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Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic design and general engineering of various structures for construction and human use, investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of other interventions that will produce desired outcomes. The scope of the profession is broad and can be subdivided into several sub-categories including professional or licensed landscape architects who are regulated by governmental agencies and possess the expertise to design a wide range of structures and landforms for human use;
landscape design Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, u ...
which is not a licensed profession;
site plan A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by architects An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buil ...

site plan
ning;
stormwater management entering a storm drain Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates from rain, including snow and ice melt. Stormwater can soak into the soil (infiltrate), be stored on the land surface in ponds and puddles, evaporate, or contri ...
; erosion control;
environmental restoration Environmental restoration is closely allied with (or perhaps sometimes used interchangeably with) ecological restoration Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of re ...
;
park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is ...

park
s, recreation and
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private
estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
and
residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior an ...

residence
landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture may be called a
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by arch ...
, however in jurisdictions where professional licenses are required it is often only those who possess a landscape architect license who can be called a landscape architect.


Definition of landscape architecture

Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of
urban design While many assume urban design is about the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a comm ...
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
,
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biol ...
,
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
,
structural engineering Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of in which s are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man-made structures. also must understand and calculate the , strength, and earthquake-susceptibility of ...
,
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as or ...
,
environmental psychology Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other ...
,
industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototyp ...

industrial design
,
soil sciences Soil science is the study of soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, mine ...
,
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, and
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthe ...

fine art
s. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks; from the design of residential estates to the design of civil
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
; and from the management of large
wilderness Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified by human activity or any nonurbanized land not under extensive agricultural cultivation. The term has traditionally re ...

wilderness
areas to reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or
landfill A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primar ...

landfill
s. Landscape architects work on structures and external spaces in the landscape aspect of the design – large or small,
urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
,
suburban A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
and
rural In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in differen ...

rural
, and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while integrating ecological
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the overall concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are prepared. They can also review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work. Other skills include preparing design impact assessments, conducting environmental assessments and audits, and serving as an expert witness at inquiries on
land use Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified by human activity or any nonur ...
issues. The majority of their time will most likely be spent inside an office building designing and preparing models for clients.


Education

Landscape Architects are required to take four to five years of college to get a degree in the field (MLA). They learn how to create projects from scratch, such as
residential A residential area is a land used in which houses, housing predominates, as opposed to industrial district, industrial and Commercial Area, commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas. These include ...
or
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...
planting and designing outdoor living spaces they are willing to work with others to get a better outcome for the customers when doing a project; they will have to learn the basics of how to create a project on a manner of time and will require to get your license in a certain state to be allowed to work; students of Landscape Architects will learn how to interact with clients and will learn how to explain a design from scratch when giving the final project. Landscape architecture has been taught in the
University of Manchester , mottoeng = Knowledge, Wisdom, Humanity , established = 2004 – University of Manchester Predecessor institutions: 1956 – UMIST , mottoeng = By Knowledge and Work , established = 1824 , closed = 2004 (merge ...

University of Manchester
since the 1950s. The course in the
Manchester School of Architecture
Manchester School of Architecture
enables students to gain various bachelor's and master's degrees, including MLPM(Hons) which is accredited by the
Landscape Institute The Landscape Institute (LI) is a UK based professional body for the landscape profession. Its membership includes landscape architecture, landscape architects, urban designers, landscape planners, landscape scientists and landscape managers. The ...
and by the
Royal Town Planning Institute The Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) is the professional bodyRegulatory colleges are legal entities charged with serving the public interest by regulating the practice of a profession. Most regulatory colleges are legislated as requirements ...
. ''


History

For the period before 1800, the history of landscape gardening (later called landscape architecture) is largely that of master planning and
garden design Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the garden owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience and expertise. ...

garden design
for
manor houses A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a Manorialism, manor in the European feudal system; within its great hall were held the lord's manorial courts, communal ...
,
palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to eit ...

palace
s and royal properties, religious complexes, and centers of government. An example is the extensive work by
André Le Nôtre André Le Nôtre (; 12 March 1613 – 15 September 1700), originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of la ...

André Le Nôtre
for King
Louis XIV of France Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the of any monarch of a sovereign country in ...

Louis XIV of France
at the
Palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...

Palace of Versailles
. The first person to write of ''making'' a landscape was
Joseph Addison Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a Letter (message), letter, a term ...

