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Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to
heavy-duty vehicle Truck classifications are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck, typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR), and can vary among jurisdictions. United ...
s, specially designed for executing
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations or other large construction tasks. ''Heavy equipment'' usually comprises five equipment systems: implementation, traction, structure,
power train In automotive engineering Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machin ...

power train
, control and information.C. B. Tatum et al., J. Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt. 132, 987 (2006)
/ref> Heavy equipment has been used since at least the 1st century BCE when the ancient Roman engineer
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura''. He originated the idea that all buildings should have three attribute ...

Vitruvius
described a crane in ''
De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is a treatise on architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the ...

De architectura
'' when it was powered via human or animal labor. Heavy equipment functions through the
mechanical advantage Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and ti ...
of a
simple machine A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature' ...
, the
ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8∶6, which is equivalent to ...

ratio
between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied, making tasks which could take hundreds of people and weeks of labor without heavy equipment far less intensive in nature. Some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion. The term "plant" is used to refer to any mobile type of heavy machinery.


History

The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the ancient Roman engineer
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura''. He originated the idea that all buildings should have three attribute ...

Vitruvius
(1st century BCE) gave descriptions of
heavy equipment Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving Earthworks (engineering), earthwork operations or other large construction tasks. ''Heavy equ ...
and cranes in
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
in his
treatise A treatise is a formal Formal, formality, informal or informality imply the complying with, or not complying with, some set theory, set of requirements (substantial form, forms, in Ancient Greek). They may refer to: Dress code and events * For ...
''
De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is a treatise on architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the ...

De architectura
''. The
pile driver A pile driver is a heavy-duty tool used to drive piling, piles into soil to build piers, bridges, cofferdams, and other "pole" supported structures, and patterns of pilings as part of permanent deep foundations for buildings or other structures ...

pile driver
was invented around 1500. The first
tunnelling shield A tunnelling shield is a protective structure used during the excavation of large, man-made tunnel A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at ...
was patented by
Marc Isambard Brunel Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (, ; 25 April 1769 – 12 December 1849) was a French-born engineer who is most famous for the work he did in Britain. He is best known for the construction of the Thames Tunnel and as the father of Isambard Kingdom ...
in 1818.


From horses, through steam and diesel, to electric and robotic

Until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power. With the advent of
portable Portable may refer to: General * Portable building, a manufactured structure that is built off site and moved in upon completion of site and utility work * Portable classroom, a temporary building installed on the grounds of a school to provide ad ...
steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the
combine harvester The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining four separate harvesting operations—, , gathering, and —into a single process ...

combine harvester
. The design of a core tractor evolved around the new steam power source into a new machine core
traction engine A traction engine is a steam-powered from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and ...
, that can be configured as the
steam tractor :''This article refers to the steam-powered agricultural tractor; for other types of steam tractor, see: Traction engine A traction engine is a used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location. The na ...
and the
steamroller A steamroller (or steam roller) is a form of road roller – a type of heavy construction machinery used for leveling surfaces, such as roads or airfields – that is powered by a steam engine. The levelling/flattening action is achieved throug ...

steamroller
. During the 20th century,
internal-combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and ...
s became the major power source of heavy equipment.
Kerosene Kerosene, paraffin, or lamp oil is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = G ...

Kerosene
and
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...
engines were used, but today
diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which Combustion, ignition of the diesel fuel, fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the die ...

diesel engine
s are dominant.
Mechanical transmission A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of power. Often the term ''5-speed transmission'' refers simply to the gearbox, that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed In everyday ...
was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery. The early 20th century also saw new electric-powered machines such as the
forklift A forklift (also called lift truck, jitney, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances. The forklift was developed in the early 20th century by various companie ...

