HOME

TheInfoList




In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding
vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruit In ...

vegetables
and other plants consumed for
macronutrients A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ta ...
, with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, for medicinal purposes, or for fragrances. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from
spices A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was release ...

spices
. ''Herbs'' generally refers to the
leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaf
y green or
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
ing parts of a plant (either fresh or dried), while ''spices'' are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
s,
bark Bark may refer to: * Bark (botany), an outer layer of a woody plant * Bark (sound), a vocalization of some animals Places * Bark, Germany * Bark, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Bark'' (Jefferson Airp ...
,
root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large grou ...

root
s and
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
s. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, aromatic and in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and
medicinal herb File:Benjamin Rush Medicinal Plant Garden - IMG 7245.JPG, upright=1.3, Medicinal plants Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hund ...
s; in medicinal or spiritual use, any parts of the plant might be considered as "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (and
cambium A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in plants, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic ...
),
resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. Resins are usually mixtures of organic compounds. This article focus ...

resin
and
pericarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is ...
. The word "herb" is pronounced in
Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to be confused with ), to the area of later nam ...
, but is common among
North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes ...
speakers and those from other regions where
h-dropping H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken language ...

h-dropping
occurs. In botany, the noun "herb" refers to a "plant that does not produce a woody stem", and the adjective "herbaceous" means "herb-like", referring to parts of the plant that are green and soft in texture".


Definition

In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, the term herb refers to a
herbaceous plant Herbaceous plants are vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), ...
, defined as a small, seed-bearing plant without a woody stem in which all aerial parts (i.e. above ground) die back to the ground at the end of each
growing season A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and the amount of daylight. The growing season is that portion of the year in which local conditions (i.e. rainfall, temperature, daylight) permit normal plant morphology#Grow ...
. Usually the term refers to
perennials A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term (''wikt:per-#Prefix, per-'' + ''wikt:-ennial#Suffix, -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annual pla ...
, although herbaceous plants can also be annuals (plants that die at the end of the growing season and grow back from seed next year), or
biennial Biennial means (an event) lasting for two years or occurring every two years. The related term biennium is used in reference to a period of two years. In particular, it can refer to: * Biennial plant, a plant which blooms in its second year and th ...
s. This term is in contrast to
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

shrub
s and
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s which possess a woody stem. Shrubs and trees are also defined in terms of size, where shrubs are less than ten meters tall, and trees may grow over ten meters. The word herbaceous is derived from Latin ''herbāceus'' meaning "grassy", from ''herba'' "grass, herb". Another sense of the term herb can refer to a much larger range of plants, with culinary, therapeutic or other uses. For example, some of the most commonly described herbs such as ,
rosemary ''Salvia rosmarinus'', commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native plant, native to the Mediterranean Region, Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known ...

rosemary
and
lavender ''Lavandula'' (common name lavender) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living or ...
would be excluded from the botanical definition of a herb as they do not die down each year, and they possess woody stems. In the wider sense, herbs may be herbaceous perennials but also trees, subshrubs, shrubs, annuals,
liana A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communic ...

liana
s,
fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

fern
s,
moss Mosses are small, non-vascular flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plant ...

moss
es,
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Co ...

algae
,
lichen A lichen ( , ) is a composite organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecu ...

lichen
s, and
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
.
Herbalism Herbal medicine (also herbalism) is the study of pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy is the study of plants and other natural substances as possible sources of drug Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a mi ...
can utilize not just stems and leaves but also fruit, roots, bark and gums. Therefore, one suggested definition of a herb is a plant which is of use to humans, although this definition is problematic since it could cover a great many plants that are not commonly described as herbs.


History

Ancient Greek philosopher
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Le ...

Theophrastus
divided the plant world into trees, shrubs, and herbs. Herbs came to be considered in three groups, namely pot herbs (e.g. onions), sweet herbs (e.g. thyme), and salad herbs (e.g. wild celery). During the seventeenth century as
selective breeding Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding Animal breeding is a branch of animal science Animal science (also bioscience) is described as "studying the biology Biology i ...
changed the plants size and flavor away from the wild plant, pot herbs began to be referred to as
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the edible flower, flowers, ...

