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Hendiatris (from the el|ἓν διὰ τρεῖς, ''hen dia treis'', "one through three") (pronounced ) is a figure of speech used for emphasis, in which three words are used to express one idea. The phrase ''wine, women and song'' is an example. If the units involved are not single words, and if they are not in any way synonyms but rather ''circumnavigate'' the one idea expressed, the figure may be described more correctly, precisely, and succinctly as a triad. A tripartite motto is the conventional English term for a motto, a slogan, or an advertising phrase in the form of a hendiatris. Some well-known examples are Julius Caesar's ''Veni, vidi, vici'' (an example of a tricolon) and the motto of the French Republic: ''Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité''; the phrase ''Peace, Order and Good Government'' is used as a guiding principle in the parliaments of the Commonwealth of Nations.

In the ancient and classical world

In rhetorical teaching, such triple iterations marked the classic rhythm of Ciceronian style, typified by the triple rhetorical questions of his first Oration Against Catiline: In ancient Greece and Rome, such abstractions as liberty and justice were theologized (cf. triple deity). Hence the earliest tripartite mottoes are lists of the names of goddesses: ''Eunomia'', ''Dike'', and ''Eirene''. These late Greek goddesses, respectively ''Good Order, Justice, and Peace'' were collectively referred to by the Romans as the ''Horae''. The Romans had ''Concordia'', ''Salus'', and ''Pax'', collectively called the ''Fortunae''. The names of these mean ''Harmony, Health, and Peace''.

In Shakespeare

* "Cry God for ''Harry, England and St. George''" (''Henry V'') * "''Friends, Romans, countrymen,'' lend me your ears" (''Julius Caesar'') * "Be ''bloody, bold, and resolute''" (''Macbeth'') * "Love all, trust a few. Do wrong to none." (''All's well that ends well'') * "Serve God, love me, and mend." (''Much Ado About Nothing'')

Since the Renaissance and the Enlightenment

From the 18th century, the tripartite motto was primarily political. John Locke's ''Life, Liberty, and Property'' was adapted by Thomas Jefferson when he wrote the United States Declaration of Independence into ''Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness'', which has become the American equivalent of the French triad listed above. The initial Carlist motto was ''God, Country, King''. The University of North Carolina's Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies maintain such tripartite mottos as well. The Philanthropic Society's motto is Virtus, Libertas, et Scientia "Virtue, Liberty, and Knowledge" and the Joint Senate motto is Ad Virtutem, Libertatem, Scientiamque "Toward Virtue, Liberty, and Knowledge".

