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In
photometryPhotometry can refer to: * Photometry (optics), the science of measurement of visible light in terms of its perceived brightness to human vision * Photometry (astronomy), the measurement of the flux or intensity of an astronomical object's electroma ...
, illuminance is the total
luminous flux In photometryPhotometry can refer to: * Photometry (optics), the science of measurement of visible light in terms of its perceived brightness to human vision * Photometry (astronomy), the measurement of the flux or intensity of an astronomical ...

luminous flux
incident on a surface, per unit
area Area is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value in ...

area
. It is a measure of how much the incident
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nan ...

light
illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by the
luminosity function A luminous efficiency function or luminosity function represents the average spectral sensitivity Spectral sensitivity is the relative efficiency of detection, of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the por ...
to correlate with human brightness perception.International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): ''International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.'
ref. 845-21-060, illuminance
/ref> Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface. Luminous emittance is also known as luminous exitance. In
SI units The International System of Units, known by the international abbreviation SI in all languages and sometimes pleonastically as the SI system, is the modern form of the metric system The metric system is a system of measurement A sys ...
illuminance is measured in
lux The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven SI base unit, base units specified by the International System of Units (SI). They are either dimensionless quantity, dimensionless or ...

lux
(lx), or equivalently in
lumens The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit SI derived units are units of measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, wh ...
per
square metre The square metre ( international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (french: Bureau international des poids et mesures, BIPM) is an intergovernmental organi ...
( lm·−2). Luminous exitance is measured in lm·m−2 only, not lux. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): ''International Electrotechnical Vocabulary.'
ref. 845-21-081, luminous exitance
/ref> In the system, the unit of illuminance is the
phot A phot (ph) is a photometricPhotometry can refer to: * Photometry (optics), the science of measurement of visible light in terms of its perceived brightness to human vision * Photometry (astronomy), the measurement of the flux or intensity of an ...
, which is equal to . The
foot-candle A foot-candle (sometimes foot candle; abbreviated fc, lm/ft2, or sometimes ft-c) is a non-SI unit of illuminance In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area Area is the quantity that expresse ...
is a non-metric unit of illuminance that is used in
photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...

photography
. Illuminance was formerly often called
brightness Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target. It is not necessarily proportional to lumina ...

brightness
, but this leads to confusion with other uses of the word, such as to mean
luminance Luminance is a photometricPhotometry can refer to: * Photometry (optics), the science of measurement of visible light in terms of its perceived brightness to human vision * Photometry (astronomy), the measurement of the flux or intensity of an ...

luminance
. "Brightness" should never be used for quantitative description, but only for nonquantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light. The human eye is capable of seeing somewhat more than a 2 trillion-fold range: The presence of white objects is somewhat discernible under starlight, at , while at the bright end, it is possible to read large text at 108 lux, or about 1000 times that of direct
sunlight Sunlight is a portion of the given off by the , in particular , , and light. On , sunlight is and through , and is obvious as when the Sun is above the . When direct is not blocked by s, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of b ...

sunlight
, although this can be very uncomfortable and cause long-lasting
afterimage An afterimage is an image that continues to appear in the eyes after a period of exposure to the original image. An afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be pathological ( palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be ...

afterimage
s.


Common illuminance levels


Astronomy

In
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
, the illuminance stars cast on the Earth's atmosphere is used as a measure of their brightness. The usual units are s in the visible band. V-magnitudes can be converted to lux using the formula :E_\mathrm = 10^, where ''E''v is the illuminance in lux, and ''M''v is the apparent magnitude. The reverse conversion is :M_\mathrm = -14.18-2.5 \log(E_\mathrm).


See also

*
Irradiance In radiometry Radiometry is a set of techniques for measuring ' Measurement is the numerical quantification of the attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. The scope and application of measure ...

Irradiance
*
Exposure value In photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agr ...
*
Luminance Luminance is a photometricPhotometry can refer to: * Photometry (optics), the science of measurement of visible light in terms of its perceived brightness to human vision * Photometry (astronomy), the measurement of the flux or intensity of an ...

Luminance


References


External links


Illuminance Converter
* Knowledgedoor, LLC (2005

* Kodak's guide t
Estimating Luminance and Illuminance
using a camera's exposure meter. Also available i
PDF form
{{Authority control Physical quantities Photometry