vegetable
s as they were no longer considered only suitable for the pot. Botany and the study of herbs was, in its infancy, primarily a study of the pharmacological uses of plants. During the Middle Ages, when
humoral theory Humourism, the humoural theory or humouralism, was a system of medicine detailing a supposed makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and ...
guided medicine, it was posited that foodstuffs, possessing their own humoral qualities, could alter the humoral temperaments of people. Parsley and sage were often used together in medieval cookery, for example in
chicken broth Broth, also known as bouillon [], is a Umami, savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, or vegetables have been simmering, simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most commonly used to prepare other dishes, such as soup Soup ...
, which had developed a reputation as a therapeutic food by the 14th century. One of the most common sauces of the age,
green sauce Green sauce or greensauce is a family of cold, uncooked sauces based on chopped herbs, including the Spanish cuisine, Spanish and Italian cuisine, Italian ''salsa verde'', the French cuisine, French ''sauce verte'', the German cuisine, German '' ...
, was made with parsley and often sage as well. In a 14th-century recipe recorded in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
"for lords, for settling their temperament and whetting their appetite" green sauce is served with a dish of cheese and whole egg yolks boiled in watered down wine with herbs and spices.


Reproduction

Perennial herbs A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term (''wikt:per-#Prefix, per-'' + ''wikt:-ennial#Suffix, -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annual p ...
are usually reproduced by stem cuttings, either softwood cuttings of immature growth, or hardwood cuttings where the bark has been scraped to expose the
cambium A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in plants, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic ...
layer. A cutting will usually be approximately 3 to 4 inches in length. Plant roots can grow from the stems. Leaves are stripped from the lower portion up to one half before the cutting is placed in growth medium or rooted in a glass of water. This process requires high humidity in the environment, sufficient light, and root zone heat.


Uses


Culinary

Culinary herbs are distinguished from
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the edible flower, flowers, ...

vegetable
s in that, like spices, they are used in small amounts and provide
flavor Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...

flavor
rather than substance to
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
. Herbs can be perennials such as
thyme Thyme () is the herb (dried aerial parts) of some members of the genus ''Thymus The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism ...

thyme
, sage or lavender, biennials such as
parsley Parsley, or garden parsley (''Petroselinum ''Petroselinum'' (parsley) is a genus of two species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land p ...

parsley
, or annuals like
basil Basil (, also ; ''Ocimum basilicum''), also called great basil, is a culinary herb of the Family (biology), family Lamiaceae (mints). Basil is native to tropical regions from central Africa to Southeast Asia. It is a Hardiness (plants), ten ...

basil
. Perennial herbs can be shrubs such as rosemary (''Rosmarinus officinalis''), or trees such as
bay laurel ''Laurus nobilis'' is an aromatic tree or large with green, smooth leaves, in the family . It is native to the and is used as for seasoning in cooking. Its common names include bay tree (esp. United Kingdom), bay laurel, sweet bay, true ...
(''Laurus nobilis'') – this contrasts with botanical herbs, which by definition cannot be woody plants. Some plants are used as both herbs and spices, such as
dill Dill (''Anethum graveolens'') is an annual plant, annual herbaceous, herb in the celery family Apiaceae. It is the only species in the genus ''Anethum''. Dill is grown widely in Eurasia, where its leaves and seeds are used as a herb or spice fo ...

dill
weed and dill seed or
coriander Coriander (;
coriander
leaves and seeds. There are also some herbs, such as those in the
mint family The Lamiaceae ( ) or Labiatae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social ter ...

mint family
, that are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
(742–814) compiled a list of 74 different herbs that were to be planted in his gardens. The connection between herbs and health is important already in the European Middle Ages--''
The Forme of Cury ''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition ...
'' (that is, "cookery") promotes extensive use of herbs, including in salads, and claims in its preface "the assent and advisement of the masters of physic and philosophy in the King's Court".


Teas

Some herbs can be infused in boiling water to make
herbal tea #REDIRECT Herbal tea #REDIRECT Herbal tea Herbal teas—less commonly called tisanes (UK and US , US also )—are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herb In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that ...

herbal tea
s (also termed tisanes). Typically the dried leaves, flowers or seeds are used, or fresh herbs are used. Herbal teas tend to be made from aromatic herbs, may not contain
tannin Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of , ic s that bind to and s and various other organic compounds including s and s. The term ''tannin'' (from ''tanner'', from ''tannāre'', from ''tannum'', ) refers to the use of oak and other bark ...
s or
caffeine Caffeine is a central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structu ...

caffeine
, and are not typically mixed with milk. Common examples include chamomile tea, or . Herbal teas are often used as a source of relaxation or can be associated with rituals.


Medicine

Herbs were used in prehistoric medicine. As far back as 5000 BCE, evidence that
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", iĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian)from ''The ...

