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Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of
infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. They do not exist in the standard real number system, but do exist in many other number systems, such a ...
s", is the
mathematical Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
study of continuous change, in the same way that
geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mat ...

geometry
is the study of shape and
algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. In its most ge ...

algebra
is the study of generalizations of
arithmetic operations Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so for ...
. It has two major branches,
differential calculus In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
and
integral calculus In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that describes displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. The process of finding integrals is called integration. Along with Deriv ...
; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while integral calculus concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the
fundamental theorem of calculus The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of derivative, differentiating a function (mathematics), function (calculating the gradient) with the concept of integral, integrating a function (calculating the area under t ...
, and they make use of the fundamental notions of
convergence Convergence may refer to: Arts and media Literature *Convergence (book series), ''Convergence'' (book series), edited by Ruth Nanda Anshen *Convergence (comics), "Convergence" (comics), two separate story lines published by DC Comics: **A four-par ...
of
infinite sequence In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gene ...
s and
infinite series In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
to a well-defined
limit Limit or Limits may refer to: Arts and media * Limit (music), a way to characterize harmony * Limit (song), "Limit" (song), a 2016 single by Luna Sea * Limits (Paenda song), "Limits" (Paenda song), 2019 song that represented Austria in the Eurov ...
. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
and
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, ', "having learned much"; Latin Latin (, or , ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. Today, calculus has widespread uses in
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
, and
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

economics
. In
mathematics education In contemporary education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidan ...
, ''calculus'' denotes courses of elementary
mathematical analysis Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with Limit (mathematics), limits and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, Measure (mathematics), measure, sequences, Series (mathematics), series, and analytic ...
, which are mainly devoted to the study of
functions Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
and limits. The word ''calculus'' (plural ''calculi'') is a
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word, meaning originally "small pebble" (this meaning is kept in medicine – see
Calculus (medicine) A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Formation of calculi is known as lithiasis (). Stones can cause a number of medical conditions. Som ...
). Because such pebbles were used for counting (or measuring) a distance travelled by transportation devices in use in ancient Rome, the meaning of the word has evolved and today usually means a method of computation. It is therefore used for naming specific methods of calculation and related theories, such as
propositional calculus Propositional calculus is a branch of logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fal ...
,
Ricci calculus In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
,
calculus of variations The calculus of variations is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in Function (mathematics), functions and functional (mathematics), functionals, to find maxima and minima of functionals: Map (mathematic ...
,
lambda calculus Lambda calculus (also written as ''λ''-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computability, computation based on function Abstraction (computer science), abstraction and function application, application using variable N ...
, and
process calculus In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algorit ...
.


History

Modern calculus was developed in 17th-century Europe by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
and
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, ', "having learned much"; Latin Latin (, or , ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
(independently of each other, first publishing around the same time) but elements of it appeared in ancient Greece, then in China and the Middle East, and still later again in medieval Europe and in India.


Ancient

The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to
integral In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...

integral
calculus, but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous and systematic way. Calculations of
volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact ...

volume
and
area Area is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value in ...

area
, one goal of integral calculus, can be found in the
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
Moscow papyrus ( 13th dynasty,  BC); but the formulas are simple instructions, with no indication as to method, and some of them lack major components. From the age of
Greek mathematics Greek mathematics refers to mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical ...
, Eudoxus ( BC) used the
method of exhaustion The method of exhaustion (; ) is a method of finding the area Area is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of ...

method of exhaustion
, which foreshadows the concept of the limit, to calculate areas and volumes, while
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

Archimedes
( BC) developed this idea further, inventing
heuristics A heuristic (; ), or heuristic technique, is any approach to problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their transla ...

heuristics
which resemble the methods of integral calculus. The method of exhaustion was later discovered independently in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
by
Liu Hui Liu Hui () was a Chinese mathematician and writer who lived in the state of Cao Wei Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei or Former Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms perio ...
in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. In the 5th century AD, Zu Gengzhi, son of
Zu Chongzhi Zu Chongzhi (; 429–500 AD), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
, established a method that would later be called
Cavalieri's principle In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space t ...
to find the volume of a
sphere A sphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

sphere
.


