere or a hypersphere is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a ''standard'' -''sphere'', which is the set of points in -dimensional Euclidean space that are situated at a constant distance from a fixed point, ca ...

s, are ''n''(''n''−1)/2 dimensional manifolds, where ''n''−1 is the dimension of the sphere. Further examples can be found in the table of Lie groups.
Other types of manifolds

* A ''complex manifold
In differential geometry and complex geometry, a complex manifold is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disc in \mathbb^n, such that the transition maps are holomorphic.
The term complex manifold is variously used to mean a ...

'' is a manifold whose charts take values in $\backslash Complex^n$ and whose transition functions are holomorphic on the overlaps. These manifolds are the basic objects of study in complex geometry. A one-complex-dimensional manifold is called a Riemann surface
In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a Riemann surface is a connected one-dimensional complex manifold. These surfaces were first studied by and are named after Bernhard Riemann. Riemann surfaces can be thought of as deformed ver ...

. An ''n''-dimensional complex manifold has dimension 2''n'' as a real differentiable manifold.
* A '' CR manifold'' is a manifold modeled on boundaries of domains in $\backslash Complex^n$.
* 'Infinite dimensional manifolds': to allow for infinite dimensions, one may consider Banach manifolds which are locally homeomorphic to Banach space
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vec ...

s. Similarly, Fréchet manifolds are locally homeomorphic to Fréchet space
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces.
They are generalizations of Banach spaces ( normed vector spaces that are complete with respect t ...

s.
* A ''symplectic manifold
In differential geometry, a subject of mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold, M , equipped with a closed nondegenerate differential 2-form \omega , called the symplectic form. The study of symplectic manifolds is called sy ...

'' is a kind of manifold which is used to represent the phase spaces in classical mechanics
Classical mechanics is a physical theory describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. For objects governed by class ...

. They are endowed with a 2-form
In mathematics, differential forms provide a unified approach to define integrands over curves, surfaces, solids, and higher-dimensional manifolds. The modern notion of differential forms was pioneered by Élie Cartan. It has many applications ...

that defines the Poisson bracket
In mathematics and classical mechanics, the Poisson bracket is an important binary operation in Hamiltonian mechanics, playing a central role in Hamilton's equations of motion, which govern the time evolution of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. Th ...

. A closely related type of manifold is a contact manifold.
* A '' combinatorial manifold'' is a kind of manifold which is discretization of a manifold. It usually means a piecewise linear manifold
In mathematics, a piecewise linear (PL) manifold is a topological manifold together with a piecewise linear structure on it. Such a structure can be defined by means of an atlas, such that one can pass from chart to chart in it by piecewise linea ...

made by simplicial complexes.
* A '' digital manifold'' is a special kind of combinatorial manifold which is defined in digital space. See digital topology.
Classification and invariants

Different notions of manifolds have different notions of classification and invariant; in this section we focus on smooth closed manifolds. The classification of smooth closed manifolds is well understood ''in principle'', except in dimension 4: in low dimensions (2 and 3) it is geometric, via theuniformization theorem
In mathematics, the uniformization theorem says that every simply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent to one of three Riemann surfaces: the open unit disk, the complex plane, or the Riemann sphere. The theorem is a generalization ...

and the solution of the Poincaré conjecture
Solution may refer to:
* Solution (chemistry), a mixture where one substance is dissolved in another
* Solution (equation), in mathematics
** Numerical solution, in numerical analysis, approximate solutions within specified error bounds
* Solut ...

, and in high dimension (5 and above) it is algebraic, via surgery theory
In mathematics, specifically in geometric topology, surgery theory is a collection of techniques used to produce one finite-dimensional manifold from another in a 'controlled' way, introduced by . Milnor called this technique ''surgery'', while A ...

. This is a classification in principle: the general question of whether two smooth manifolds are diffeomorphic is not computable in general. Further, specific computations remain difficult, and there are many open questions.
Orientable surfaces can be visualized, and their diffeomorphism classes enumerated, by genus. Given two orientable surfaces, one can determine if they are diffeomorphic by computing their respective genera and comparing: they are diffeomorphic if and only if the genera are equal, so the genus forms a complete set of invariants.
This is much harder in higher dimensions: higher-dimensional manifolds cannot be directly visualized (though visual intuition is useful in understanding them), nor can their diffeomorphism classes be enumerated, nor can one in general determine if two different descriptions of a higher-dimensional manifold refer to the same object.
However, one can determine if two manifolds are ''different'' if there is some intrinsic characteristic that differentiates them. Such criteria are commonly referred to as invariants, because, while they may be defined in terms of some presentation (such as the genus in terms of a triangulation), they are the same relative to all possible descriptions of a particular manifold: they are ''invariant'' under different descriptions.
Naively, one could hope to develop an arsenal of invariant criteria that would definitively classify all manifolds up to isomorphism. Unfortunately, it is known that for manifolds of dimension 4 and higher, no program exists that can decide whether two manifolds are diffeomorphic.
Smooth manifolds have a rich set of invariants, coming from point-set topology
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geomet ...