forklift
. Caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the
Holt Manufacturing Company The Holt Manufacturing Company began with the 1883 founding of Stockton Wheel Service in Stockton, California Stockton is a city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county o ...
. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the
Fordson tractor Fordson was a brand name of tractors and trucks. It was used on a range of mass production, mass-produced general-purpose tractors manufactured by Henry Ford & Son Inc from 1917 to 1920, by Ford Motor Company (U.S.) and Ford of Britain, Ford Mot ...
in 1917. The first commercial
continuous track Continuous track is a system of vehicle propulsion Propulsion is the action or process of pushing or pulling to drive an object forward. The term is derived from two Latin words: ''wikt:pro, pro'', meaning'' before'' or ''forward''; and ''w ...
vehicle was the 1901
Lombard Steam Log Hauler 300px, A restored Lombard steam log hauler at Clark's Trading Post in Lincoln, New Hampshire The Lombard Steam Log Hauler, patented 21 May 1901, was the first successful commercial application of a continuous track for vehicle propulsion.Auman (19 ...

Lombard Steam Log Hauler
. The use of tracks became popular for
tank A tank is an armored fighting vehicle An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tra ...

tank
s during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, and later for civilian machinery like the bulldozer. The largest engineering vehicles and mobile land machines are
bucket-wheel excavator A bucket-wheel excavator (BWE) is a large heavy equipment Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving Earthworks (engineering), earthwork ...
s, built since the 1920s. "Until almost the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel – moved with animal and human powered, sleds, barges, and wagons. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance, usually a
wheelbarrow A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axle ...

wheelbarrow
, or a cart or wagon drawn by a
draft animal A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secu ...
. In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the
inclined plane An inclined plane, also known as a ramp, is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load. The inclined plane is one of the six classical simple machines defin ...

inclined plane
, levers, and
pulley A pulley is a wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On ...

pulley
s to place solid building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising, moving, and placing loose materials. The two elements required for mechanized earthmoving, then as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of that time."
Container crane A container crane (also container handling gantry crane or ship-to-shore crane) is a type of large dockside gantry crane found at container terminal in Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, ...
s were used from the 1950s and onwards, and made
containerization near Nuneaton, England File:NYK Virgo (8154929586).jpg, An ocean containership close to Cuxhaven, Germany Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and Internati ...

containerization
possible. Nowadays such is the importance of this machinery, some transport companies have developed specific equipment to transport heavy construction equipment to and from sites. Most of the major equipment manufacturers such as Caterpillar, Volvo, Liebherr, and Bobcat have released or have been developing fully or partially electric-powered heavy equipment. Commercially-available models and R&D models were announced in 2019 and 2020. Robotics and autonomy has been a growing concern for heavy equipment manufacturers with manufacturers beginning research and technology acquisition. A number of companies are currently developing (
Caterpillar Caterpillars ( ) are the larva, larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterfly, butterflies and moths). As with most common names, the application of the word is arbitrary, since the larvae of sawfly ...
and
Bobcat The bobcat (''Lynx rufus''), also known as the red lynx, is a medium-sized cat The cat (''Felis catus'') is a domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a sp ...
) or have launched ( Built Robotics) commercial solutions to the market.


Types

These subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization. Track-type * *
Bulldozer A bulldozer or dozer (also called a crawler) is a large, motorized machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that ...

Bulldozer
*
Snowcat A snowcat (short for snow and caterpillar) is an enclosed-cab, truck-sized, fully tracked vehicle designed to move on snow. Major manufacturers are Pisten Bully (Germany), Prinoth (Italy) and Tucker Sno-Cat, Tucker (United States). Snow groom ...

Snowcat
* Track skidder * Track-type tractors (
Bulldozer A bulldozer or dozer (also called a crawler) is a large, motorized machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that ...

Bulldozer
) *
Tractor A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque In physics and mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects ...

Tractor
*
Military engineering vehicles A military engineering vehicle is a vehicle built for the construction work or for the transportation of combat engineer erected in Iraq File:VietnamCombatArtCAT08VictoryVReynoldsCombatEngineer.jpg, Combat Engineer depicted in the Vietnam ...
Grader *
Grader A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, motor grader, or simply a blade, is a form of heavy equipment with a long blade used to create a flat surface during Grading (engineering), grading. Although the earliest models were towed b ...