Medieval

In the Middle East, Hasan Ibn al-Haytham, Latinized as
Alhazen Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinization of names, Latinized as Alhazen ; full name ; ) was a Muslim Arab Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematician, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomer, and Physics in the medieval Islamic world, ...
( CE) derived a formula for the sum of
fourth power In arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, έχνη ''tiké échne', 'ar ...
s. He used the results to carry out what would now be called an
integration
integration
of this function, where the formulae for the sums of integral squares and fourth powers allowed him to calculate the volume of a
paraboloid In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of ...

paraboloid
.Katz, V.J. 1995. "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India." ''Mathematics Magazine'' (Mathematical Association of America), 68(3):163–174. In the 14th century, Indian mathematicians gave a non-rigorous method, resembling differentiation, applicable to some trigonometric functions.
Madhava of Sangamagrama Iriññāttappiḷḷi Mādhavan Nampūtiri known as Mādhava of Sangamagrāma () was an Indian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes t ...
and the
Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics or the Kerala school was a school of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algeb ...
thereby stated components of calculus. A complete theory encompassing these components is now well known in the Western world as the ''
Taylor series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...
'' or ''
infinite series In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
approximations''. However, they were not able to "combine many differing ideas under the two unifying themes of the
derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...

derivative
and the
integral In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...

integral
, show the connection between the two, and turn calculus into the great problem-solving tool we have today".


Modern

In Europe, the foundational work was a treatise written by
Bonaventura Cavalieri Bonaventura Francesco Cavalieri ( la, Bonaventura Cavalerius; 1598 – 30 November 1647) was an Italian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) ...

Bonaventura Cavalieri
, who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in '' The Method'', but this treatise is believed to have been lost in the 13th century, and was only rediscovered in the early 20th century, and so would have been unknown to Cavalieri. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results, and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. The formal study of calculus brought together Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time.
Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat (; between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of suc ...

Pierre de Fermat
, claiming that he borrowed from
Diophantus Diophantus of Alexandria ( grc, Διόφαντος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; born probably sometime between AD 200 and 214; died around the age of 84, probably sometime between AD 284 and 298) was an Alexandrian mathematician, who was the autho ...
, introduced the concept of
adequality Adequality is a technique developed by Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat (; between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French people, French mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal ...
, which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. The combination was achieved by
John Wallis John Wallis (; la, Wallisius; ) was an English clergyman and mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), f ...

John Wallis
,
Isaac Barrow Isaac Barrow (October 1630 – 4 May 1677) was an English Christian theologian and mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental ...

Isaac Barrow
, and James Gregory, the latter two proving the
second fundamental theorem of calculus The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of derivative, differentiating a function (mathematics), function with the concept of integral, integrating a function. The first part of the theorem, sometimes called the fi ...
around 1670. The
product rule In calculus, the product rule (or Leibniz rule or Leibniz product rule) is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more Functions (mathematics), functions. For two functions, it may be stated in Notation for differentiatio ...
and chain rule, the notions of
higher derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
s and
Taylor series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...
, and of
analytic function In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
s were used by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
in an idiosyncratic notation which he applied to solve problems of
mathematical physics Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The '' Journal of Mathematical Physics'' defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the developme ...
. In his works, Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time, replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion, the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid, the oblateness of the earth, the motion of a weight sliding on a
cycloid In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space t ...

cycloid
, and many other problems discussed in his ''
Principia Mathematica Image:Principia Mathematica 54-43.png, 500px, ✸54.43: "From this proposition it will follow, when arithmetical addition has been defined, that 1 + 1 = 2." – Volume I, 1st editionp. 379(p. 362 in 2nd edition; p. 360 in abridged v ...
'' (1687). In other work, he developed series expansions for functions, including fractional and irrational powers, and it was clear that he understood the principles of the
Taylor series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...
. He did not publish all these discoveries, and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. These ideas were arranged into a true calculus of infinitesimals by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, ', "having learned much"; Latin Latin (, or , ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
, who was originally accused of
plagiarism Plagiarism is the representation of another author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data ...

plagiarism
by Newton.Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. ''The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz''. Cosimo, Inc., 2008. p. 228
Copy
/ref> He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for working with infinitesimal quantities, allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives, and providing the
product rule In calculus, the product rule (or Leibniz rule or Leibniz product rule) is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more Functions (mathematics), functions. For two functions, it may be stated in Notation for differentiatio ...
and chain rule, in their differential and integral forms. Unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism, often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Today,
Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...
and
Newton Newton most commonly refers to: * Isaac Newton (1642–1726/1727), English scientist * Newton (unit), SI unit of force named after Isaac Newton Newton may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * Newton (film), ''Newton'' (film), a 2017 Indian fil ...

