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A grape is a
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
, botanically a
berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...
, of the
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, v ...
woody
vine A vine ( ''vīnea'' "grapevine", "vineyard", from ''vīnum'' "wine") is any with a growth of trailing or (that is, climbing) stems, s or runners. The word ''vine'' can also refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used i ...

vine
s of the
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
''
Vitis ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere. It is economically important as the source of grapes, ...

Vitis
''. Grapes can be eaten fresh as
table grape Table grapes are grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate ...
s, used for making
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...

wine
,
jam Fruit preserves are preparations of fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate s ...

jam
,
grape juice A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus ''Vitis''. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes, used for making wine, jam, grape juice, Jelly (fruit preserves), jelly, g ...

grape juice
, jelly,
grape seed extract Grape seed extract is an industrial derivative of whole grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the m ...
,
vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the s ...

vinegar
, and
grape seed oil Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is a derived from the of . A of the industry, it is typically used for edible applications. Uses Cooking Grape seed oil has a moderately high of approximately . Due to its clean, ...
, or dried as
raisin A raisin is a dried grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disse ...

raisin
s, currants and sultanas. Grapes are a non- climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.


History

The
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
is generally described as the homeland of grape and the cultivation of this plant began there 6,000–8,000 years ago.
Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classifie ...
, one of the earliest domesticated
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine. The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
. The oldest known winery was found in
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD, the city of
Shiraz Shiraz (; fa, شیراز, Šîrâz ) is the List of Iranian cities by population, fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province, which is also known as Pars (Sasanian province), Pars (, ) and Persis (Persia). At the 2016 cens ...

Shiraz
was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has been proposed that
Syrah Syrah (), also known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine. In 1999, Syrah was found to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France (wine), France, Dureza ...

Syrah
red wine is named after
Shiraz Shiraz (; fa, شیراز, Šîrâz ) is the List of Iranian cities by population, fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province, which is also known as Pars (Sasanian province), Pars (, ) and Persis (Persia). At the 2016 cens ...

Shiraz
, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make
Shirazi wine Shiraz wine refers separately to two different well-known wines. Historically, the name refers to the wine produced around the city of Shiraz in Iran, Persia/Iran.Entry on ''"Persia"'' in J. Robinson (ed), ''"The Oxford Companion to Wine"'', Third ...
.Hugh Johnson, ''"The Story of Wine"'', New Illustrated Edition, p. 58 & p. 131, Mitchell Beazley 2004,
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
ian
hieroglyphics Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent ...
record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
, Cypriots,
Phoenicians Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0 ...
, and
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
growing purple grapes both for eating and wine production. The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. In 2005 a team of archaeologists concluded that some Chalcolithic wine jars, which were discovered in Cyprus in the 1930s, were the oldest of their kind in the world, dating back to 3,500 BC. Moreover, Commandaria, a sweet dessert wine from Cyprus, is the oldest manufactured wine in the world, its origins traced as far back as 2000 BC. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus ''Vitis'' proliferate in the wild across the continent, and were a part of the diet of many
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of
Concord, Massachusetts Concord () is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County is located in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New E ...
, cultivated seeds from wild ''
Vitis labrusca ''Vitis labrusca'', the fox grape, is a species of grapevines belonging to the ''Vitis'' genus in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The vines are native to eastern North America and are the source of many grape cultivars, including Catawba (gr ...
'' vines to create the
Concord grape The Concord grape is a cultivar derived from the grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytolo ...

Concord grape
which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States.Jancis Robinson, ''Vines, Grapes & Wines'' (Mitchell Beazley, 1986, ), pp 8, 18, 228.


Description

Grapes are a type of
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange, and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape.
Mutation In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechan ...
s in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of
anthocyanin Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Ancient Greek, Greek: (''anthos'') "flower" and / ''kyaneos/kyanous'' "dark blue") are solubility, water-soluble vacuole, vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. F ...

anthocyanin
s, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other
pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compou ...
chemicals of the larger family of
polyphenols Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. D ...
in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a
prolate spheroid A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface File:Water droplet lying on a damask.jpg, Water droplet lying on a damask. Surface tension is high enough to prevent floating below the textile. A surface, as the term is most gene ...
.


