In

_{n}'' as ''n'' approaches infinity equals ''L''"
if and only if
:For every

If it is found that there is something better than linear, the expression should be checked for quadratic convergence. Start by finding $\backslash left,\; f\text{'}\text{'}\; (p)\; \backslash $ If…

mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...

, a limit is the value that a function
Function or functionality may refer to:
Computing
* Function key
A function key is a key on a computer
A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...

(or sequence
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...

) approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value
Value or values may refer to:
* Value (ethics)
In ethics
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy
Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, E ...

. Limits are essential to calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations ...

and mathematical analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with Limit (mathematics), limits
and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, Measure (mathematics), measure, sequences, Series (mathematics), series, and analytic ...

, and are used to define continuity, derivative
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...

s, and integral
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...

s.
The concept of a limit of a sequence
As the positive integer
An integer (from the Latin
Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...

is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit
Limit or Limits may refer to:
Arts and media
* Limit (music), a way to characterize harmony
* Limit (song), "Limit" (song), a 2016 single by Luna Sea
* Limits (Paenda song), "Limits" (Paenda song), 2019 song that represented Austria in the Eurov ...

and direct limit
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...

in category theory
Category theory formalizes mathematical structure
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ...

.
In formulas, a limit of a function is usually written as
:$\backslash lim\_\; f(x)\; =\; L,$
::or
:,
and is read as "the limit of of as approaches equals ". The fact that a function approaches the limit as approaches is sometimes denoted by a right arrow (→ or $\backslash rightarrow$), as in
:$f(x)\; \backslash to\; L\; \backslash text\; x\; \backslash to\; c,$
which reads "$f$ of $x$ tends to $L$ as $x$ tends to $c$".
Limit of a function

Suppose is areal-valued function
Mass measured in grams is a function from this collection of weight to positive number">positive
Positive is a property of Positivity (disambiguation), positivity and may refer to:
Mathematics and science
* Converging lens or positive lens, i ...

and is a real number
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...

. Intuitively speaking, the expression
:$\backslash lim\_f(x)\; =\; L$
means that can be made to be as close to as desired, by making sufficiently close to . In that case, the above equation can be read as "the limit of of , as approaches , is ".
Augustin-Louis Cauchy
Baron
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord ...

in 1821, followed by Karl Weierstrass
Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (german: link=no, Weierstraß ; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematics, mathematician often cited as the "father of modern mathematical analysis, analysis". Despite leaving university withou ...

, formalized the definition of the limit of a function which became known as the (ε, δ)-definition of limit. The definition uses (the lowercase Greek letter ''epsilon'') to represent any small positive number, so that " becomes arbitrarily close to " means that eventually lies in the interval , which can also be written using the absolute value
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...

as . The phrase "as approaches " then indicates that we refer to values of , whose distance from is less than some positive number (the lowercase Greek letter ''delta'')—that is, values of within either or , which can be expressed with . The first inequality means that , while the second indicates that is within distance of .
The above definition of a limit is true even if . Indeed, the function need not even be defined at .
For example, if
:$f(x)\; =\; \backslash frac$
then is not defined (see Indeterminate formIn calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimal
In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. The ...

), yet as moves arbitrarily close to 1, correspondingly approaches 2:
Thus, can be made arbitrarily close to the limit of 2—just by making sufficiently close to .
In other words,
$$\backslash lim\_\; \backslash frac\; =\; 2.$$
This can also be calculated algebraically, as $\backslash frac\; =\; \backslash frac\; =\; x+1$ for all real numbers .
Now, since is continuous in at 1, we can now plug in 1 for , leading to the equation
$$\backslash lim\_\; \backslash frac\; =\; 1+1\; =\; 2.$$
In addition to limits at finite values, functions can also have limits at infinity. For example, consider the function
$$f(x)\; =\; \backslash frac$$
where:
*
*
*
As becomes extremely large, the value of approaches , and the value of can be made as close to as one could wish—by making sufficiently large. So in this case, the limit of as approaches infinity is , or in mathematical notation,
$$\backslash lim\_\backslash frac\; =\; 2.$$
Limit of a sequence

Consider the following sequence: 1.79, 1.799, 1.7999, … It can be observed that the numbers are "approaching" 1.8, the limit of the sequence. Formally, suppose is asequence
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...

of real number
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...

s. One can state that the real number is the ''limit'' of this sequence, namely:
:$\backslash lim\_\; a\_n\; =\; L$
which is read as
:"The limit of ''areal number
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...

, there exists a natural number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ...

such that for all , we have .
Intuitively, this means that eventually, all elements of the sequence get arbitrarily close to the limit, since the absolute value
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...

is the distance between and . Not every sequence has a limit; if it does, then it is called ''convergent
Convergent is an adjective for things that wikt:converge, converge. It is commonly used in mathematics and may refer to:
*Convergent boundary, a type of plate tectonic boundary
* Convergent (continued fraction)
* Convergent evolution
* Convergent s ...

'', and if it does not, then it is ''divergent''. One can show that a convergent sequence has only one limit.
The limit of a sequence and the limit of a function are closely related. On one hand, the limit as approaches infinity of a sequence is simply the limit at infinity of a function —defined on the natural number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ...

s . On the other hand, if is the domain of a function and if the limit as approaches infinity of is for ''every'' arbitrary sequence of points in which converges to , then the limit of the function as approaches is . One such sequence would be .
Limit as "standard part"

Innon-standard analysis
The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal
In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard ...

