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A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same
dwelling In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, group or ...

dwelling
and share meals. It may also consist of a single
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...

family
or another group of people. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social,
microeconomic Microeconomics is a branch of mainstream economics Mainstream economics is the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught by universities worldwide, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion. Also ...
and government models, and is important to
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was fo ...

economics
and
inheritance Inheritance is the practice of passing on private property, Title (property), titles, debts, entitlements, Privilege (law), privileges, rights, and Law of obligations, obligations upon the death of an individual. The rules of inheritance differ ...

inheritance
. Household models include families,
blended families A step family, blended family, bonus family, or instafamily is a family where at least one parent has children that are not biologically or adoptive related to the other spouse or partner. Either parent, or both, may have children from previous r ...
, shared housing,
group home A group home is a residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space ...
s,
boarding house A boarding house is a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex structure of wood, masonry, concrete or other material, outfitted with plumbing, electrical, and hea ...
s, houses of multiple occupancy (UK), and single room occupancy (US). In
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discov ...
societies, the royal household and
medieval household The medieval household was, like modern households, the center of family life for all classes of European society. Yet in contrast to the household of today, it consisted of many more individuals than the nuclear family. From the household of the k ...
s of the wealthy included servants and other retainers.


Government definitions

For statistical purposes in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, a household is defined as "one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and for a group, either share at least one
meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any in ...

meal
a day or share the living accommodation, that is, a
living room In Western architecture, a living room, also called a lounge room (Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Aus ...

living room
or sitting room". The introduction of legislation to control houses of multiple occupations in the UK Housing Act (2004) See section 258 on p. 201. required a tighter definition of a single household. People can be considered a household if they are related: full- or half-blood, foster, step-parent/child, in-laws (and equivalent for unmarried couples), a married couple or unmarried but "living as ..." (same- or different-sex couples). The
United States Census The United States Census (plural censuses or census) is a census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, population. This term is used ...
definition also hinges on "separate living quarters": "those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building." According to the U.S. census, a householder is the "person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained)"; if no person qualifies, any adult resident of a housing unit is considered a householder. The U.S. government formerly used "head of the household" and "head of the family", but those terms were replaced with "householder" in 1980. In the census definition of a household, it On July 15, 1998,
Statistics Canada Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the government agency, agency of the Government of Canada commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, Economy of ...
said: "A household is generally defined as being composed of a person or group of persons who co-reside in, or occupy, a dwelling."


Economic definition

Although a one-income-stream economic theory simplifies modeling, it does not necessarily reflect reality. Many, if not most, households have several income-earning members. Most economic models do not equate households and traditional families, and there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families.


Social definitions

In
social work Social work is an academic discipline and practice-based professional learning, practice-based profession that concerns itself with individuals, Family, families, social group, groups, communities, and society as a whole in an effort to meet basi ...

social work
, a household is defined similarly: a residential group in which
houseworkHouse Work may refer to: *Homemaking, management of a home *House Work (novel), ''House Work'' (novel), a 1994 novel by Kristina McGrath *House Work (song), "House Work" (song), a 2016 song by Jax Jones {{Disambiguation ...
is divided and performed by householders.
Care CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, formerly Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) is a major international humanitarian aid, humanitarian agency delivering emergency relief and long-term international development proj ...

Care
may be delivered by one householder to another, depending upon their respective needs, abilities, and (perhaps)
disabilities A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or effectively interact with the world around them (socially or materially). These conditions, or impairments, may be cognitive Cognition () ...

disabilities
. Household composition may affect life and health expectations and outcomes for its members.Pdf.
Eligibility for
community services Volunteers complete a cleanup of litter and trash Community service is unpaid work performed by a person or group of people for the benefit and betterment of their community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commona ...
and
welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and b ...
benefits may depend upon household composition. In
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly ...
, household work strategy (a term coined by
Ray PahlRaymond Edward Pahl (17 July 1935 – 3 June 2011) was a British sociologist, best known for his studies of social interaction, polarisation, work and friendship in suburban and post-industrial communities. Biography He was born in London, and atte ...
in his 1984 book, ''Divisions of Labour'') is the
division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distri ...
among members of a household. Household work strategies vary over the life cycle as household members age, or with the economic environment; they may be imposed by one person, or be decided collectively.
Feminism Feminism is a range of s and that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social . Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, and that women are treated unjustly within ...

Feminism
examines how
gender role A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, ...
s affect the division of labour in households. In ''
The Second Shift ''The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home'' is a book by Arlie Russell Hochschild with Anne Machung, first published in 1989. It was reissued in 2012 with updated data. In the text, Hochschild investigates and portrays the ...
'' and ''The Time Bind'', sociologist
Arlie Russell Hochschild Arlie Russell Hochschild (; born January 15, 1940) is an American professor emerita of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public ...

Arlie Russell Hochschild
presents evidence that in two-career couples men and women spend about equal amounts of time working; however, women spend more time on housework.
Cathy Young Catherine Alicia Young (born Yekaterina Jung russian: Екатерина Юнг; born February 10, 1963) is a Russian-born American journalist. Young is primarily known for her writing about rape and feminism. She is the author of two books, a fre ...

Cathy Young
(another feminist writer) says that in some cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting.


Models

Household models in the
English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...
include traditional and blended families, shared housing, and
group home A group home is a residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space ...
s for people with support needs. Other models which may meet definitions of a household include
boarding house A boarding house is a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex structure of wood, masonry, concrete or other material, outfitted with plumbing, electrical, and hea ...
s,
houses in multiple occupation A house in multiple occupation (HMO), or a house of multiple occupancy, is a British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spok ...
(UK), and single room occupancy (US).