Newton
are usually both given credit for independently inventing and developing calculus. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration, second and higher derivatives, and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. By Newton's time, the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results, there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. Newton derived his results first (later to be published in his ''
Method of Fluxions ''Method of Fluxions'' (latin De Methodis Serierum et Fluxionum) is a book by Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive ...
''), but Leibniz published his "
Nova Methodus pro Maximis et Minimis "Nova Methodus pro Maximis et Minimis" is the first published work on the subject of calculus. It was published by Gottfried Leibniz in the ''Acta Eruditorum'' in October 1684. It is considered to be the birth of infinitesimal calculus. Full title ...
" first. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes, which Newton had shared with a few members of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exis ...
. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental European mathematicians for many years, to the detriment of English mathematics. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently, with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. It is Leibniz, however, who gave the new discipline its name. Newton called his calculus " the science of fluxions". Since the time of Leibniz and Newton, many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. One of the first and most complete works on both infinitesimal and
integral calculus In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that describes displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. The process of finding integrals is called integration. Along with Deriv ...
was written in 1748 by
Maria Gaetana Agnesi Maria Gaetana Agnesi ( , , ; 16 May 1718 – 9 January 1799) was an Italian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Maria Gaetana Agnesi
.


Foundations

In calculus, ''foundations'' refers to the rigorous development of the subject from
axiom An axiom, postulate or assumption is a statement that is taken to be truth, true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek ''axíōma'' () 'that which is thought worthy or fit' o ...

axiom
s and definitions. In early calculus the use of
infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. They do not exist in the standard real number system, but do exist in many other number systems, such a ...
quantities was thought unrigorous, and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors, most notably
Michel Rolle Michel Rolle (21 April 1652 – 8 November 1719) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République franç ...

Michel Rolle
and
Bishop Berkeley George Berkeley (; 12 March 168514 January 1753) – known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne of the Anglican Church of Ireland) – was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory ...

Bishop Berkeley
. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book ''
The Analyst ''The Analyst'' (subtitled ''A Discourse Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician: Wherein It Is Examined Whether the Object, Principles, and Inferences of the Modern Analysis Are More Distinctly Conceived, or More Evidently Deduced, Than Religious M ...
'' in 1734. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz, and is still to some extent an active area of research today. Several mathematicians, including
MaclaurinMaclaurin or MacLaurin is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Colin Maclaurin (1698–1746), Scottish mathematician * Normand MacLaurin (1835–1914), Australian politician and university administrator * Henry Normand MacLaurin (18 ...
, tried to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals, but it would not be until 150 years later when, due to the work of
Cauchy Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy (; ; 21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was ...

Cauchy
and
Weierstrass Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (german: link=no, Weierstraß ; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematics, mathematician often cited as the "father of modern mathematical analysis, analysis". Despite leaving university withou ...

Weierstrass
, a way was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities. The foundations of differential and integral calculus had been laid. In Cauchy's ''
Cours d'Analyse ''Cours d'Analyse de l’École Royale Polytechnique; I.re Partie. Analyse algébrique'' is a seminal textbook in infinitesimal calculus published by Augustin-Louis Cauchy in 1821. The article follows the translation by Bradley and Sandifer in de ...
'', we find a broad range of foundational approaches, including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals, and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε, δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of
limit Limit or Limits may refer to: Arts and media * Limit (music), a way to characterize harmony * Limit (song), "Limit" (song), a 2016 single by Luna Sea * Limits (Paenda song), "Limits" (Paenda song), 2019 song that represented Austria in the Eurov ...

limit
and eliminated infinitesimals (although his definition can actually validate nilsquare infinitesimals). Following the work of Weierstrass, it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities, though the subject is still occasionally called "infinitesimal calculus".
Bernhard Riemann Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (; 17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics ...
used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to
Euclidean space Euclidean space is the fundamental space of classical geometry. Originally, it was the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean spaces of any nonnegative integer dimension (mathematics), dimens ...
and the
complex plane In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ge ...
. In modern mathematics, the foundations of calculus are included in the field of
real analysis 200px, The first four partial sums of the Fourier series for a square wave. Fourier series are an important tool in real analysis.">square_wave.html" ;"title="Fourier series for a square wave">Fourier series for a square wave. Fourier series are a ...