Nutrition

Raw grapes are 81% water, 18%
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s, 1%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
, and have negligible
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
(table). A reference amount of raw grapes supplies of
food energy Food energy is chemical energy Chemical energy is the energy of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...
and a moderate amount of
vitamin K Vitamin K refers to structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamers found in foods and marketed as dietary supplements. The human body requires vitamin K for post-translational modification, post-synthesis modification of certain proteins that are r ...
(14% of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The ...
), with no other
micronutrient Micronutrients are nutrient, essential dietary elements required by organisms in varying quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health. Micronutrient requirements differ between organisms; for examp ...
s in significant content.


Grapevines

Most domesticated grapes come from
cultivars A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
of ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek ...

Vitis vinifera
'', a grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: * ''
Vitis amurensis ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(bi ...

Vitis amurensis
'', the most important Asian species * ''
Vitis labrusca ''Vitis labrusca'', the fox grape, is a species of grapevines belonging to the ''Vitis'' genus in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The vines are native to eastern North America and are the source of many grape cultivars, including Catawba (gr ...
'', the North American table and grape juice grapevines (including the
Concord Concord may refer to: Meaning "agreement" * Pact or treaty, frequently between nations (indicating a condition of harmony) * Harmony, in music * Agreement (linguistics), a change in the form of a word depending on grammatical features of other w ...
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
), sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. * ''
Vitis mustangensis
Vitis mustangensis
'' (the mustang grape), found in Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma * ''
Vitis riparia ''Vitis riparia'' Michx, with common names riverbank grape or frost grape, is a vine indigenous to North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It ca ...
'', a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. It is native to the entire Eastern United States and north to
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
. * ''
Vitis rotundifolia ''Vitis rotundifolia'', or muscadine, is a grapevine species native to the southern United States, southeastern and south-central United States. The growth range extends from Florida to New Jersey coast, and west to eastern Texas and Oklahoma. I ...

Vitis rotundifolia
'' (the muscadine), used for jams and wine, is native to the Southeastern United States from
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
to the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
.


Distribution and production

According to the
Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a list of specialized ...
(FAO), 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as
dried fruit Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying (food), drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or food dehydrator, dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradi ...

dried fruit
. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no
added sugar Added sugars are sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic link ...
" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics that break down grape production by variety. It is believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon
,
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France (wine), France. The grape most likely gets its name from the French words ''sauvage'' ("wild") and ''blanc'' ("white") due to its early origins as an indige ...

Sauvignon blanc
,
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc
,
Merlot Merlot is a dark blue–colored wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, ...

Merlot
,
Grenache Grenache () or Garnacha () is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world. Niels Lillelund: ''Rhône-Vinene'' JP Bøger – JP/Politikens Forlagshus A/S, 2004. , p. 25 It ripens (wine), ripens late, so it needs hot, ...

Grenache
,
Tempranillo Tempranillo (also known as Ull de Llebre, Cencibel, Tinto Fino and Tinta del Pais in Spain, Aragonez or Tinta Roriz in Portugal, and several other synonyms elsewhere) is a black grape variety widely grown to make full-bodied red wines in its ...
,
Riesling Riesling (, ; ) is a white grape variety This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of bio ...

Riesling
, and
Chardonnay Chardonnay (, , ) is a green-skinned grape variety This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) forme ...

Chardonnay
.


Table and wine grapes

Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either
table Table may refer to: * Table (information) A table is an arrangement of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus define ...
or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...

wine
(wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek ...

Vitis vinifera
'', table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through
selective breeding Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding Animal breeding is a branch of animal science Animal science (also bioscience) is described as "studying the biology Biology i ...
. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is usually around 15% sugar by weight.


Seedless grapes

Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using
tissue culture Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious rec ...
techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources:
Thompson Seedless The sultana is a "white" (pale green), oval seedless grape variety also called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless (United States), Lady de Coverly (England), and oval-fruited Kishmish (Iraq, Iran, Israel, Palestine (region), Palestine, India). It ...