Sumer
ians used herbs in medicine was inscribed on cuneiform. In 162 CE, the physician
Galen Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ( el, Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 – c. AD 216), often Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modi ...
was known for concocting complicated herbal remedies that contained up to 100 ingredients. Some plants contain
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s that have effects on the body. There may be some effects when consumed in the small levels that typify culinary "spicing", and some herbs are toxic in larger quantities. For instance, some types of herbal extract, such as the extract of St. John's-wort (''
Hypericum perforatum ''Hypericum perforatum'', known as perforate St John's-wort, is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders ...

Hypericum perforatum
'') or of kava ('' Piper methysticum'') can be used for medical purposes to relieve depression and stress. However, large amounts of these herbs may lead to toxic overload that may involve complications, some of a serious nature, and should be used with caution. Complications can also arise when being taken with some prescription medicines. Herbs have long been used as the basis of traditional
Chinese herbal medicine Chinese herbology () is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine#REDIRECT Traditional Chinese medicine {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capital ...
, with usage dating as far back as the first century CE and far before. In India, the
Ayurveda Ayurveda () is an alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systema ...

Ayurveda
medicinal system is based on herbs. Medicinal use of herbs in Western cultures has its roots in the
Hippocratic Hippocrates of Kos (; grc-gre, Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; ), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nati ...
(Greek) elemental healing system, based on a quaternary elemental healing metaphor. Famous herbalist of the Western tradition include
Avicenna Ibn Sina ( fa, ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (), Pur Sina (), and often known in the West as Avicenna (;  – June 1037), was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, t ...

Avicenna
(Persian),
Galen Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ( el, Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 – c. AD 216), often Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modi ...
(Roman),
Paracelsus Paracelsus (; c. 1493 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist Depiction of Ouroboros from the alchemical treatise ''Aurora ...

Paracelsus
(German Swiss), Culpepper (English) and the botanically inclined Eclectic physicians of 19th century/early 20th century America (
John Milton Scudder Dr. John Milton Scudder was a 19th-century physician and practitioner of eclectic medicine. He was born September 8, 1829, in Ohio and died February 17, 1894. He was a Swedenborgian by faith. Career Scudder came to medicine late in life after losin ...
,
Harvey Wickes Felter Harvey Wickes Felter (1865–1927) was an eclectic medicine doctor and author of ''Eclectic Materia Medica''. He was co-author, with John Uri Lloyd, of ''King's American Dispensatory''. Works * ''Biographies of John King, Andrew Jackson Howe, and ...
,
John Uri Lloyd John Uri Lloyd (19 April 1849 – 9 April 1936) was an United States, American pharmacist and leader of the eclectic medicine movement who was influential in the development of pharmacognosy, ethnobotany, economic botany, and herbalism.Michael A. ...

John Uri Lloyd
). Modern pharmaceuticals had their origins in crude herbal medicines, and to this day, some drugs are still extracted as fractionate/isolate compounds from raw herbs and then purified to meet pharmaceutical standards. There is a record dated 1226 for '12d for Roses for Baron's Chamber and in 1516 for flowers and rushes for chambers for henry the 9th Certain herbs contain psychoactive properties that have been used for both religious and recreational purposes by humans since the early
Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene E ...
era, notably the leaves and extracts of the
cannabis ''Cannabis'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...

cannabis
and
coca Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-bei ...

coca
plants. The leaves of the coca plant have been chewed by people in northern
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
vian societies for over 8,000 years, while the use of cannabis as a psychoactive substance dates back to the first century CE in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
and northern
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
.
Indigenous Australian Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
peoples developed " bush medicine" based on plants that were readily available to them. The isolation of these groups meant the remedies developed were for far less serious diseases than the western illnesses they contracted during colonisation. Herbs such as
river mint:''The plant Mentha australis is also known as river mint.'' The River Mint is a river in Cumbria, England. The Mint starts life at Whelpside at the confluence of Bannisdale Beck, running south-east from Bannisdale Head, and a smaller stream draini ...
, and
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a of over seven hundred species of s, shrubs or in the , Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the , including ', they are commonly known as s. Plants in the genus ''Eucalyptus'' have bark that is either smooth, ...

eucalyptus
were used for coughs, diarrhea, fever and headaches.


