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Manganese(II) oxide is an
inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a ...
with
chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and ...
MnO.Arno H. Reidies "Manganese Compounds" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2007; Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. It forms green crystals. The compound is produced on a large scale as a component of
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American E ...

fertilizer
s and
food additives Food additives are substances added to food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual co ...
.


Structure, stoichiometry, reactivity

Like many monoxides, MnO adopts the rock salt structure, where cations and anions are both octahedrally coordinated. Also like many oxides, manganese(II) oxide is often nonstoichiometric: its composition can vary from MnO to MnO1.045. Below 118 K MnO is
antiferromagnetic Antiferromagnetic ordering In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moment The magnetic moment is the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field A magnetic field is a vec ...

antiferromagnetic
. MnO has the distinction of being one of the first compounds to have its magnetic structure determined by
neutron diffraction The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms. Since protons and neutrons behav ...
, the report appearing in 1951. This study showed that the Mn2+ ions form a face centered cubic magnetic sub-lattice where there are ferromagnetically coupled sheets that are anti-parallel with adjacent sheets. Manganese(II) oxide undergoes the
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and t ...

chemical reaction
s typical of an ionic oxide. Upon treatment with acids, it converts to the corresponding manganese(II) salt and
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
. Oxidation of manganese(II) oxide gives
manganese(III) oxide Manganese(III) oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Mn2O3. Preparation and chemistry Heating MnO2 in air at below 800 °C produces α-Mn2O3 (higher temperatures produce Mn3O4). γ-Mn2O3 can be produced by oxidation followed by dehydra ...

manganese(III) oxide
.


Preparation and occurrence

MnO occurs in nature as the rare mineral
manganosite Manganosite is a rare mineral composed of manganese(II) oxide MnO. It was first described in 1817 for an occurrence in the Harz Mountains, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It has also been reported from Langban, Sweden, Langban and Nordmark, Sweden and at F ...
.
Commercially it is prepared by reduction of MnO2 with
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
,
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

carbon monoxide
or
methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
, e.g.: :MnO2 + H2 → MnO + H2O :MnO2 + CO → MnO + CO2 MnO can also be prepared by decarbonation of the carbonate: :MnCO3 → MnO + CO2 This
calcining Calcination refers to heating a solid to high temperatures in absence of air or oxygen, generally for the purpose of removing impurities or volatile substances. However, calcination is also used to mean a thermal treatment process in the absence o ...
process is conducted anaerobically, lest form. An alternative route, mostly for demonstration purposes, is the oxalate method, which also applicable to the synthesis of
ferrous oxide Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition ...
and
stannous oxide Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a compound with the formula SnO. It is composed of tin and oxygen where tin has the oxidation state of +2. There are two forms, a stable blue-black form and a metastable red form. Preparation and reactions Blue- ...
. Upon heating in an oxygen-free atmosphere (usually CO2), manganese(II) oxalate decomposes into MnO:Arthur Sutcliffe (1930) Practical Chemistry for Advanced Students (1949 Ed.), John Murray - London. :MnC2O4·2H2O → MnO + CO2 + CO + 2 H2O


Applications

Together with manganese sulfate, MnO is a component of
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American E ...

fertilizer
s and food additives. Many thousands of tons are consumed annually for this purpose. Other uses include: a
catalyst Catalysis () is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In cla ...

catalyst
in the manufacture of
allyl alcohol Allyl alcohol (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Science ...

allyl alcohol
, ceramics, paints, colored glass, bleaching tallow and textile printing.


References

{{oxides Manganese(II) compounds Transition metal oxides Rock salt crystal structure