Joseph Addison
in 1712. The term landscape architecture was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828, and
John Claudius Loudon John Claudius Loudon (8 April 1783 – 14 December 1843) was a Scottish botanist, garden designer and author. He was the first to use the term arboretum in writing to refer to a garden of plants, especially trees, collected for the purpose of sc ...

John Claudius Loudon
(1783–1843) was instrumental in the adoption of the term landscape architecture by the modern profession. He took up the term from Meason and gave it publicity in his Encyclopedias and in his 1840 book on the ''Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the Late Humphry Repton''. The practice of landscape architecture spread from the Old to the New World. The term "landscape architect" was used as a professional title by
Frederick Law Olmsted Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822August 28, 1903) was an American landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysi ...

Frederick Law Olmsted
in the United States in 1863 and
Andrew Jackson Downing Andrew Jackson Downing (October 31, 1815 – July 28, 1852) was an American landscape designer Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In c ...

Andrew Jackson Downing
, another early American
landscape designer Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In contemporary practice, landscape design bridges the space between landscape architecture and garden ...
, was editor of ''The Horticulturist'' magazine (1846–52). In 1841 his first book, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', was published to a great success; it was the first book of its kind published in the United States. During the latter 19th century, the term landscape architect began to be used by professional landscapes designers, and was firmly established after Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Beatrix Jones (later Farrand) with others founded the
American Society of Landscape Architects The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particular professio ...
(ASLA) in 1899. IFLA was founded at
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, in 1948 with Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe as its first president, representing 15 countries from
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and North America. Later, in 1978, IFLA's Headquarters were established in
Versailles
Versailles
.IFLA Past, Present, Future - A publication about the history of IFLA.


Fields of activity

The variety of the professional tasks that landscape architects collaborate on is very broad, but some examples of project types include: * Parks of general design and public infrastructure *
Sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

Sustainable development
*
Stormwater management entering a storm drain Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates from rain, including snow and ice melt. Stormwater can soak into the soil (infiltrate), be stored on the land surface in ponds and puddles, evaporate, or contri ...
including
rain gardens Rain gardens, also called bioretention A bioretention cell, also called a rain garden, in the United States. It is designed to treat polluted stormwater">United_States.html" ;"title="rain garden, in the United States">rain garden, in the United ...
,
green roofs A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a Waterproofing#Construction waterproofing, waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional lay ...
,
groundwater recharge Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a process, where moves downward from to . Recharge is the primary method through which water enters an . This process usually occurs in the below plant s and, is often expressed as ...
,
green infrastructure Green infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure refers to a network that provides the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature.Hiltrud Pötz & Pierre Bleuze (2011). Urban green-blue grids for sustainable ...
, and
constructed wetlands A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as ...
. * Landscape design for educational function and site design for public institutions and government facilities *
Park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is ...

Park
s,
botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

botanical garden
s,
arboretum An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees. More commonly a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for ...

arboretum
s, greenways, and nature preserves * Recreation facilities, such as playgrounds, golf courses, theme parks and sports facilities * Housing areas, industrial parks and commercial developments *
Estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
and
residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior an ...

residence
landscape planning Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. According to Erv Zube (1931–2002) landscape planning is defined as an activity concerned with developing landscaping amongst competing land uses while protecting natural processes and sig ...
and design * Landscaping and accents on
highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: ...

highway
s, transportation structures,
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...

bridge
s, and transit corridors * Contributions to
urban design While many assume urban design is about the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a comm ...
, town and city squares, waterfronts, pedestrian schemes * Natural park, tourist destination, and recreating historical landscapes, and historic garden appraisal and conservation studies *
Reservoirs A reservoir (; from French language, French ''réservoir'' ) is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake created using a dam to water storage, store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a wate ...
,
dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tas ...

dam
s,
power station A power station, also referred to as a power plant and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: ...