History

In
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discov ...
or
aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The term derives from the Greek ''aristokrat ...
societies, a household may include servants or retainers who derive their income from the household's principal income.


Housing statistics


Housing conditions


Belgium

A 1961–62 National Housing Institute survey estimated that 13.8 percent of Belgian dwellings were unfit and incapable of improvement. A further 19.5 percent were unfit but had the potential to be improved, and 54 percent were considered suitable (without alteration or improvement) for modern living standards. Seventy-four percent of dwellings lacked a shower or bath, 19 percent had inadequate sewage disposal, and 3.6 percent lacked a drinking-water supply; 36.8 percent had an indoor
water closet A flush toilet (also known as a flushing toilet, water closet (WC) – see also Toilet#Names, toilet names) is a toilet that disposes of human waste (principally urine and feces) by using the force of water to ''flush'' it through a drainpipe to ...
. According to a 1964 study, 13 percent of Belgium's housing consisted of
slum A slum is a highly populated urban Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities. Urban may also refer to: Gen ...

slum
s.


France

Between 1954 and 1973, the percentage of French homes with a shower or bath increased from 10 to 65 percent. During that period, the percentage of homes without flush toilets fell from 73 to 30 percent; homes without running water fell from 42 to 3.4 percent. A 1948 law permitted gradual, long-term rent increases for existing flats on the condition that part of the money was spent on repairs. According to
John Ardagh
John Ardagh
, the law, "vigorously applied, was partly successful in its twofold aim: to encourage both repairs and new building."


United Kingdom

After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, a large percentage of British housing was single-family housing. Seventy-eight percent of housing in 1961 consisted of single-family homes, compared to 56 percent in the Netherlands, 49 percent in West Germany and 32 percent in France. In England and Wales in 1964, 6.6 percent of housing units had two or fewer rooms; 5.8 percent had seven or more rooms, 15.2 percent had six rooms, 35.1 percent had five rooms, 26.3 percent had four rooms, and 11.1 percent had three rooms. These figures included kitchens when they were used for eating meals. Fifty percent of 1964 housing had three bedrooms; 1.9 percent had five or more bedrooms, 6.2 percent had four bedrooms, 10.5 percent had one bedroom or none, and 31.3 percent had two bedrooms. A 1960 social survey estimated that 0.6 percent of households in England and Wales exceeded the statutory overcrowding standard; the 1964 percentage was 0.5 percent. In 1964, 6.9 of all households exceeded one person per room. The 1960 figure was 11 percent, with 1.75 percent having two or more bedrooms below the standard and 9.25 percent having one bedroom below the standard. This declined slightly by 1964 to 9.4 percent of households below the standard, with 8.1 percent having one bedroom below the standard and 1.3 percent having two bedrooms or more below the standard. According to local authorities in 1965, five percent of the housing stock in England and Wales was unfit for habitation.


U.S. and Canada

Housing conditions improved in Canada and the U.S. after World War II. In the U.S., 35.4 percent of all 1950 dwellings did not have complete plumbing facilities; the figure fell to 16.8 percent in 1960 and 8.4 percent in 1968. In Canada from 1951 to 1971, the percentage of dwellings with a bath or shower increased from 60.8 to 93.4 percent; the percentage of dwellings with hot and cold running water increased from 56.9 to 93.5 percent. In the United States from 1950 to 1974, the percentage of housing without full plumbing fell from 34 to three percent; during that period, the percentage of housing stock considered dilapidated fell from nine percent to less than four.


See also

*
Dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also con ...

Dwelling
*
Oikos The ancient Greek word ''oikos'' (ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the ...
* List of countries by number of households *
Household economicsHousehold economics analyses all the decisions made by household. These analyses are both at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. This field analyse the structures of the household and their behaviour: it includes decision making, division of l ...
*
Household final consumption expenditure Household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) is a transaction of the national account's use of income account representing consumer spending. It consists of the expenditureExpenditure is an outflow of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, ...
*
Household income in the United States Household income Household income is a measure of the combined incomes of all people sharing a particular household A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also consist of ...
* Household production *
Family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...

Family
*
Intra-household bargainingIntra-household bargaining refers to negotiations that occur between members of a household in order to arrive at decisions regarding the household unit, like whether to spend or save, whether to study or work. Bargaining is traditionally defined ...
*
Roommate A roommate is a person with whom one shares a living facility such as a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical ...
*
Group home A group home is a residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space ...
*
Hoju ''Hoju'' is a family register Civil registration is the system by which a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad assoc ...
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
*
Home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior and exterior aspects to it. Homes provide sheltered spaces for i ...

Home
*
Homemaker Homemaking is mainly an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United ...
*
Medieval household The medieval household was, like modern household A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more househ ...
* Royal Household


References


Sources

* ''The Economist Book Of Vital World Statistics: A Complete Guide To The World In Figures'' (introduction by
Claus Moser Claus Adolf Moser, Baron Moser, (24 November 1922 – 4 September 2015) was a British statistician who made major contributions in both academia and the Civil Service (United Kingdom), Civil Service. He prided himself rather on being a non-mathe ...
). The Economist Books, fourth reprint, paperback edition, October 1992. Contains a section, "Consumer Durables", with estimates of household ownership of a wide range of consumer durables in
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
and East European countries.


External links

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * {{Authority control Family economics National accounts Family concepts