, classic algebraic topology, and geometric topology
In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another.
History
Geometric topology as an area distinct from algebraic topology may be said to have originate ...

. The most familiar invariants, which are visible for surfaces, are orientability
In mathematics, orientability is a property of some topological spaces such as real vector spaces, Euclidean spaces, surfaces, and more generally manifolds that allows a consistent definition of "clockwise" and "counterclockwise". A space i ...

(a normal invariant, also detected by homology) and genus
Genus ( plural genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms as well as viruses. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial n ...

(a homological invariant).
Smooth closed manifolds have no local invariants (other than dimension), though geometric manifolds have local invariants, notably the curvature of a Riemannian manifold and the torsion of a manifold equipped with an affine connection
In differential geometry, an affine connection is a geometric object on a smooth manifold which ''connects'' nearby tangent spaces, so it permits tangent vector fields to be differentiated as if they were functions on the manifold with values ...

. This distinction between local invariants and no local invariants is a common way to distinguish between geometry and topology. All invariants of a smooth closed manifold are thus global.
Algebraic topology
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classi ...

is a source of a number of important global invariant properties. Some key criteria include the ''simply connected
In topology, a topological space is called simply connected (or 1-connected, or 1-simply connected) if it is path-connected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed (intuitively for embedded spaces, staying within the spac ...

'' property and orientability (see below). Indeed, several branches of mathematics, such as homology and homotopy
In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from grc, ὁμός "same, similar" and "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deform ...

theory, and the theory of characteristic classes were founded in order to study invariant properties of manifolds.
Surfaces

Orientability

In dimensions two and higher, a simple but important invariant criterion is the question of whether a manifold admits a meaningful orientation. Consider a topological manifold with charts mapping to $\backslash R^n$. Given an ordered basis for $\backslash R^n$, a chart causes its piece of the manifold to itself acquire a sense of ordering, which in 3-dimensions can be viewed as either right-handed or left-handed. Overlapping charts are not required to agree in their sense of ordering, which gives manifolds an important freedom. For some manifolds, like the sphere, charts can be chosen so that overlapping regions agree on their "handedness"; these are ''orientable
In mathematics, orientability is a property of some topological spaces such as real vector spaces, Euclidean spaces, surfaces, and more generally manifolds that allows a consistent definition of "clockwise" and "counterclockwise". A space i ...

'' manifolds. For others, this is impossible. The latter possibility is easy to overlook, because any closed surface embedded (without self-intersection) in three-dimensional space is orientable.
Some illustrative examples of non-orientable manifolds include: (1) the Möbius strip
In mathematics, a Möbius strip, Möbius band, or Möbius loop is a surface that can be formed by attaching the ends of a strip of paper together with a half-twist. As a mathematical object, it was discovered by Johann Benedict Listing and A ...

, which is a manifold with boundary, (2) the Klein bottle
In topology, a branch of mathematics, the Klein bottle () is an example of a non-orientable surface; it is a two-dimensional manifold against which a system for determining a normal vector cannot be consistently defined. Informally, it is a ...

, which must intersect itself in its 3-space representation, and (3) the real projective plane
In mathematics, the real projective plane is an example of a compact non- orientable two-dimensional manifold; in other words, a one-sided surface. It cannot be embedded in standard three-dimensional space without intersecting itself. It has ...

, which arises naturally in geometry.
Möbius strip

Begin with an infinite circular cylinder standing vertically, a manifold without boundary. Slice across it high and low to produce two circular boundaries, and the cylindrical strip between them. This is an orientable manifold with boundary, upon which "surgery" will be performed. Slice the strip open, so that it could unroll to become a rectangle, but keep a grasp on the cut ends. Twist one end 180°, making the inner surface face out, and glue the ends back together seamlessly. This results in a strip with a permanent half-twist: the Möbius strip. Its boundary is no longer a pair of circles, but (topologically) a single circle; and what was once its "inside" has merged with its "outside", so that it now has only a ''single'' side. Similarly to the Klein Bottle below, this two dimensional surface would need to intersect itself in two dimensions, but can easily be constructed in three or more dimensions.Klein bottle