real analysis
, which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended.
Henri Lebesgue Henri Léon Lebesgue (; June 28, 1875 – July 26, 1941) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (a ...
invented
measure theory Measure is a fundamental concept of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contai ...
and used it to define integrals of all but the most
pathological Pathology is the study of the causesCauses, or causality, is the relationship between one event and another. It may also refer to: * Causes (band), an indie band based in the Netherlands * Causes (company), an online company See also * Cau ...
functions.
Laurent Schwartz Laurent-Moïse Schwartz (; 5 March 1915 – 4 July 2002) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as ...

Laurent Schwartz
introduced distributions, which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. Another way is to use
Abraham Robinson Abraham Robinson (born Robinsohn; October 6, 1918 – April 11, 1974) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topic ...
's
non-standard analysis The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard ...
. Robinson's approach, developed in the 1960s, uses technical machinery from
mathematical logic Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal sys ...
to augment the real number system with
infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. They do not exist in the standard real number system, but do exist in many other number systems, such a ...
and
infinite Infinite may refer to: Mathematics *Infinite set, a set that is not a finite set *Infinity, an abstract concept describing something without any limit Music *Infinite (band), a South Korean boy band *''Infinite'' (EP), debut EP of American musi ...

infinite
numbers, as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. The resulting numbers are called
hyperreal number In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
s, and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. There is also
smooth infinitesimal analysisSmooth infinitesimal analysis is a modern reformulation of the calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer ...
, which differs from non-standard analysis in that it mandates neglecting higher power infinitesimals during derivations.


Significance

While many of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
, Iraq, Persia, and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
, the use of calculus began in Europe, during the 17th century, when
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
and
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, ', "having learned much"; Latin Latin (, or , ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving
velocity The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical scie ...

velocity
and
acceleration In mechanics Mechanics (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approx ...

acceleration
, the
slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Lines'' (film), a 2016 Greek film * ''The Line'' (2017 film) * ''The Line'' (2009 film) * ''The Line'', ...

slope
of a curve, and
optimization File:Nelder-Mead Simionescu.gif, Nelder-Mead minimum search of Test functions for optimization, Simionescu's function. Simplex vertices are ordered by their values, with 1 having the lowest ( best) value., alt= Mathematical optimization (alter ...
. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area,
volume Volume is a scalar quantity expressing the amount Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact ...

volume
,
arc length Arc length is the distance between two points along a section of a curve In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to be Linearity, straight. In ...

arc length
,
center of mass In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of " ...
,
work Work may refer to: * Work (human activity) Work or labor is intentional activity people perform to support themselves, others, or the needs and wants of a wider community. Alternatively, work can be viewed as the human activity that cont ...

work
, and
pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving fr ...

pressure
. More advanced applications include
power series In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form \sum_^\infty a_n \left(x - c\right)^n = a_0 + a_1 (x - c) + a_2 (x - c)^2 + \cdots where ''an'' represents the coefficient of the ''n''th term and ''c'' is a const ...
and
Fourier series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space, time, and motion. For centuries, mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving
division by zero In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...
or sums of infinitely many numbers. These questions arise in the study of
motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position (mathematics), position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of Displacem ...
and area. The
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
philosopher gave several famous examples of such
paradoxes A paradox, also known as an antinomy, is a logically self-contradictory statement or a statement that runs contrary to one's expectation. It is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly self-con ...
. Calculus provides tools, especially the
limit Limit or Limits may refer to: Arts and media * Limit (music), a way to characterize harmony * Limit (song), "Limit" (song), a 2016 single by Luna Sea * Limits (Paenda song), "Limits" (Paenda song), 2019 song that represented Austria in the Eurov ...
and the
infinite series In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
, that resolve the paradoxes.