Grader
SkidSteer * Skid steer loader Excavator * Amphibious excavator *
Compact excavator A compact or mini excavator is a tracked or wheeled vehicle with an approximate operating weight from 0.7 to 8.5 tonnes. It generally includes a standard backfill blade and features independent boom swing. Hydraulic excavators are somewhat differe ...
*
Dragline excavator A dragline excavator is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the ...

Dragline excavator
*
Dredging Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and water features to alter drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal ...
*
Bucket-wheel excavator A bucket-wheel excavator (BWE) is a large heavy equipment Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving Earthworks (engineering), earthwork ...
*
Excavator Dashboard and controls of a 3.8 ton excavator Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom Boom usually refers to an onomatopoeic word for the sound that an explosion makes. Boom may also refer to: Objects * Boom (contai ...

Excavator
(digger) * Long reach excavator *
Power shovel A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel or electric rope shovel) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction. P ...
*
Reclaimer A reclaimer is a large machine used in bulk material handling Image:Silosi u Čakovcu - jugoistok.jpg, Concrete grain storage silos Bulk material handling is an engineering field that is centered on the design of equipment used for the handling ...
*
Steam shovel A steam shovel is a large steam-powered from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, ...
*
Suction excavator A suction excavator or vacuum excavator is a construction vehicle that removes materials from a hole on land, or removes heavy debris on land. Description Suction excavation is a new solution to traditional excavation problems. Suction excavatio ...
* Walking Excavator *
Trencher (machine) A trencher is a piece of construction equipment Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical ...
*
Yarder A yarder is piece of logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany), logs onto logging truck, tru ...
Backhoe *
Backhoe loader A backhoe loader, also called a loader backhoe, digger in layman's terms, or colloquially shortened to backhoe within the industry, is a heavy equipment Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed fo ...
,
Backhoe A backhoe—also called rear actor or back actor—is a type of excavating equipment, or excavator, digger, consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. It is typically mounted on the back of a tractor or loader (eq ...

Backhoe
Timber *
Feller buncher A feller buncher is a type of harvester (forestry), harvester used in logging. It is a motorized vehicle with an attachment that can rapidly gather and cut a tree before felling it. ''Feller'' is a traditional name for someone who cuts down trees ...
* Harvester *
Skidder A skidder is any type of heavy vehicle mining truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumb ...
* Track harvester * * Wheel skidder Pipelayer * Pipelayer (sideboom) Scraper *
Fresno scraper#REDIRECT Fresno scraperfile:FresnoScraper.GIF, Fresno Scraper (Patent Application). The front drawbar is pulled by two horses, and pulls the scraper proper behind it, while the operator walks behind controlling the depth of scrape with the handle f ...
*
Scraper Scrape, scraper or scraping may refer to: Biology and medicine * Abrasion (medical), a type of injury * Scraper (biology), grazer-scraper, a water animal that feeds on stones and other substrates by grazing algae, microorganism and other matter * ...

Scraper
*
Wheel tractor-scraper In civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public ...

Wheel tractor-scraper
(belly scraper) Mining * Construction & mining tractor * Construction & mining trucks Articulated *
Articulated hauler An articulated hauler, articulated dump truck (ADT), or sometimes a dump hauler, is a very large heavy-duty type of dump truck used to transport loads over rough terrain, and occasionally on public roads. The vehicle usually has all-wheel drive and ...
* Articulated truck Compactor * Wheel dozers – soil compactors * Soil stabilizer Loader *
Loader Loader can refer to: * Loader (equipment) * Loader (computing) ** LOADER.EXE, an auto-start program loader optionally used in the startup process of Microsoft Windows ME * Loader (surname) * Fast loader * Speedloader * Boot loader ** LOADER.COM (ak ...
* Skip loader (skippy) *
Wheel loader A loader is a Heavy equipment (construction), heavy equipment machine used in construction to move or load materials such as soil, Rock (geology), rock, sand, demolition debris, etc. into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, ...
(front loader, integrated tool carrier) Track loader *
Track loader A tracked loader is an engineering vehicle Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving Earthworks (engineering), earthwork operations or ...
Material handler *
Aerial work platform An aerial work platform (AWP), also known as an aerial device, elevating work platform (EWP), cherry picker, bucket truck or mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) is a mechanical device used to provide temporary access for people or equipment t ...
/ Lift table *
Cherry picker An aerial work platform (AWP), also known as an aerial device, elevating work platform (EWP), cherry picker, bucket truck or mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) is a mechanical device used to provide temporary access for people or equipment to ...