power station
s, reclamation of extractive industry applications or major industrial projects and
mitigation Mitigation is the reduction of something harmful or the reduction of its harmful effects. It may refer to measures taken to reduce the harmful effects of hazards that remain ''in potentia'', or to manage harmful incidents that have already occurred ...
*
Environmental assessment Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term "environmental impact asse ...
and landscape assessment, planning advice and land management proposals. * Coastal and offshore developments and
mitigation Mitigation is the reduction of something harmful or the reduction of its harmful effects. It may refer to measures taken to reduce the harmful effects of hazards that remain ''in potentia'', or to manage harmful incidents that have already occurred ...
*
Ecological design Ecological design or ecodesign is an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole life cycle assessment, lifecycle. It was defined by Sim Van der Ryn and Stuart Cowan as " ...
(any aspect of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with natural processes and
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
)
Landscape manager The Landscape Institute (LI) is a UK based professional body for the landscape profession. Its membership includes landscape architecture, landscape architects, urban designers, landscape planners, landscape scientists and landscape managers. The L ...
s use their knowledge of landscape processes to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape. They often work in
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
, nature
conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer to: Environment and natural resources * Nature conservation, the protection and manageme ...
and
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
. Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as
soil science Soil science is the study of soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, mine ...
,
hydrology Hydrology (from Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and ...
,
geomorphology Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geomorphology
or
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance of particular
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
in a given area. Landscape planners are concerned with
landscape planning Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. According to Erv Zube (1931–2002) landscape planning is defined as an activity concerned with developing landscaping amongst competing land uses while protecting natural processes and sig ...
for the location, scenic, ecological and recreational aspects of urban, rural, and coastal land use. Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy, and their remit includes master planning for new developments, landscape evaluations and assessments, and preparing countryside management or policy plans. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as
landscape archaeology Landscape archaeology, a sub-discipline of archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, ...
or law to the process of landscape planning.
Green roof A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a Waterproofing#Construction waterproofing, waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional la ...

Green roof
(or more specifically, vegetative roof) designers design extensive and intensive
roof garden A roof garden is a garden on the roof of a building. Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings may provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or corridors for wildlife, recreational opport ...
s for
storm water entering a storm drain Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates from rain, including snow and ice melt. Stormwater can soak into the soil (infiltrate), be stored on the land surface in ponds and puddles, evaporate, or contr ...
management, evapo-transpirative cooling,
sustainable architecture Sustainable architecture is architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in ...
, aesthetics, and habitat creation. Therapeutic/ Healing gardens are also a part of rooftop gardens. These types of gardens have proven to help reduce stress, anxiety, and even help hospital patients recover faster. Plants have always been the center of a landscape design and now with these types of gardens, it is proof that nature is a vital part of the well-being of humans. In recent years the need and interest of therapeutic gardens have been increasingly rising. The topic was vastly unknown and a main reason for this was because there was nothing written on the topic. Recently there has been a lot of research done and published on the topic and as a result, the increase of interest for therapeutic gardens has spiked.


Relation to urban planning

Through the 19th century,
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
became a focal point and central issue in cities. The combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and the emerging field of urban planning offered landscape architecture an opportunity to serve these needs. In the second half of the century,
Frederick Law Olmsted Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822August 28, 1903) was an American landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysi ...

Frederick Law Olmsted
completed a series of parks that continue to have a significant influence on the practices of landscape architecture today. Among these were
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West Side, Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the List of New York City parks, fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited ...

Central Park
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, Prospect Park in
Brooklyn, New York Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. It is the most populous Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county in the stat ...
and Boston's
Emerald Necklace The Emerald Necklace consists of a chain of parks linked by parkways and waterways in Boston and Brookline, Massachusetts. It was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, and gets its name from the way the planned chain appears ...
park system. Jens Jensen designed sophisticated and naturalistic urban and regional parks for
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
,
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Illinois
, and private estates for the Ford family including
Fair Lane Fair Lane was the estate of Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
and Gaukler Point. One of the original eleven founding members of the
American Society of Landscape Architects The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particular professio ...
(ASLA), and the only woman, was
Beatrix Farrand Beatrix Cadwalader Farrand (née Jones; June 19, 1872 – February 28, 1959) was an American landscape gardener and landscape architect. Her career included commissions to design about 110 gardens for private residences, estates and country home ...
. She was design consultant for over a dozen universities including:
Princeton Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Princeton
in
Princeton, New Jersey Princeton is a municipality with a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, off ...
;
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
in
New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York City metropolitan area. With a population ...
; and the
Arnold Arboretum The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard (cler ...
for
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard
in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
,
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
. Her numerous private
estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
projects include the landmark
Dumbarton Oaks Dumbarton Oaks is a historic estate in the GeorgetownGeorgetown or George Town may refer to: Places Africa *George, Western Cape, South Africa, formerly known as Georgetown *Janjanbureh, Gambia, formerly known as Georgetown *Georgetown, ...