Principles


Limits and infinitesimals

Calculus is usually developed by working with very small quantities. Historically, the first method of doing so was by
infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. They do not exist in the standard real number system, but do exist in many other number systems, such a ...
s. These are objects which can be treated like real numbers but which are, in some sense, "infinitely small". For example, an infinitesimal number could be greater than 0, but less than any number in the sequence 1, 1/2, 1/3, ... and thus less than any positive
real number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...
. From this point of view, calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. The symbols dx and dy were taken to be infinitesimal, and the derivative dy/dx was simply their ratio. The infinitesimal approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. However, the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of
non-standard analysis The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard ...
and
smooth infinitesimal analysisSmooth infinitesimal analysis is a modern reformulation of the calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer ...
, which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. In the late 19th century, infinitesimals were replaced within academia by the epsilon, delta approach to
limits Limit or Limits may refer to: Arts and media * Limit (music) In music theory, limit or harmonic limit is a way of characterizing the harmony found in a piece or genre (music), genre of music, or the harmonies that can be made using a particular ...

limits
. Limits describe the value of a
function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby inputs. They capture small-scale behavior in the context of the
real number system Real may refer to: * Reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginary. The term is also used to refer to the ontological status of things, ind ...
. In this treatment, calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers, and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. Limits were thought to provide a more rigorous foundation for calculus, and for this reason they became the standard approach during the twentieth century.


Differential calculus

Differential calculus is the study of the definition, properties, and applications of the
derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...

derivative
of a function. The process of finding the derivative is called ''differentiation''. Given a function and a point in the domain, the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain, it is possible to produce a new function, called the ''derivative function'' or just the ''derivative'' of the original function. In formal terms, the derivative is a
linear operator In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
which takes a function as its input and produces a second function as its output. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra, where functions usually input a number and output another number. For example, if the doubling function is given the input three, then it outputs six, and if the squaring function is given the input three, then it outputs nine. The derivative, however, can take the squaring function as an input. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four, three is sent to nine, four is sent to sixteen, and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. The function produced by deriving the squaring function turns out to be the doubling function. In more explicit terms the "doubling function" may be denoted by and the "squaring function" by . The "derivative" now takes the function , defined by the expression "", as an input, that is all the information—such as that two is sent to four, three is sent to nine, four is sent to sixteen, and so on—and uses this information to output another function, the function , as will turn out. The most common symbol for a derivative is an
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
-like mark called
prime A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...

prime
. Thus, the derivative of a function called is denoted by , pronounced "f prime". For instance, if is the squaring function, then is its derivative (the doubling function from above). This notation is known as
Lagrange's notation In differential calculus In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathemat ...
. If the input of the function represents time, then the derivative represents change with respect to time. For example, if is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output, then the derivative of is how the position is changing in time, that is, it is the
velocity The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical scie ...

velocity
of the ball. If a function is
linear Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship (''function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out se ...

linear
(that is, if the
graph Graph may refer to: Mathematics *Graph (discrete mathematics), a structure made of vertices and edges **Graph theory, the study of such graphs and their properties *Graph (topology), a topological space resembling a graph in the sense of discret ...

graph
of the function is a straight line), then the function can be written as , where is the independent variable, is the dependent variable, is the ''y''-intercept, and: :m= \frac= \frac = \frac. This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. If the graph of the function is not a straight line, however, then the change in divided by the change in varies. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. To be concrete, let be a function, and fix a point in the domain of . is a point on the graph of the function. If is a number close to zero, then is a number close to . Therefore, is close to . The slope between these two points is :m = \frac = \frac. This expression is called a ''
difference quotient In single-variable calculus, the difference quotient is usually the name for the expression : \frac which when taken to the Limit of a function, limit as ''h'' approaches 0 gives the derivative of the Function (mathematics), function ''f''. The ...
''. A line through two points on a curve is called a ''secant line'', so is the slope of the secant line between and . The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point because it does not account for what happens between and . It is not possible to discover the behavior at by setting to zero because this would require dividing by zero, which is undefined. The derivative is defined by taking the
limit Limit or Limits may refer to: Arts and media * Limit (music), a way to characterize harmony * Limit (song), "Limit" (song), a 2016 single by Luna Sea * Limits (Paenda song), "Limits" (Paenda song), 2019 song that represented Austria in the Eurov ...
as tends to zero, meaning that it considers the behavior of for all small values of and extracts a consistent value for the case when equals zero: :\lim_. Geometrically, the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of at . The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. For this reason, the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function . Here is a particular example, the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. Let be the squaring function. :\beginf'(3) &=\lim_ \\ &=\lim_ \\ &=\lim_ \\ &=\lim_ (6 + h) \\ &= 6 \end The slope of the tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3, 9) is 6, that is to say, it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. This defines the ''derivative function'' of the squaring function or just the ''derivative'' of the squaring function for short. A computation similar to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function.