Cherry picker
* Crane *
Forklift A forklift (also called lift truck, jitney, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances. The forklift was developed in the early 20th century by various companie ...

Forklift
* & *
Straddle carrier Straddle-carrier A straddle carrier or straddle truck is a freight-carrying vehicle that carries its load underneath by "straddling" it, rather than carrying it on top like a conventional truck. The advantage of the straddle carrier is its ability t ...
*
Reach stacker A reach stacker is a vehicle used for handling intermodal cargo containers in small terminals or medium-sized ports. Reach stackers are able to transport a container short distances very quickly and pile them in various rows depending on its access ...
*
Telescopic handlers Image:Manitou MRT 1850 hl.jpg, A typical "roto"-telescopic handler A telescopic handler, also called a telehandler, teleporter, reach forklift, or zoom boom, is a machine widely used in agriculture and Industrial sector, industry. It is somewh ...
Paving * *
Asphalt plant An asphalt plant is a plant used for the manufacture of asphalt Asphalt, also known as bitumen (, ), is a sticky, black, highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined produ ...

Asphalt plant
* Cold planer * Cure rig * Paver *
Pavement milling Pavement milling (cold planing, asphalt milling, or profiling) is the process of removing at least part of the surface of a paved area such as a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that ...
* *
Roller Roller may refer to: Birds *Roller, a bird of the family Coraciidae * Roller (pigeon), a domesticated breed or variety of pigeon Devices * Roller (agricultural tool), a non-powered tool for flattening ground * Road roller, a vehicle for compact ...

Roller
(road roller or roller compactor) * *,
Compactor A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of material such as waste material or bio mass through Soil compaction, compaction. A trash compactor is often used by a home or business to reduce the volume of trash it produces. A ba ...
Underground *
Roadheader Image:Roadheader.jpg, 250px, A typical roadheader A roadheader, also called a boom-type roadheader, road header machine, road header or just header machine, is a piece of excavating equipment consisting of a boom-mounted cutting head, a loading devi ...

Roadheader
*
Tunnel boring machine A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnel A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at eac ...
*
Underground mining Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized commodity that is of economic interest to t ...
equipment Hydromatic tool *
Ballast tamper A tamping machine or ballast tamper, informally simply a tamper, is a self-propelled, rail-mounted machine used to pack (or tamp A tamp is a device used to compact or flatten an Aggregate (composite), aggregate or another powdered or gran ...

Ballast tamper
* Attachments *
Drilling machine A drill or drilling machine is a tool primarily used for making round holes or driving fasteners. It is fitted with a bit, either a drill bit, drill or Screwdriver#Powered screwdriving, driver, depending on application, secured by a Chuck (en ...

Drilling machine
*
Pile driver A pile driver is a heavy-duty tool used to drive piling, piles into soil to build piers, bridges, cofferdams, and other "pole" supported structures, and patterns of pilings as part of permanent deep foundations for buildings or other structures ...

Pile driver
*
Rotary tiller A cultivator is an agricultural equipment used for secondary tillage Tillage is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Imag ...
(rototiller, rotovator)
Hydraulic machinery Hydraulic machines use liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material ...
Highway *
Dump truck A dump truck, known also as a dumping truck, dump trailer, dumper trailer, dump lorry or dumper lorry or a dumper for short, is used for transporting materials (such as dirt Dirty Dicks is a Bishopsgate pub named after Dirty Dick who once ...