Dumbarton Oaks
in the
GeorgetownGeorgetown or George Town may refer to: Places Africa *George, Western Cape, South Africa, formerly known as Georgetown *Janjanbureh, Gambia, formerly known as Georgetown *Georgetown, Ascension Island, main settlement of the British territory of A ...
neighborhood of
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
Since that time, other architects – most notably Ruth Havey and Alden Hopkins – changed certain elements of the Farrand design. Since this period urban planning has developed into a separate independent profession that has incorporated important contributions from other fields such as
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
and
public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, g ...
. Urban Planners are qualified to perform tasks independent of landscape architects, and in general, the curriculum of landscape architecture programs do not prepare students to become urban planners. Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline and to respond to the various movements in architecture and design throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession.
Roberto Burle Marx Roberto Burle Marx (August 4, 1909 – June 4, 1994) was a Brazilian landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, si ...
in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
combined the International style and native Brazilian plants and culture for a new aesthetic. Innovation continues today solving challenging problems with contemporary design solutions for master planning, landscapes, and gardens.
Ian McHarg Ian L. McHarg (20 November 1920 – 5 March 2001) was a Scottish landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site ...
was known for introducing environmental concerns in landscape architecture. He popularized a system of analyzing the layers of a site in order to compile a complete understanding of the qualitative attributes of a place. This system became the foundation of today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS). McHarg would give every qualitative aspect of the site a layer, such as the history, hydrology, topography, vegetation, etc. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the Earth's surface and is similarly used by urban planners, geographers, forestry and natural resources professionals, etc.


Profession

In many countries, a professional
institute An institute is an organisation An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences), ...

institute
, comprising members of the professional community, exists in order to protect the standing of the profession and promote its interests, and sometimes also regulate the practice of landscape architecture. The standard and strength of legal regulations governing landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation, with some requiring licensure in order to practice; and some having little or no regulation. In
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
,
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, parts of
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
, landscape architecture is a regulated profession.


Argentina

Since 1889, with the arrival of the French architect and urbanist landscaper
Carlos Thays
Carlos Thays
, recommended to recreate the National Capital's parks and public gardens, it was consolidated an apprentice and training program in landscaping that eventually became a regulated profession, currently the leading academic institution is the UBA University of Buenos Aires''"UBA Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo"'' (Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism) offering a Bacherlor's degree in Urban Landscaping Design and Planning, the profession itself is regulated by the National Ministry of Urban Planning of Argentina and the Institute of the
Buenos Aires Botanical Garden The Buenos Aires Botanical Garden (official name in Spanish: ''Jardín Botánico Carlos Thays de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires'') is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ...
.


Australia

The
Australian Institute of Landscape Architects The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) is the Australian Nonprofit organization, not-for-profit professional body, professional institute formed to serve the mutual interests of Australian landscape architecture, landscape architec ...
(AILA) provides accreditation of university degrees and non-statutory professional registration for landscape architects. Once recognized by AILA, landscape architects use the title 'Registered Landscape Architect' across the six states and territories within Australia. AILA's system of professional recognition is a national system overseen by the AILA National Office in Canberra. To apply for AILA Registration, an applicant usually needs to satisfy a number of pre-requisites, including university qualification, a minimum number years of practice and a record of professional experience. Landscape Architecture within Australia covers a broad spectrum of planning, design, management, and research. From specialist design services for government and private sector developments through to specialist professional advice as an expert witness.


Canada

In Canada, landscape architecture, like law and medicine, is a self-regulating profession pursuant to provincial statute. For example, Ontario's profession is governed by the Ontario Association of Landscape Architects pursuant to the ''Ontario Association of Landscape Architects Act''. Landscape architects in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta must complete the specified components of L.A.R.E (Landscape Architecture Registration Examination) as a prerequisite to full professional standing. Provincial regulatory bodies are members of a national organization, the Canadian Society of Landscape Architects / L'Association des Architectes Paysagistes du Canada (CSLA-AAPC), and individual membership in the CSLA-AAPC is obtained through joining one of the provincial or territorial components.