Leibniz notation

A common notation, introduced by Leibniz, for the derivative in the example above is : \begin y&=x^2 \\ \frac&=2x. \end In an approach based on limits, the symbol is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. Leibniz, however, did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers, being the infinitesimally small change in caused by an infinitesimally small change applied to . We can also think of as a differentiation operator, which takes a function as an input and gives another function, the derivative, as the output. For example: : \frac(x^2)=2x. In this usage, the in the denominator is read as "with respect to ". Another example of correct notation could be: \begin g(t) = t^2 + 2t + 4 \\ \\ g(t) = 2t + 2 \end Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals, it is common to manipulate symbols like and as if they were real numbers; although it is possible to avoid such manipulations, they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative.


Integral calculus

''Integral calculus'' is the study of the definitions, properties, and applications of two related concepts, the ''indefinite integral'' and the ''definite integral''. The process of finding the value of an integral is called ''integration''. In technical language, integral calculus studies two related
linear operator In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
s. The ''indefinite integral'', also known as the ''antiderivative'', is the inverse operation to the derivative. is an indefinite integral of when is a derivative of . (This use of lower- and upper-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus.) The ''definite integral'' inputs a function and outputs a number, which gives the algebraic sum of areas between the graph of the input and the x-axis. The technical definition of the definite integral involves the
limit Limit or Limits may refer to: Arts and media * Limit (music), a way to characterize harmony * Limit (song), "Limit" (song), a 2016 single by Luna Sea * Limits (Paenda song), "Limits" (Paenda song), 2019 song that represented Austria in the Eurov ...
of a sum of areas of rectangles, called a Riemann sum. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. :\mathrm = \mathrm \cdot \mathrm If the speed is constant, only multiplication is needed, but if the speed changes, a more powerful method of finding the distance is necessary. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time, then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval, and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses, then the speed will stay more or less the same. However, a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. When velocity is constant, the total distance traveled over the given time interval can be computed by multiplying velocity and time. For example, travelling a steady 50 mph for 3 hours results in a total distance of 150 miles. In the diagram on the left, when constant velocity and time are graphed, these two values form a rectangle with height equal to the velocity and width equal to the time elapsed. Therefore, the product of velocity and time also calculates the rectangular area under the (constant) velocity curve. This connection between the area under a curve and distance traveled can be extended to ''any'' irregularly shaped region exhibiting a fluctuating velocity over a given time period. If in the diagram on the right represents speed as it varies over time, the distance traveled (between the times represented by and ) is the area of the shaded region . To approximate that area, an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between and into a number of equal segments, the length of each segment represented by the symbol . For each small segment, we can choose one value of the function . Call that value . Then the area of the rectangle with base and height gives the distance (time multiplied by speed ) traveled in that segment. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it, . The sum of all such rectangles gives an approximation of the area between the axis and the curve, which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. A smaller value for will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation, but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as approaches zero. The symbol of integration is \int , an long s, elongated ''S'' (the ''S'' stands for "sum"). The definite integral is written as: :\int_a^b f(x)\, dx. and is read "the integral from ''a'' to ''b'' of ''f''-of-''x'' with respect to ''x''." The Leibniz notation is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles, so that their width becomes the infinitesimally small . In a formulation of the calculus based on limits, the notation :\int_a^b \cdots\, dx is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number, the area, as an output. The terminating differential, , is not a number, and is not being multiplied by , although, serving as a reminder of the limit definition, it can be treated as such in symbolic manipulations of the integral. Formally, the differential indicates the variable over which the function is integrated and serves as a closing bracket for the integration operator. The indefinite integral, or antiderivative, is written: :\int f(x)\, dx. Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative, and it can be shown that the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. Since the derivative of the function , where is any constant, is , the antiderivative of the latter is given by: :\int 2x\, dx = x^2 + C. The unspecified constant present in the indefinite integral or antiderivative is known as the constant of integration.