Dump truck
* Highway 10 yard rear dump * Highway bottom dump (stiff), pup (belly train), dump truck#Double and triple trailer bottom dump truck, triple *dump truck#Semi trailer end dump truck, Highway end dump and dump truck#Side dump truck, side dump *dump truck#Transfer dump truck, Highway transfer, dump truck#Transfer dump truck, Transfer train *In-transit mixer, Highway transit-mixer *Lowboy (trailer) *street sweeper#Modern sweepers, Street sweeper


Images

File:CAT-D10N-pic001.jpg, The Caterpillar D10N bulldozer evolved from caterpillar tracks, tracked-type tractors and is characterized by a steel blade attached to the front that is used to push other equipment and construction materials, such as, Earthworks (archaeology), earth. File:Komatsu excavator PC210LC.JPG, The bucket excavator Komatsu PC210-LC. File:SMC 200 R.jpg, The wheel trencher MARAIS SMC 200 R. File:DrillingMachine with ConcreteMixer and Pump02.jpg, Iron bar reinforced foundation Deep foundation, piles are driven with a drilling machine, concrete pump, mixer-truck, and a specialized auger that allows pumping concrete through its axis while withdrawn. File:Dillingen Kran.jpg, Fixed crane in a coal mine in Germany File:TZAMA Panorama1m.jpg, Caterpillar D9L bulldozer, excavators and other heavy equipment vehicles parked near a quarry in Israel File:Garzweiler Tagebau-1230.jpg, Bucket wheel excavators in Garzweiler surface mine, Germany File:Komatsu Wheel Loader WA600-6,Hitachinaka city,Japan.jpg, Wheel Loader (equipment), loader File:Komatsu GD655 grader (11815425133).jpg, Grader cleaning and leveling File:Visible progress continues to show at the new Folsom Dam auxiliary spillway Sept. 23 as work on the approach channel and downstream chute take center stage. (21087516643).jpg, Heavy duty excavator with large bucket equipped. File:Landfill compactor.jpg, Landfill compactor (tamping tip) File:Komatsu bulldozer pushing coal in Power plant Ljubljana (winter 2017).jpg, Komatsu Dozer pushing coal on the job site File:Frontloaderorange.jpg, A wheeled Loader (equipment), front loader tractor equipped with a large bucket elevated by hydraulic rams. File:Aa Truckconveyor brooklane Epart DSCF0461.JPG, Folded conveyor on a tracked grinder File:IDF-D9-ZE001.jpg, The militarized Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer allows for Earthworks (engineering), earthmoving projects in a combat environment. In the picture: IDF Caterpillar D9R. File:HSW 9.50 PICT0141.jpg, The militarized Huta Stalowa Wola backhoe loader in Poland which is subsidiary of LiuGong China Image:Img 613c.jpg, Military Wheel tractor-scraper, scraper Image:Pionierpanzer Dachs (2008).jpg, PiPz Dachs armoured engineering vehicle of the German Army (2008) File:Temporary roads deployment complex KRVD during the "Armiya 2021" exhibition (side-rear view).jpg , Temporary roads deployment complex during the "Army (International Military-Technical Forum), Armiya 2021" exhibition


Implements and hydromechanical work tools

*auger (drill), auger *backhoe *bale spear *broom *Dozer blade, bulldozer blade *clam shell bucket *cold plane *demolition, demolition shears *equipment bucket *excavator bucket *Caster, forks *grapple (tool), grapple *breaker (hydraulic), hydraulic hammer, hoe ram *hydraulics *hydraulic tilting bucket (4-in-1) *landscape tiller *crane (machine)#Mobile, material handling arm *mechanical pulverizer, crusher *multi processor *pavement removal bucket *
pile driver A pile driver is a heavy-duty tool used to drive piling, piles into soil to build piers, bridges, cofferdams, and other "pole" supported structures, and patterns of pilings as part of permanent deep foundations for buildings or other structures ...

pile driver
*power take-off (PTO) *quick coupler *Rake (tool), rake *bulldozer#Ripper, ripper *rotating grab *road roller#Drum types, sheep's foot compactor *skeleton bucket *snow blower *stump grinder *stump shear *thumb *tiltrotator *trencher (machine), trencher *vibrator (mechanical), vibratory plate compactor *wheel saw


Traction: Off-the-road tires and tracks

Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have Caterpillar track, continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required. An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on production and unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, ''transport'' for earthmoving machines, ''work'' for slow moving earthmoving machines, and ''load and carry'' for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage.