Indonesia

ISLA (Indonesia Society of Landscape Architects) is the Indonesian society for professional landscape architects formed on 4 February 1978 and is a member of IFLA APR and IFLA World. The main aim is to increase the dignity of the professional members of landscape architects by increasing their activity role in community service, national and international development. The management of IALI consists of National Administrators who are supported by 20 Regional Administrators (Provincial level) and 3 Branch Managers at city level throughout Indonesia. Landscape architecture education in Indonesia was held in 18 universities, which graduated D3, Bachelor and Magister graduates. The landscape architecture education incorporate in Association of Indonesian Landscape Architecture Education.


Italy

AIAPP (Associazione Italiana Architettura del Paesaggio) is the Italian association of professional landscape architects formed in 1950 and is a member of IFLA and IFLA Europe (formerly known as EFLA). AIAPP is in the process of contesting this new law which has given the Architects' Association the new title of Architects, Landscape Architects, Planners and Conservationists whether or not they have had any training or experience in any of these fields other than Architecture. In Italy, there are several different professions involved in landscape architecture: *Architects *Landscape designers *Doctor landscape agronomists and Doctor landscape foresters, often called Landscape agronomists. *Agrarian Experts and Graduated Agrarian experts.


New Zealand

The New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects (NZILA) is the professional body for Landscape Architects in NZ. In April 2013, NZILA jointly with AILA, hosted the 50th International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) World Congress in Auckland, New Zealand. The World Congress is an international conference where Landscape Architects from all around the globe meet to share ideas around a particular topic. Within NZ, Members of NZILA when they achieve their professional standing, can use the title Registered Landscape Architect NZILA. NZILA provides an education policy and an accreditation process to review education programme providers; currently there are three accredited undergraduate Landscape Architecture programmes in New Zealand. Lincoln University also has an accredited masters programme in landscape architecture.


Norway

Landscape architecture in Norway was established in 1919 at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) at Ås. The Norwegian School of Landscape Architecture at the Faculty of Landscape and Society is responsible for Europe's oldest landscape architecture education on an academic level. The departments areas include design and design of cities and places, garden art history, landscape engineering, greenery, zone planning, site development, place making and place keeping.


South Africa

In May 1962, Joane Pim, Ann Sutton, Peter Leutscher and Roelf Botha (considered the forefathers of the profession in South Africa) established the Institute for Landscape Architects, now known as the Institute for Landscape Architecture in South Africa (ILASA). ILASA is a voluntary organisation registered with the South African Council for the Landscape Architectural Profession (SACLAP). It consists of three regional bodies, namely, Gauteng, KwaZula-Natal and the Western Cape. ILASA's mission is to advance the profession of landscape architecture and uphold high standards of professional service to its members, and to represent the profession of landscape architecture in any matter which may affect the interests of the members of the institute. ILASA holds the country's membership with The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA). In South Africa, the profession is regulated by SACLAP, established as a statutory council in terms of Section 2 of the South African Council for the Landscape Architectural Profession Act – Act 45 of 2000. The Council evolved out of the Board of Control for Landscape Architects (BOCLASA), which functioned under the Council of Architects in terms of The Architectural Act, Act 73 of 1970. SACLAP's mission is to establish, direct, sustain and ensure a high level of professional responsibilities and ethical conduct within the art and science of landscape architecture with honesty, dignity and integrity in the broad interest of public health, safety and welfare of the community. After completion of an accredited under-graduate and/or post-graduate qualification in landscape architecture at either the University of Cape Town or the University of Pretoria, or landscape technology at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, professional registration is attained via a mandatory mentored candidacy period (minimum of two years) and sitting of the professional registration exam. After successfully completing the exam, the individual is entitled to the status of Professional Landscape Architect or Professional Landscape Technologist.