Thompson Seedless
, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek ...

Vitis vinifera
''. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes, Reliance, and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of northeastern United States and southern
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
content of grape seeds (see
Health claims Health is a state of physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being in which disease and infirmity are absent.World Health Organization. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Documents'', Forty-fifth edition, S ...
, below).


Raisins, currants and sultanas

In most of Europe and North America, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "dried vine fruit" in official documents. A ''
raisin A raisin is a dried grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disse ...

raisin
'' is any dried grape. While ''raisin'' is a French
loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...
, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; ''grappe'' (from which the English ''grape'' is derived) refers to the bunch (as in ''une grappe de raisins''). A '' currant'' is a dried
Zante Zakynthos (also spelled Zakinthos; el, Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos ; it, Zacinto ) or Zante meaning "amazing and loving" (, , ; el, Τζάντε, Tzánte ; from the Venetian form) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...

Zante
Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French ''raisin de Corinthe'' (
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...

Corinth
grape). The names of the black and red currant, now more usually
blackcurrant The blackcurrant (''Ribes nigrum''), also known as black currant or cassis, is a deciduous shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its edible berries. It is native to temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth ...

blackcurrant
and
redcurrant The redcurrant, or red currant (''Ribes rubrum'') is a member of the genus '' Ribes'' in the gooseberry family. It is native across Europe. The species is widely cultivated and has escaped into the wild in many regions. ''Ribes rubrum'' is a d ...

redcurrant
, two berries unrelated to grapes, are derived from this use. Some other fruits of similar appearance are also so named, for example, Australian currant, native currant, Indian currant. A ''sultana'' was originally a raisin made from Sultana grapes of Turkish origin (known as Thompson Seedless in the United States), but the word is now applied to raisins made from either white grapes or red grapes that are bleached to resemble the traditional sultana.


Juice

Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. The juice is often sold in stores or
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling ...
and made into
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...

wine
,
brandy Brandy is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process co ...

brandy
, or
vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the s ...

vinegar
. Grape juice that has been pasteurized, removing any naturally occurring yeast, will not ferment if kept sterile, and thus contains no alcohol. In the
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...

wine
industry, grape juice that contains 7–23% of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "
must Must (from the Latin ''vinum mustum'', "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice Juice is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics ...

must
". In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from
Concord grapes The Concord grape is a cultivar '' 'Pink Whirls' A cultivar selected for its intriguing and colourful flowers A cultivarCultivar () has two denominations as explained in ''#Formal definition, Formal definition''. When referring to a taxon, t ...
, while white grape juice is commonly made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana (known there as Thompson Seedless) grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice.


Pomace and phytochemicals

Winemaking from red and white grape flesh and skins produces substantial quantities of organic residues, collectively called
pomace Pomace ( ), or marc (; from French ''marc'' ), is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing (wine), pressing for juice or oil. It contains the skins, pulp, seeds, and stems of the fruit. Grape pomace has traditionally b ...
(also "marc"), which includes crushed skins, seeds, stems, and leaves generally used as
compost Compost is a mixture of ingredients used to fertilize and improve the soil. It is commonly prepared by decomposing plant and food waste and recycling Recycling is the process of converting waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted ...

compost
. Grape pomace – some 10-30% of the total mass of grapes crushed – contains various
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s, such as unfermented sugars, alcohol,
polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring s characterized by multiples of units. They are abundant in plants and structurally diverse. Polyphenols include s, , and , some of which have been used historically as s and for . Et ...

polyphenol
s,
tannin Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of , ic s that bind to and s and various other organic compounds including s and s. The term ''tannin'' (from ''tanner'', from ''tannāre'', from ''tannum'', ) refers to the use of oak and other bark ...
s,
anthocyanin Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Ancient Greek, Greek: (''anthos'') "flower" and / ''kyaneos/kyanous'' "dark blue") are solubility, water-soluble vacuole, vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. F ...

anthocyanin
s, and numerous other compounds, some of which are harvested and
extract An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material A raw material, also known as a feedstock, unprocessed material, or primary commodity, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished Product (business), prod ...

extract
ed for commercial applications (a process sometimes called "valorization" of the pomace).