Take two Möbius strips; each has a single loop as a boundary. Straighten out those loops into circles, and let the strips distort into cross-caps. Gluing the circles together will produce a new, closed manifold without boundary, the Klein bottle. Closing the surface does nothing to improve the lack of orientability, it merely removes the boundary. Thus, the Klein bottle is a closed surface with no distinction between inside and outside. In three-dimensional space, a Klein bottle's surface must pass through itself. Building a Klein bottle which is not self-intersecting requires four or more dimensions of space.Real projective plane

Begin with a sphere centered on the origin. Every line through the origin pierces the sphere in two opposite points called ''antipodes''. Although there is no way to do so physically, it is possible (by considering a quotient space) to mathematically merge each antipode pair into a single point. The closed surface so produced is the real projective plane, yet another non-orientable surface. It has a number of equivalent descriptions and constructions, but this route explains its name: all the points on any given line through the origin project to the same "point" on this "plane".Genus and the Euler characteristic

For two dimensional manifolds a key invariant property is thegenus
Genus ( plural genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms as well as viruses. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial n ...

, or "number of handles" present in a surface. A torus is a sphere with one handle, a double torus is a sphere with two handles, and so on. Indeed, it is possible to fully characterize compact, two-dimensional manifolds on the basis of genus and orientability. In higher-dimensional manifolds genus is replaced by the notion of Euler characteristic
In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space ...

, and more generally Betti numbers and homology and cohomology
In mathematics, specifically in homology theory and algebraic topology, cohomology is a general term for a sequence of abelian groups, usually one associated with a topological space, often defined from a cochain complex. Cohomology can be viewe ...

.
Maps of manifolds

Just as there are various types of manifolds, there are various types of maps of manifolds. In addition to continuous functions and smooth functions generally, there are maps with special properties. Ingeometric topology
In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another.
History
Geometric topology as an area distinct from algebraic topology may be said to have originate ...

a basic type are embedding
In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical structure contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup.
When some object X is said to be embedded in another object Y, the embedding is g ...

s, of which knot theory
In the mathematical field of topology, knot theory is the study of mathematical knots. While inspired by knots which appear in daily life, such as those in shoelaces and rope, a mathematical knot differs in that the ends are joined so it cannot ...

is a central example, and generalizations such as immersions, submersions, covering spaces, and ramified covering spaces.
Basic results include the Whitney embedding theorem and Whitney immersion theorem.
In Riemannian geometry, one may ask for maps to preserve the Riemannian metric, leading to notions of isometric embeddings, isometric immersions, and Riemannian submersions; a basic result is the Nash embedding theorem.
Scalar-valued functions

A basic example of maps between manifolds are scalar-valued functions on a manifold, $$f\backslash colon\; M\; \backslash to\; \backslash R$$ or $$f\backslash colon\; M\; \backslash to\; \backslash Complex,$$ sometimes calledregular function In algebraic geometry, a morphism between algebraic varieties is a function between the varieties that is given locally by polynomials. It is also called a regular map. A morphism from an algebraic variety to the affine line is also called a regul ...

s or functional
Functional may refer to:
* Movements in architecture:
** Functionalism (architecture)
** Form follows function
* Functional group, combination of atoms within molecules
* Medical conditions without currently visible organic basis:
** Functional s ...

s, by analogy with algebraic geometry or linear algebra. These are of interest both in their own right, and to study the underlying manifold.
In geometric topology, most commonly studied are Morse functions, which yield handlebody decompositions, while in mathematical analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limits, and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite sequences, series, and analytic functions.
These theories are usually studied ...

, one often studies solution to partial differential equations
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which imposes relations between the various partial derivatives of a multivariable function.
The function is often thought of as an "unknown" to be solved for, similarly to ...

, an important example of which is harmonic analysis
Harmonic analysis is a branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms (i.e. an ex ...

, where one studies harmonic functions: the kernel of the Laplace operator
In mathematics, the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a scalar function on Euclidean space. It is usually denoted by the symbols \nabla\cdot\nabla, \nabla^2 (where \nabla is t ...

. This leads to such functions as the spherical harmonics
In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere. They are often employed in solving partial differential equations in many scientific fields.
Since the spherical harmonics for ...