Powertrain

*internal combustion engine *transmission (mechanics), transmission *steering (tracked equipment) *brakes


Control and information

:''"The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the performance and health of the equipment."''


Heavy equipment operator

A heavy equipment operator drives and operates heavy equipment (construction), heavy equipment used in engineering and
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
projects. Typically only skilled workers may operate heavy equipment, and there is specialized training for learning to use heavy equipment. Much publication about heavy equipment operators focuses on improving safety for such workers. The field of occupational medicine researches and makes recommendations about safety for these and other workers in safety-sensitive positions.


Equipment cost

Due to the small profit margins on construction projects it is important to maintain accurate records concerning equipment utilization, repairs and maintenance. The two main categories of equipment costs are ownership cost and operating cost.


Ownership cost

To classify as an ownership cost an expense must have been incurred regardless of if the equipment is used or not. These costs are as follows: *price, purchase expense *salvage value *MACRS, tax savings from depreciation *major repairs and wikt:overhaul, overhauls *property taxes *insurance *storage Depreciation can be calculated several ways, the simplest is the straight-line method. The annual depreciation is constant, reducing the equipment value annually. The following are simple equations paraphrased from the Peurifoy & Schexnayder text:


Operating cost

For an expense to be classified as an operating cost, it must be incurred through use of the equipment. These costs are as follows:Bartholomew, S.H. "Estimating and Bidding for Heavy Construction" CSU Chico, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, , 2000 The biggest distinction from a cost standpoint is if a repair is classified as a ''major repair'' or a ''minor repair''. A major repair can change the depreciable equipment value due to an extension in service life, while a minor repair is normal maintenance, repair and operations, maintenance. How a firm chooses to cost major and minor repairs vary from firm to firm depending on the costing strategies being used. Some firms will charge only major repairs to the equipment while minor repairs are costed to a project. Another common costing strategy is to cost all repairs to the equipment and only frequently replaced wear items are excluded from the equipment cost. Many firms keep their costing structure closely guarded as it can impact the bidding strategies of their competition. In a company with multiple semi-independent divisions, the equipment department often wants to classify all repairs as "minor" and charge the work to a job – therefore improving their 'profit' from the equipment.


Models

Die-cast toy, Die-cast metal promotional scale models of heavy equipment are often produced for each vehicle to give to prospective customers. These are typically in 1:50 scale. The popular manufacturers of these models are Conrad (company), Conrad and NZG Models, NZG in Germany, even for US vehicles.


Notable manufacturers

The largest 10 construction equipment manufacturers in 2015 based on revenue data of top 50 manufacturers published by KHL Group Other manufacturers include: *Atlas Copco *BEML Limited (formerly Bharat Earth Movers Limited; India) *Bobcat Company *Case Construction Equipment *Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant *CNH Global *Demag *Fiat-Allis *HIAB *Hidromek *Hyundai Heavy Industries *Ingersoll Rand *JCB (company), JCB *Kubota Corporation, Kubota *Kobelco Construction Machinery America, Kobelco *LiuGong *MARAIS *Navistar International Corporation *NCK *New Holland Construction, New Holland *Track Marshall *Orenstein and Koppel GmbH (O&K) *Paccar *Poclain *Rototilt *Shantui *ST Kinetics *Takeuchi Manufacturing *Wacker Neuson *Yanmar *Zoomlion


See also

*Construction equipment theft *Non-road engine *Associated Equipment Distributors, the trade association for heavy equipment distributors


References

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