(which involves a hyperreal enlargement of the number system), the limit of a sequence $(a\_n)$ can be expressed as the of the value $a\_H$ of the natural extension of the sequence at an infinite hypernaturalIn nonstandard analysis
The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal numbers. The standard way to resolve these debates is to define the operations of calculus ...

index ''n=H''. Thus,
:$\backslash lim\_\; a\_n\; =\; \backslash operatorname(a\_H)\; .$
Here, the standard part function "st" rounds off each finite hyperreal number to the nearest real number (the difference between them is infinitesimal
In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. They do not exist in the standard real number system, but do exist in many other number systems, such a ...

). This formalizes the natural intuition that for "very large" values of the index, the terms in the sequence are "very close" to the limit value of the sequence. Conversely, the standard part of a hyperreal $a=$/math> represented in the ultrapower construction by a Cauchy sequence $(a\_n)$, is simply the limit of that sequence:
:$\backslash operatorname(a)=\backslash lim\_\; a\_n\; .$
In this sense, taking the limit and taking the standard part are equivalent procedures.
Convergence and fixed point

A formal definition of convergence can be stated as follows. Suppose $p\_n$ as $n$ goes from $0$ to $\backslash infty$ is a sequence that converges to $p$, with $p\_n\; \backslash neq\; p$ for all $n$. If positive constants $\backslash lambda$ and $\backslash alpha$ exist with :$\backslash lim\_\; \backslash frac\; =\; \backslash lambda$ then $p\_n$ as $n$ goes from $0$ to $\backslash infty$ converges to $p$ of order $\backslash alpha$, with asymptotic error constant $\backslash lambda$. Given a function $f$ with a fixed point $p$, there is a nice checklist for checking the convergence of the sequence $p\_n$. # First check that p is indeed a fixed point: #:$f(p)\; =\; p$ # Check for linear convergence. Start by finding $\backslash left\; ,\; f\text{'}\; (p)\; \backslash right\; ,$. If… #Computability of the limit

Limits can be difficult to compute. There exist limit expressions whosemodulus of convergenceIn real analysis, a branch of mathematics, a modulus of convergence is a Function (mathematics), function that tells how quickly a convergent sequence converges. These moduli are often employed in the study of computable analysis and constructive ma ...

is undecidable. In recursion theory
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic
Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. ...

, the limit lemma proves that it is possible to encode undecidable problems using limits.''Recursively enumerable sets and degrees'', Soare, Robert I.
See also

*Asymptotic analysis
In mathematical analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and cal ...

: a method of describing limiting behavior
**Big O notation
Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function
Function or functionality may refer to:
Computing
* Function key
A function key is a key on a computer
A computer is a machine that can be ...

: used to describe the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity
* Banach limitIn mathematical analysis, a Banach limit is a continuous linear functional
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), s ...

defined on the Banach space $\backslash ell^\backslash infty$ that extends the usual limits.
* Cauchy sequence
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...

** Complete metric space
In mathematical analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with Limit (mathematics), limits
and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, Measure (mathematics), measure, sequences, Series (mathema ...

* Convergence of random variables
In probability theory
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressi ...

* Convergent matrix
* Limit in category theory
**Direct limit
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...

**Inverse limitIn mathematics
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ha ...

* Limit of a function
Although the function (sin ''x'')/''x'' is not defined at zero, as ''x'' becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin ''x'')/''x'' becomes arbitrarily close to 1. In other words, the limit of (sin ''x'')/''x'', as ''x'' approaches ze ...

** One-sided limit
In calculus, a one-sided limit is either of the two Limit of a function, limits of a function (mathematics), function ''f''(''x'') of a real number, real variable ''x'' as ''x'' approaches a specified point either from the left or from the right.
...

: either of the two limits of functions of a real variable ''x'', as ''x'' approaches a point from above or below
** List of limits
This is a list of limit (mathematics), limits for common function (mathematics), functions. In this article, the terms ''a'', ''b'' and ''c'' are constants with respect to ''x''.
Limits for general functions Definitions of limits and related co ...

: list of limits for common functions
** Squeeze theorem
In calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimal
In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zer ...

: finds a limit of a function via comparison with two other functions
* Limit point
In mathematics, a limit point (or cluster point or accumulation point) of a set S in a topological space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a Geometry, geometrical space in which Closeness (mathematics), ''closeness'' is def ...

* Limit set
* Limit superior and limit inferior
In mathematics
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...

* Modes of convergenceIn mathematics
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ha ...

** An annotated index
* Rate of convergence
In numerical analysis
(c. 1800–1600 BC) with annotations. The approximation of the square root of 2 is four sexagesimal figures, which is about six decimal figures. 1 + 24/60 + 51/602 + 10/603 = 1.41421296...
Numerical analysis is the study of ...

: the rate at which a convergent sequence approaches its limit
Notes

References

*External links

{{Authority control Convergence (mathematics) Real analysis Asymptotic analysis Differential calculus General topology