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The hectare (; SI symbol: ha) is a non-SI metric unit of
area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional region, shape, or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional object. Area can be understood as the am ...

area
equal to a square with 100-
metre The metre (British English, Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American English, American spelling; American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, see spelling differences) (from the French unit , from the Greek noun , "measure", and ...
sides (1 hm2), or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An
acre The acre is a Unit of measurement, unit of land area used in the Imperial units, imperial and United States customary units#Units of area, US customary systems. It is traditionally defined as the area of one Chain (unit), chain by one furlong (66 ...
is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the ''are'' was defined as 100
square metre The square metre (American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, American ...
s and the hectare (" hecto-" + "are") was thus 100 ''ares'' or  km2 (10,000 square metres). When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the
International System of Units International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * International (Kevin Michael album), ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * International (New Order album), '' ...
(), the ''are'' was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, however, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI and whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". Though the dekare/decare daa (1,000 m2) and are a (100 m2) are not officially "accepted for use", they are still used in some contexts.


Description

The hectare (), although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use with SI units. Chapter 5. The name was coined in French, from the Latin ''ārea''. In practice the hectare is fully derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre. It is widely used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, and it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership, planning, and
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating ...
, including law ( land deeds), agriculture,
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, playing, using, conserving and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural Stand level m ...
, and town planning throughout the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
(since 1970). However the United Kingdom, United States, Burma, and to some extent Canada use the
acre The acre is a Unit of measurement, unit of land area used in the Imperial units, imperial and United States customary units#Units of area, US customary systems. It is traditionally defined as the area of one Chain (unit), chain by one furlong (66 ...
instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements (e.g. Canada) required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units. The following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: *''Jerib'' in Iran *''Jerib, Djerib'' in Turkey *''Gong Qing'' (''公頃'' in traditional Chinese character, ''公顷'' in simplified Chinese character, ''gōngqǐng'' in Pinyin) in Greater China *''Manzana (unit), Manzana'' in Argentina *''Bunder'' in The Netherlands (until 1937)


History

The metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of French Republican Calendar, 18 Germinal, Year III (7 April 1795) defined five units of measure: *The :metre for length *The #Are, are (100 m2) for area [of land] *The Stere, stère (1 m3) for volume of stacked firewood *The :litre (1 dm3) for volumes of liquid *The gram for mass In 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units (SI), the ''are'' did not receive international recognition. The Comité International des Poids et Mesures, International Committee for Weights and Measures () makes no mention of the ''are'' in the current (2006) definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community (EEC) passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the ''are'' (and implicitly the ''hectare'') whose use was limited to the measurement of land.


Unit family

The names ''centiare'', ''deciare'', ''decare'' and ''hectare'' are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the ''are''.


Decimilliare

The decimilliare (sometimes seen in cadastre area evaluation of real estate plots) is are or one square decimetre.


Centiare

The centiare is one square metre.


Deciare

The deciare (rarely used) is ten square metres.


Are

The are ( or ) is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres (), used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern
International System of Units International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * International (Kevin Michael album), ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * International (New Order album), '' ...
(SI). It is still commonly used in speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, India, and in various European countries. In Russian language, Russian and some other languages of the former Soviet Union, the ''are'' is called ' (russian: link=no, сотка: 'a hundred', i.e. 100 m2 or hectare). It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large.


Decare

The decare or dekare () is derived from ''Deca-, deca'' and ''are'', and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman Empire, Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans (Bulgaria) as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are usually used, redefined as one decare: * in Greece * in Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey * is used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area.


Conversions

The most commonly used units are in bold. One hectare is also equivalent to: * 1 square hectometre * 15 Chinese units of measurement#Area, mǔ or 0.15 qǐng * 10 dunam or dönüm (Middle East) * 10 stremmata (Greece) * 6.25 rai (unit), rai (Thailand) * approximately 1.008 Tsubo (unit), chō (Japan) * approximately 2.381 feddan (Egypt)


See also

* Conversion of units * Hectometre * Order of magnitude


References


External links


Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
{{Use dmy dates, date=June 2016 Units of area Non-SI metric units