Fundamental theorem

The
fundamental theorem of calculus The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of derivative, differentiating a function (mathematics), function (calculating the gradient) with the concept of integral, integrating a function (calculating the area under t ...
states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. More precisely, it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral, the fundamental theorem of calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. The fundamental theorem of calculus states: If a function is continuous function, continuous on the interval and if is a function whose derivative is on the interval , then :\int_^ f(x)\,dx = F(b) - F(a). Furthermore, for every in the interval , :\frac\int_a^x f(t)\, dt = f(x). This realization, made by both
Newton Newton most commonly refers to: * Isaac Newton (1642–1726/1727), English scientist * Newton (unit), SI unit of force named after Isaac Newton Newton may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * Newton (film), ''Newton'' (film), a 2017 Indian fil ...

Newton
and
Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...
, who based their results on earlier work by
Isaac Barrow Isaac Barrow (October 1630 – 4 May 1677) was an English Christian theologian and mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental ...

Isaac Barrow
, was key to the proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives, and are ubiquitous in the sciences.


Applications

Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences, actuarial science, computer science, statistics,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
,
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

economics
, business, medicine, demography, and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematical model, mathematically modeled and an optimization (mathematics), optimal solution is desired. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa, and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Physics makes particular use of calculus; all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are related through calculus. The mass of an object of known density, the moment of inertia of objects, as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's laws of motion, Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "change of motion" which implies the derivative saying ''The'' change ''of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction.'' Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration, it implies differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating, we use calculus to derive its path. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Albert Einstein, Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. In biology, population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. For example, it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. In analytic geometry, the study of graphs of functions, calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima), slope, Concave function, concavity and inflection points. Green's Theorem, which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C, is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter, which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. For example, it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. Discrete Green's Theorem, which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve ''C'' and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve, allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. For example, it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images, in order to rapidly extract features and detect object; another algorithm that could be used is the summed area table. In the realm of medicine, calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body, it is used to derive dosing laws. In nuclear medicine, it is used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. In economics, calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations; in practice it is the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. Examples are methods such as Newton's method, fixed point iteration, and linear approximation. For instance, spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments.


Varieties

Over the years, many reformulations of calculus have been investigated for different purposes.


Non-standard calculus

Imprecise calculations with infinitesimals were widely replaced with the rigorous (ε, δ)-definition of limit starting in the 1870s. Meanwhile, calculations with infinitesimals persisted and often led to correct results. This led
Abraham Robinson Abraham Robinson (born Robinsohn; October 6, 1918 – April 11, 1974) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topic ...
to investigate if it were possible to develop a number system with infinitesimal quantities over which the theorems of calculus were still valid. In 1960, building upon the work of Edwin Hewitt and Jerzy Łoś, he succeeded in developing
non-standard analysis The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard ...
. The theory of non-standard analysis is rich enough to be applied in many branches of mathematics. As such, books and articles dedicated solely to the traditional theorems of calculus often go by the title non-standard calculus.


Smooth infinitesimal analysis

This is another reformulation of the calculus in terms of
infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals or infinitesimal numbers are quantities that are closer to zero than any standard real number, but are not zero. They do not exist in the standard real number system, but do exist in many other number systems, such a ...
s. Based on the ideas of F. W. Lawvere and employing the methods of category theory, it views all functions as being continuous function, continuous and incapable of being expressed in terms of Discrete mathematics, discrete entities. One aspect of this formulation is that the law of excluded middle does not hold in this formulation.


Constructive analysis

Constructive mathematics is a branch of mathematics that insists that proofs of the existence of a number, function, or other mathematical object should give a construction of the object. As such constructive mathematics also rejects the law of excluded middle. Reformulations of calculus in a constructive framework are generally part of the subject of constructive analysis.


See also


Lists

* Glossary of calculus * List of calculus topics * List of derivatives and integrals in alternative calculi * List of differentiation identities * List of publications in mathematics#Calculus, Publications in calculus * Table of integrals


Other related topics

* Calculus of finite differences * Calculus with polynomials * Complex analysis * Differential equation * Differential geometry and topology, Differential geometry * ''Elementary Calculus: An Infinitesimal Approach'' * Discrete calculus *
Fourier series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
* Integral equation * Mathematical analysis * Multivariable calculus * Non-classical analysis * Non-standard analysis * Non-standard calculus * Precalculus (Mathematics education, mathematical education) * Product integral * Stochastic calculus *
Taylor series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...