Modern usages

A Canadian usage is ''Peace, order and good government'', originally found in the 1867 Constitution of Canada. It has remained, to this day, an essential part of the Canadian identity. ''"Il nous faut de l'audace, encore de l'audace, toujours de l'audace!"'' 'We must be bold, and again bold, and forever bold!' Georges Danton. Lenin and the Bolsheviks adopted a tripartite motto for the Russian Revolution, russian: мир, земля, и хлеб|translit=mir, zemlya, i khleb|lit= Peace, Land, and Bread. During the New Deal, the projects of Franklin Delano Roosevelt were summed up as ''Relief, Recovery, and Reform''. The form was used by fascist parties: Fascist Italy's ''Credere! Obbedire! Combattere!'' 'Believe! Obey! Fight!'; the Nazi ''Ein Volk! Ein Reich! Ein Führer!'' 'One people! One state! One leader!'; and the Fascist Spanish ''Una, Grande y Libre'' 'Unitary, Great, and Free'. The modern motto of Germany: ''"Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"'' (''Unity and Justice and Freedom'') is inscribed on the side of German euro coins, as it was on Deutsche Mark coins. During the German occupation of France, the Vichy regime replaced the motto of the Republic by ''Travail, Famille, Patrie'' (Work, Family, Fatherland). Given by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan, Faith, Unity, Discipline (Urdu: ایمان، اتحاد، نظم) is the national motto of Pakistan. Such mnemonics have also drawn suspicion from more nuanced thinkers; in George Orwell's novel ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'', the novel's totalitarian regime used "War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength" to exhort the subjects of Oceania to fear any apparent opportunities for personal agency. The motto of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a Japanese puppet regime, was "Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction". The 1974 Carnation Revolution in Portugal aimed at three immediate goals: ''"Descolonização, Democratização, Desenvolvimento"'' 'decolonization, democratization, development'. The US Federal Bureau of Investigation has an initialistic motto: "Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity", while the United States Military Academy at West Point has "Duty, Honor, Country". This concept has been extended to the list of core values of the U.S. armed services, such as the Navy's "Honor, Courage, Commitment" and the Coast Guard's "Honor, Respect, Devotion to Duty". The University of Notre Dame has adopted ''"God, Country, Notre Dame"'' as an informal motto. The phrase first appeared on the First World War memorial located on the east portico of the basilica. The Royal Military College of Canada has followed the tripartite motto "Truth, Duty, Valour" since the founding of the College in 1876. This motto was expanded into the Canadian Forces' core values. Very often triple mottoes derive from a turn of oratory in a speech; for example Abraham Lincoln's "of the people, by the people, for the people" in his Gettysburg Address and "Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" in George Wallace's 1963 Inaugural Address. These are common throughout Western civilization, but also appear in other cultures. The Japanese said that during their boom years, illegal immigrants performed the work that was ''Kiken, Kitsui, Kitanai'', or "Dangerous, Difficult, (and/or) Dirty". Dravidian parties in southern India use the motto "Duty, Dignity and Discipline" (in Tamil: ). The proponents of Manding social reformation and the N'Ko language education in West Africa use the hendiatris motto "to be savvy, to work, to be just" (, ''kà kólɔn, kà báara, kà télen''). The form is so well known that it can be played upon, as in the three requisites of real estate ("Location, Location, Location"), and similarly with Tony Blair stating his priorities as a political leader to be "education, education and education". In German society, the tripartite motto ''Kinder, Küche, Kirche'' (children, kitchen, church) was first a late-19th-century slogan, and today is used sarcastically by young women to express their disdain for their traditional role in society. One of the unofficial mottoes of Yale University is ''"For God, for country, and for Yale"'', which appears as the last line of the university's alma mater, ''Bright College Years.'' Yale historian George W. Pierson has also described Yale as "at once a tradition, a company of scholars, a society of friends". A commonly used patriotic slogan in Poland is ''Bóg, Honor, Ojczyzna'' (lit. “God, Honour, Fatherland”). The motto of the Afghan National Army is ''خدا، وطن، وظیفه'' (lit. "God, Homeland, Duty"). Featured in the 2004 American cult classic film, 13 Going on 30, starring Jennifer Garner, "''Thirty, flirty, and thriving",'' is used to express the idea of optimistic prosperity, in the wake of commonplace insecurities faced by many young adults, in their teens and twenties. In the Kendrick Lamar song "The Recipe", the hendiatris of "women, weed, and weather" describes "what represents L.A.," according to Dr. Dre, who appears on the song.

Examples

*"Wine, women and song", a phrase of Johann Heinrich Voss (1751–1826), and its modern variant "Sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll" *"Rum, sodomy and the lash", a characterization of Royal Navy tradition attributed (probably falsely) to Winston Churchill One old variant, ''Rum, bum and concertina'', parallels ''Wine, women and song''. *"Truth, justice, and the American way", the causes for which Superman fights, according to the opening of the television series ''Adventures of Superman'' *"God, mother, and apple pie" *"Lock, stock, and barrel" (this is also a merism, denoting a thing by enumerating its parts) *"Every Tom, Dick and Harry" *"Reduce, reuse, recycle" *"Virtue, liberty, and independence" *"Citius, Altius, Fortius" ("Faster, higher, stronger") is the official Olympic motto *"Gold, frankincense and myrrh", the Biblical gifts of the Magi *"In no way, shape, or form" *"Métro, boulot, dodo" (subway/underground, work, sleep), a French expression popularly used to describe the dreary daily routine of working Parisians, and the source of many imitative expressions. *''Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things'', the famous book of cognitive linguist George Lakoff on categorization and metaphor *"Game, set, and match" *"Hook, line, and sinker" *"Faith, Hope, and Charity" *"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" *"Live, Laugh, Love"

See also

*Rule of three (writing) *The three Rs *Four-character idiom

Related terms

* Hendiadys, ''one through two'' has one of the parts subordinate to the other * Tricolon, isocolon of three parts, with the parts equivalent in structure, length and rhythm * Merism, denoting a whole by an enumeration of its parts * Triad (disambiguation)

References

{{Reflist|25em Category:Figures of speech Category:Mottos Category:Rhetorical techniques