Ritual

Herbs are used in many
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
s. During the monastic era, monks would cultivate herbs alongside vegetables, while others would be set aside in a
physic garden File:Petersfield Physic Garden - geograph.org.uk - 17502.jpg, upPetersfield Physic Garden A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants. Botanical gardens developed from them. History Modern botanical gardens were preceded by med ...
for specific purposes. For example,
myrrh Myrrh (; from Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religion ...
(''Commiphora myrrha'') and
frankincense Frankincense (also known as olibanum) is an aromatic forms of benzene (top) combine to produce an average structure (bottom) In chemistry, aromaticity is a property of cyclic compound, cyclic (ring (chemistry), ring-shaped), plane (geometry), p ...
(''Boswellia'' species) in
Hellenistic religion The concept of Hellenistic religion as the late form of Ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was ...
, the
nine herbs charm The "Nine Herbs Charm" is an Old English charm recorded in the tenth-century CEGordon (1962:92–93). Anglo-Saxon medical compilation known as '' Lacnunga'', which survives on in the manuscript London, British Library, Harley 585.Macleod (2006:127 ...
in Anglo-Saxon paganism,
neem ''Azadirachta indica'', commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany Honduran mahogany Mahogany is a straight-Wood grain, grained, reddish-brown timber of three Tropics, tropical hardwood species of the genus ...

neem
(''Azadirachta indica'') leaves,
baelBael may refer to: *'' Aegle marmelos'', commonly known as the ''Bael tree'' * Bael (demon) * Bael (wrestler) See also * Baal (disambiguation) * Bail (disambiguation) {{disambiguation ...

bael
(''Aegele marmelos'') leaves, holy basil or ''tulsi'' (''
Ocimum tenuiflorum ''Ocimum tenuiflorum'' (synonym ''Ocimum sanctum''), commonly known as holy basil or ''tulsi'', is an aromatic perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'' ...

Ocimum tenuiflorum
''),
turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also ) is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...
or "haldi" (''Curcuma longa''),
cannabis ''Cannabis'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...

cannabis
in
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, and
white sage ''Salvia apiana'', the white sage, bee sage, or sacred sage is an evergreen Perennial plant, perennial shrub that is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, found mainly in the coastal sage scrub habitat of Southern Calif ...

white sage
in
Wicca Wicca () is a modern Pagan religion. Scholars of religion categorise it as both a new religious movement A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spirituality, spiritual ...
.
Rastafari Rastafari, also known as the Rastafari movement or Rastafarianism, is a that developed in during the 1930s. It is classified as both a and a by . There is no central authority in control of the movement and much diversity exists among prac ...
also consider
cannabis ''Cannabis'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...
to be a holy plant.
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
n
shaman Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner (shaman) interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through altered states of consciousness An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind ...

shaman
s also used herbs for spiritual purposes. Plants may be used to induce spiritual experiences for rites of passage, such as
vision quest A vision quest is a rite of passage in some Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas, cultures. It is usually only undertaken by young males entering adulthood. Individual Indigenous c ...
s in some
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
cultures. The
Cherokee The Cherokee (; chr, ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, translit=Aniyvwiyaʔi or Anigiduwagi, or chr, ᏣᎳᎩ, links=no, translit=Tsalagi) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, ...

Cherokee
Native Americans use both
white sage ''Salvia apiana'', the white sage, bee sage, or sacred sage is an evergreen Perennial plant, perennial shrub that is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, found mainly in the coastal sage scrub habitat of Southern Calif ...

white sage
and cedar for spiritual cleansing and smudging.


Cosmetics

Originally there was always doubt in ancient societies, especially in the sceptical medium of western traditions, as to the efficacity of herbal medicines. The use of herbal cosmetics dates back to around six centuries ago in the European and Western countries. Mixtures and pastes were often concocted to whiten the face. During the 1940s, herbal cosmetics took a turn with the emerging red lipstick color, with every year gaining a more intense red. Herbal cosmetics come in many forms, such as face creams, scrubs, lipstick, natural fragrances, powders, body oils, deodorants and sunscreens. They activate through the epithelium of sebaceous glands to make the skin more supple. Ayurvedic oils are widely used in India, prized for their natural health-giving properties. One method and perhaps the best, used to extract natural oils from herbs to make lipstick is
partition chromatographyPartition chromatography theory and practice was introduced through the work and publications of Archer Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge during the 1940s. They would later win in 1952 the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their invention of p ...
. The process involves separation in watery solution, and then the injection of colour under pressure.


Other

Strewing herbs are scattered (strewn) over the floors of dwelling places and other buildings. Such plants usually have fragrant or astringent smells, and many also serve as insecticides (e.g. to repel fleas) or disinfectants. For example, (''Filipendula ulmaria'') was sometimes strewn across floors in the middle ages because of its sweet smell.


See also

*
Apothecary :''"Apothecary" may also refer to Pharmacy (shop) A pharmacy (also called "drugstore" in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of ...

Apothecary
* Herb chopper * Herb farm * International Herb Association * Outline of herbs and spices


References


External links

*
§ 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe
US Code of Federal Regulations {{Authority control Herbs, Food and drink decorations