References


Further reading


Books

* Carl Benjamin Boyer, Boyer, Carl Benjamin (1949)
''The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development''
Hafner. Dover edition 1959, * Richard Courant, Courant, Richard ''Introduction to calculus and analysis 1.'' * Edmund Landau. ''Differential and Integral Calculus'', American Mathematical Society. * Robert A. Adams. (1999). ''Calculus: A complete course''. * Albers, Donald J.; Richard D. Anderson and Don O. Loftsgaarden, ed. (1986) ''Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985–1986 Survey'', Mathematical Association of America No. 7. * John Lane Bell: ''A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis'', Cambridge University Press, 1998. . Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. * Florian Cajori, "The History of Notations of the Calculus." ''Annals of Mathematics'', 2nd Ser., Vol. 25, No. 1 (Sep. 1923), pp. 1–46. * Leonid P. Lebedev and Michael J. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics, Ch. 1: The Tools of Calculus", Princeton Univ. Press, 2004. * Cliff Pickover. (2003). ''Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind''. * Michael Spivak. (September 1994). '' Calculus''. Publish or Perish publishing. * Tom M. Apostol. (1967). ''Calculus, Volume 1, One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra''. Wiley. * Tom M. Apostol. (1969). ''Calculus, Volume 2, Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications''. Wiley. * Silvanus P. Thompson and Martin Gardner. (1998). ''Calculus Made Easy''. * Mathematical Association of America. (1988). ''Calculus for a New Century; A Pump, Not a Filter'', The Association, Stony Brook, NY. ED 300 252. * Thomas/Finney. (1996). ''Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th'', Addison Wesley. * Weisstein, Eric W
"Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus."
From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. * Howard Anton, Irl Bivens, Stephen Davis:"Calculus", John Willey and Sons Pte. Ltd., 2002. * Ron Larson (mathematician), Larson, Ron, Bruce H. Edwards (2010). ''Calculus'', 9th ed., Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. * McQuarrie, Donald A. (2003). ''Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers'', University Science Books. * * James Stewart (mathematician), Stewart, James (2012). ''Calculus: Early Transcendentals'', 7th ed., Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. * George B. Thomas, Thomas, George B., Maurice D. Weir, Joel Hass, Frank R. Giordano (2008), ''Calculus'', 11th ed., Addison-Wesley.


Online books

* * Crowell, B. (2003). "''Calculus''". Light and Matter, Fullerton. Retrieved 6 May 2007 fro
http://www.lightandmatter.com/calc/calc.pdf
* Garrett, P. (2006). "''Notes on first year calculus''". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 6 May 2007 fro
http://www.math.umn.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.pdf
* Faraz, H. (2006). "''Understanding Calculus''". Retrieved 6 May 2007 from UnderstandingCalculus.com, URL http://www.understandingcalculus.com (HTML only) * Keisler, H.J. (2000). "''Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals''". Retrieved 29 August 2010 fro

* Mauch, S. (2004). "''Sean's Applied Math Book''" (pdf). California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 6 May 2007 fro
https://web.archive.org/web/20070614183657/http://www.cacr.caltech.edu/~sean/applied_math.pdf
* Sloughter, Dan (2000). "''Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus''". Retrieved 17 March 2009 fro
http://synechism.org/drupal/de2de/
* Stroyan, K.D. (2004). "''A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus''". University of Iowa. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from https://web.archive.org/web/20050911104158/http://www.math.uiowa.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.htm (HTML only) * Strang, G. (1991). "''Calculus''" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 6 May 2007 fro

* Smith, William V. (2001). "''The Calculus''". Retrieved 4 July 200

(HTML only).


External links

* * *
Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. Thompson
Full text in PDF *
Calculus.org: The Calculus page
at University of California, Davis – contains resources and links to other sites
COW: Calculus on the Web
at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra

* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080704114104/http://integrals.wolfram.com/ Online Integrator (WebMathematica)] from Wolfram Research
The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics
from ERICDigests.org

from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Infinitesimal Calculus
nbsp;– an article on its historical development, in ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'', ed. Michiel Hazewinkel. *
Calculus Problems and Solutions
by D.A. Kouba


Calculus training materials at imomath.com
*
The Excursion of Calculus
1772 {{Authority control Calculus,