United Kingdom

The UK's professional body is the
Landscape Institute The Landscape Institute (LI) is a UK based professional body for the landscape profession. Its membership includes landscape architecture, landscape architects, urban designers, landscape planners, landscape scientists and landscape managers. The ...
(LI). It is a chartered body that accredits landscape professionals and university courses. At present there are fifteen accredited programmes in the UK. Membership of the LI is available to students, academics and professionals, and there are over 3,000 professionally qualified members. The Institute provides services to assist members including support and promotion of the work of landscape architects; information and guidance to the public and industry about the specific expertise offered by those in the profession; and training and educational advice to students and professionals looking to build upon their experience. In 2008, the LI launched a major recruitment drive entitled "I want to be a Landscape Architect" to encourage the study of Landscape Architecture. The campaign aimed to raise the profile of landscape architecture and highlight its valuable role in building sustainable communities and fighting climate change. As of July 2018, the "I want to be a Landscape Architect" initiative was replaced by a brand new careers campaign entitled ''#ChooseLandscape'', which aims to raise awareness of landscape as a profession; improve and increase access to landscape education; and inspire young people to choose landscape as a career. This new campaign includes other landscape-related professions such as landscape management, landscape planning, landscape science and urban design.


United States

In the United States, Landscape Architecture is regulated by individual state governments. For a landscape architect, obtaining licensure requires advanced education and work experience, plus passage of the national examination called The Landscape Architect Registration Examination (L.A.R.E.). Several states require passage of a state exam as well. In the United States licensing is overseen both at the state level, and nationally by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards (CLARB). Landscape architecture has been identified as an above-average growth profession by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and was listed in ''U.S. News & World Reports list of Best Jobs to Have in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The national trade association for United States landscape architects is the
American Society of Landscape Architects The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) is a professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particular professio ...
. Frederic Law Olmsted, who designed Central Park in New York City, is known as the "father of American Landscape Architecture".


Examples

File:Molières (24) Sautet potager (2).JPG, Potager in Molières, Dordogne, Dordogne, France File:Kloster Bebenhausen Alte Bewässerungsgräben.jpg, Monastery garden Bebenhausen Abbey in Baden-Württemberg, Germany File:Arch at entrance to walled kitchen garden - geograph.org.uk - 935467.jpg, Entrance to walled Kitchen garden in Norfolk, United Kingdom File:Coulommiers Vue Jardin Medieval.jpg, Medieval garden (reconstruction) in Île-de-France, France File:Saihouji-kokedera01.jpg, Woodland in Saihō-ji (Kyoto), Saihō-ji, Japan File:Shigain-monzeki05s4592.jpg, Japanese garden in Ōtsu, Shiga, Ōtsu, Japan File:Chinese garden.jpg, Chinese garden, Classical Chinese garden File:Pinjore Gardens at night.jpg, Garden lighting in Pinjore, India File:Henckelska gården 3.jpg, Topiary in Helsingborg, Sweden File:Crow Asian Sculpture Garden 01.jpg, Asian sculpture garden in Texas, United States File:The monolith.JPG, Gustav Vigeland, Vigeland sculpture garden in Oslo, Norway File:Giardini pensili 2.jpg, Roof terrace garden (Ventimiglia, Italy) File:El Escorial-Gardens.jpg, Escorial Formal palace garden in Madrid, Spain File:Medieval garden of Sainte-Agnes.jpg, Mediterranean garden in Alpes-Maritimes, France File:Herb Garden - geograph.org.uk - 1404860.jpg, Herb garden in Warwickshire, United Kingdom File:Villa la magia 03.JPG, Use of steps at Villa la Magia, in Quarrata, Italy File:Lurie Garden in sun.jpg, Lurie Garden in
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
, United States, GGN & Piet Oudolf File:High Line Park the new second section.jpg, High Line (second section) A repurposed area in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, United States File:MADRID PARQUE MADRID RIO SOLSTICIO AÑO 2015 VIEW Ð - panoramio.jpg, Parque Madrid Rio Formal use of water in Madrid, Spain File:Schouwburgplein Rotterdam DSCF3134.JPG, Schouwburgplein (Rotterdam), Schouwburgplein Urban park in Rotterdam, Netherlands File:911 Memorial Park.jpg, 911 Memorial Park A memorial park in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
United States


See also

* Energy-efficient landscaping, Energy-efficient landscape design * Environmental graphic design *
Green roof A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a Waterproofing#Construction waterproofing, waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional la ...

Green roof
* Hard landscape materials * Landscape architecture design competitions * Landscape detailing * Landscape painting * Landscape engineering * Landscape products * Landscape urbanism * List of landscape architects * List of schools of landscape architecture * Planting design * Principles of intelligent urbanism * Soft landscape materials * Sustainable landscape architecture * Topocide * Urban forestry * Urban reforestation


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Landscape Architecture Landscape architecture, Architecture Environmental social science