, and to heat kernel methods of studying manifolds, such as hearing the shape of a drum and some proofs of the Atiyah–Singer index theorem.
Generalizations of manifolds

;Infinite dimensional manifolds: The definition of a manifold can be generalized by dropping the requirement of finite dimensionality. Thus an infinite dimensional manifold is a topological space locally homeomorphic to atopological vector space
In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space and commonly abbreviated TVS or t.v.s.) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.
A topological vector space is a vector space that is al ...

over the reals. This omits the point-set axioms, allowing higher cardinalities and non-Hausdorff manifolds; and it omits finite dimension, allowing structures such as Hilbert manifolds to be modeled on Hilbert spaces
In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow generalizing the methods of linear algebra and calculus from (finite-dimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinite-dimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturall ...

, Banach manifolds to be modeled on Banach space
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vec ...

s, and Fréchet manifolds to be modeled on Fréchet space
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces.
They are generalizations of Banach spaces ( normed vector spaces that are complete with respect t ...

s. Usually one relaxes one or the other condition: manifolds with the point-set axioms are studied in general topology, while infinite-dimensional manifolds are studied in functional analysis
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined o ...

.
;Orbifolds: An orbifold
In the mathematical disciplines of topology and geometry, an orbifold (for "orbit-manifold") is a generalization of a manifold. Roughly speaking, an orbifold is a topological space which is locally a finite group quotient of a Euclidean space.
D ...

is a generalization of manifold allowing for certain kinds of " singularities" in the topology. Roughly speaking, it is a space which locally looks like the quotients of some simple space (''e.g.'' Euclidean space) by the action
Action may refer to:
* Action (narrative), a literary mode
* Action fiction, a type of genre fiction
* Action game, a genre of video game
Film
* Action film, a genre of film
* ''Action'' (1921 film), a film by John Ford
* ''Action'' (1980 ...

s of various finite group
Finite is the opposite of infinite. It may refer to:
* Finite number (disambiguation)
* Finite set, a set whose cardinality (number of elements) is some natural number
* Finite verb, a verb form that has a subject, usually being inflected or marke ...

s. The singularities correspond to fixed points of the group actions, and the actions must be compatible in a certain sense.
;Algebraic varieties and schemes: Non-singular
In the mathematical field of algebraic geometry, a singular point of an algebraic variety is a point that is 'special' (so, singular), in the geometric sense that at this point the tangent space at the variety may not be regularly defined. In cas ...

algebraic varieties over the real or complex numbers are manifolds. One generalizes this first by allowing singularities, secondly by allowing different fields, and thirdly by emulating the patching construction of manifolds: just as a manifold is glued together from open subsets of Euclidean space, an algebraic variety
Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry, a sub-field of mathematics. Classically, an algebraic variety is defined as the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations over the real or complex numbers. ...

is glued together from affine algebraic varieties, which are zero sets of polynomials over algebraically closed fields. Schemes are likewise glued together from affine schemes, which are a generalization of algebraic varieties. Both are related to manifolds, but are constructed algebraically using sheaves instead of atlases.
:Because of singular points, a variety is in general not a manifold, though linguistically the French ''variété'', German ''Mannigfaltigkeit'' and English ''manifold'' are largely synonymous
A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phrase in a given language. For example, in the English language, the words ''begin'', ''start'', ''commence'', and ''initiate'' are all ...

. In French an algebraic variety is called ''une variété algébrique'' (an ''algebraic variety''), while a smooth manifold is called ''une variété différentielle'' (a ''differential variety'').
;Stratified space: A "stratified space" is a space that can be divided into pieces ("strata"), with each stratum a manifold, with the strata fitting together in prescribed ways (formally, a filtration
Filtration is a physical separation process that separates solid matter and fluid from a mixture using a ''filter medium'' that has a complex structure through which only the fluid can pass. Solid particles that cannot pass through the filter m ...

by closed subsets). There are various technical definitions, notably a Whitney stratified space (see Whitney conditions) for smooth manifolds and a topologically stratified space for topological manifolds. Basic examples include manifold with boundary (top dimensional manifold and codimension 1 boundary) and manifolds with corners (top dimensional manifold, codimension 1 boundary, codimension 2 corners). Whitney stratified spaces are a broad class of spaces, including algebraic varieties, analytic varieties, semialgebraic sets, and subanalytic sets.
;CW-complexes: A CW complex
A CW complex (also called cellular complex or cell complex) is a kind of a topological space that is particularly important in algebraic topology. It was introduced by J. H. C. Whitehead (open access) to meet the needs of homotopy theory. This c ...

is a topological space formed by gluing disks of different dimensionality together. In general the resulting space is singular, hence not a manifold. However, they are of central interest in algebraic topology, especially in homotopy theory
In mathematics, homotopy theory is a systematic study of situations in which maps can come with homotopies between them. It originated as a topic in algebraic topology but nowadays is studied as an independent discipline. Besides algebraic topolo ...

