Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the subtribe Canina
, which also includes wolves and the domestic dog
, among other species. While the word "jackal" has historically been used for many small canines, in modern use it most commonly refers to three species: the closely related black-backed jackal
and side-striped jackal
of sub-Saharan-Africa, and the golden jackal
of south-central Europe and Asia.
Jackals are opportunistic omnivores, predators of small to medium-sized animals and proficient scavenger
s. Their long legs and curved canine teeth
are adapted for hunting small mammal
s, birds, and reptile
s, and their large feet and fused leg bones give them a physique well-suited for long-distance running, capable of maintaining speeds of for extended periods of time. Jackals are crepuscular
, most active at dawn and dusk.
Their most common social unit
is a monogamous
pair, which defends its territory from other pairs by vigorously chasing intruding rivals and marking landmarks
around the territory
with their urine
. The territory may be large enough to hold some young adults, which stay with their parents until they establish their own territories. Jackals may occasionally assemble in small pack
s, for example, to scavenge a carcass, but they normally hunt either alone or in pairs.
The English word "jackal" dates back to 1600 and derives from the French ''chacal'', derived from the Persian
', which is in turn derived from the Sanskrit
शृगाल ''śṛgāla'' meaning "the howler".
Taxonomy and relationships
Similarities between jackals and coyotes led Lorenz Oken
, in the third volume of his ''Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte'' (1815), to place these species into a new separate genus, ''Thos'', named after the classical Greek word "jackal", but his theory had little immediate impact on taxonomy at the time. Angel Cabrera
, in his 1932 monograph on the mammals of Morocco
, questioned whether or not the presence of a cingulum
on the upper molars
of the jackals and its corresponding absence in the rest of ''Canis'' could justify a subdivision of that genus. In practice, Cabrera chose the undivided-genus alternative and referred to the jackals as ''Canis'' instead of ''Thos''.
Oken's ''Thos'' theory was revived in 1914 by Edmund Heller
, who embraced the separate genus theory. Heller's names and the designations he gave to various jackal species and subspecies live on in current taxonomy, although the genus has been changed from ''Thos'' to ''Canis''.
[Thos vs Canis](_blank)
The wolf-like canids are a group of large carnivores that are genetically closely related because they all have 78 chromosome
s. The group includes genus ''Canis'', ''Cuon'', and ''Lycaon''. The members are the dog
''(C. lupus familiaris)'', gray wolf
(''C. lupus''), coyote
(''C. latrans''), golden jackal
(''C. aureus''), Ethiopian wolf
(''C. simensis''), black-backed jackal
(''C. mesomelas''), side-striped jackal
(''C. adustus''), dhole
(''Cuon alpinus''), and African wild dog
[ The latest recognized member is the African golden wolf (''C. anthus''), which was once thought to be an African branch of the golden jackal.] [ As they possess 78 chromosomes, all members of the genus ''Canis'' are karyologically indistinguishable from each other, and from the dhole and the African hunting dog.] [ The two African jackals are shown to be the most basal members of this clade, indicating the clade's origin from Africa.] [ ''Canis arnensis'' arrived in Mediterranean Europe 1.9 million years ago and is probably the ancestor of modern jackals.
The paraphyletic nature of ''Canis'' with respect to ''Lycaon'' and ''Cuon'' has led to suggestions that the two African jackals should be assigned to different genera, ''Schaeffia'' for the side-striped jackal and ''Lupulella'' for the black-backed jackal] or ''Lupulella'' for both. [
The intermediate size and shape of the Ethiopian wolf has at times led it to be regarded as a jackal, thus it has also been called the "red jackal" or the "Simien jackal".
Folklore, mythology, and literature
* Like foxes and coyotes, jackals are often depicted as clever sorcerers in the myths and legends of their regions.
* The jackal (likely the golden jackal, given its present range) is mentioned roughly 14 times in the Bible. It is frequently used as a literary device to illustrate desolation, loneliness, and abandonment, with reference to its habit of living in the ruins of former cities and other areas abandoned by humans. It is called "wild dog" in several translations of the Bible.
* In the King James translation of the Bible, Isaiah 13:21 refers to 'doleful creatures', which some commentators suggest are either jackals or hyenas.
* Literature in India and Pakistan compares jackal with lion in terms of courage. A famous saying is "One day life of a lion is better than a hundred years life of a jackal (Tipu Sultan)".
* In Bengali tantrik traditions jackals are considered as representative of Goddess Kali. It is said that the Goddess appears as jackals when meat is offered to her.
* Serer religion and creation myth posits the jackal was among the first animals created by Roog, the supreme deity of the Serer people.
* ''The New Encyclopedia of Mammals'' edited by David Macdonald, Oxford University Press, 2001;
* ''Cry of the Kalahari'', by Mark and Delia Owens, Mariner Books, 1992.
* ''The Velvet Claw: A Natural History of the Carnivores'', by David MacDonald, BBC Books, 1992.
* ''Foxes, Wolves, and Wild Dogs of the World'', by David Alderton, Facts on File, 2004.
at the African Wildlife Foundation
at A-Z Animals
''Jackals of the African Crater''
Jackal is a meaningless term
Category:Mammals described in 1758
Category:Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus
Category:Mammal common names