.
;Homology manifolds: A homology manifold is a space that behaves like a manifold from the point of view of homology theory. These are not all manifolds, but (in high dimension) can be analyzed by surgery theory similarly to manifolds, and failure to be a manifold is a local obstruction, as in surgery theory.
;Differential spaces: Let $M$ be a nonempty set. Suppose that some family of real functions on $M$ was chosen. Denote it by $C\; \backslash subseteq\; \backslash R^M$. It is an algebra with respect to the pointwise addition and multiplication. Let $M$ be equipped with the topology induced by $C$. Suppose also that the following conditions hold. First: for every $H\; \backslash in\; C^\backslash infty\backslash left(\backslash R^n\backslash right)$, where $n\; \backslash in\; \backslash N$, and arbitrary $f\_1,\; \backslash dots\; ,\; f\_n\; \backslash in\; C$, the composition $H\; \backslash circ\; \backslash left(f\_1,\; \backslash dots,\; f\_n\backslash right)\; \backslash in\; C$. Second: every function, which in every point of $M$ locally coincides with some function from $C$, also belongs to $C$. A pair $(M,\; C)$ for which the above conditions hold, is called a Sikorski differential space.
See also

* * : statistics on manifolds * * *By dimension

* * * *Notes

References

* Freedman, Michael H., and Quinn, Frank (1990) ''Topology of 4-Manifolds''. Princeton University Press. . * Guillemin, Victor and Pollack, Alan (1974) ''Differential Topology''. Prentice-Hall. . Advanced undergraduate / first-year graduate text inspired by Milnor. * Hempel, John (1976) ''3-Manifolds''. Princeton University Press. . * Hirsch, Morris, (1997) ''Differential Topology''. Springer Verlag. . The most complete account, with historical insights and excellent, but difficult, problems. The standard reference for those wishing to have a deep understanding of the subject. * Kirby, Robion C. and Siebenmann, Laurence C. (1977) ''Foundational Essays on Topological Manifolds. Smoothings, and Triangulations''. Princeton University Press. . A detailed study of thecategory
Category, plural categories, may refer to:
Philosophy and general uses
* Categorization, categories in cognitive science, information science and generally
* Category of being
* ''Categories'' (Aristotle)
* Category (Kant)
* Categories (Peirce ...

of topological manifolds.
* Lee, John M. (2000) ''Introduction to Topological Manifolds''. Springer-Verlag. . Detailed and comprehensive first-year graduate text.
* Lee, John M. (2003) Introduction to Smooth Manifolds

'. Springer-Verlag. . Detailed and comprehensive first-year graduate text; sequel to ''Introduction to Topological Manifolds''. * Massey, William S. (1977) ''Algebraic Topology: An Introduction''. Springer-Verlag. . * Milnor, John (1997) ''Topology from the Differentiable Viewpoint''. Princeton University Press. . Classic brief introduction to differential topology. * Munkres, James R. (1991)

Analysis on Manifolds

'. Addison-Wesley (reprinted by Westview Press) . Undergraduate text treating manifolds in $\backslash R^n$. * Munkres, James R. (2000) ''Topology''. Prentice Hall. . * Neuwirth, L. P., ed. (1975) ''Knots, Groups, and 3-Manifolds. Papers Dedicated to the Memory of R. H. Fox''. Princeton University Press. . * Riemann, Bernhard, ''Gesammelte mathematische Werke und wissenschaftlicher Nachlass'', Sändig Reprint. . **

Grundlagen für eine allgemeine Theorie der Functionen einer veränderlichen complexen Grösse.

' The 1851 doctoral thesis in which "manifold" (''Mannigfaltigkeit'') first appears. **

Ueber die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen.

' The 1854 Göttingen inaugural lecture (''Habilitationsschrift''). * Spivak, Michael (1965)

Calculus on Manifolds: A Modern Approach to Classical Theorems of Advanced Calculus

'. W.A. Benjamin Inc. (reprinted by Addison-Wesley and Westview Press). . Famously terse advanced undergraduate / first-year graduate text. * Spivak, Michael (1999) ''A Comprehensive Introduction to Differential Geometry'' (3rd edition) Publish or Perish Inc. Encyclopedic five-volume series presenting a systematic treatment of the theory of manifolds, Riemannian geometry, classical differential geometry, and numerous other topics at the first- and second-year graduate levels. * . Concise first-year graduate text.

External links

*Dimensions-math.org

(A film explaining and visualizing manifolds up to fourth dimension.) * Th

manifold atlas

project of th

Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn

{{Authority control Geometry processing