Skin

Anthocyanin Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Ancient Greek, Greek: (''anthos'') "flower" and / ''kyaneos/kyanous'' "dark blue") are solubility, water-soluble vacuole, vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. F ...

Anthocyanin
s tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes, whereas
flavan-3-ol Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavan The flavans are benzopyran derivatives that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2''H''-chromene skeleton. They may be found in plants. These compounds include the flavan-3-ol ...

flavan-3-ol
s (i.e.
catechin Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. It is a plant secondary metabolite. It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols (or simply flavanols), part of the chemical family of flavonoids. The name of the catechin chemical ...

catechin
s) are the more abundant class of polyphenols in white varieties. Total phenolic content is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin. Phenolic content of grape skin varies with
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections.
Muscadine ''Vitis rotundifolia'', or muscadine, is a grapevine ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere ...
grapes contain a relatively high phenolic content among dark grapes. In muscadine skins,
ellagic acid Ellagic acid is a natural phenol In biochemistry, naturally occurring phenols refers to phenol functional group that is found in natural products. Phenolic compounds are produced by plants and microorganisms. Organisms sometimes synthesize phenol ...

ellagic acid
,
myricetin Myricetin is a member of the flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound ...

myricetin
,
quercetin Quercetin is a plant flavonol Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (IUPAC name : 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one). Their diversity stems from the different positions of the phenols, phenolic hydroxyl, -OH g ...

quercetin
,
kaempferol Kaempferol (3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, found in a variety of plants and plant-derived foods including kale, beans, tea, spinach, and broccoli. Kaempferol is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting ...

kaempferol
, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics. The flavonols
syringetin Syringetin is an O-methylated flavonol, ''O''-methylated flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is found in Red grape variety, red grape (absent in white grape), in ''Lysimachia congestiflora'' and in ''Vaccinium uliginosum'' (bog billberries). It is o ...

syringetin
, syringetin 3-O-galactoside,
laricitrin Laricitrin is an O-methylated flavonol, ''O''-methylated flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is found in Red grape variety, red grape (absent in white grape) and in ''Vaccinium uliginosum'' (bog billberries). It is one of the Phenolic compounds in wi ...

laricitrin
and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape.


Seeds

Muscadine grape seeds contain about twice the total polyphenol content of skins.
Grape seed oil Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is a derived from the of . A of the industry, it is typically used for edible applications. Uses Cooking Grape seed oil has a moderately high of approximately . Due to its clean, ...
from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and
skincare Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients. Practices that enhance appear ...
products. Grape seed oil, including
tocopherolTocopherols (; TCP) are a class of organic compounds, organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various Methyl group, methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity. Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dieta ...
s (
vitamin E Vitamin E is a group of eight fat solubleLipophilicity (from Greek language, Greek λίπος "fat" and :wikt:φίλος, φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solven ...

vitamin E
) and high contents of
phytosterol Phytosterols are phytosteroids, similar to cholesterol, that serve as structural components of biological membranes of plants. They encompass plant sterols and stanol ester, stanols. More than 250 sterols and related compounds have been identified. ...

phytosterol
s and
polyunsaturated fatty acid Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This class includes many important compounds, such as essential fatty acids and those that give drying oils their characteristic propert ...
s such as
linoleic acid Linoleic acid is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules ...

linoleic acid
,
oleic acid Oleic acid is a fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and t ...

oleic acid
, and
alpha-linolenic acid α-Linolenic acid (ALA), (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

alpha-linolenic acid
.


Resveratrol

Resveratrol, a
stilbeneStilbene may refer to one of the two stereoisomer In stereochemistry, stereoisomerism, or spatial isomerism, is a form of isomerism in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the thr ...

stilbene
compound, is found in widely varying amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds.
Muscadine ''Vitis rotundifolia'', or muscadine, is a grapevine ''Vitis'' (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere ...
grapes have about one hundred times higher concentration of stilbenes than pulp. Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.


Health claims


French paradox

Comparing diets among Western countries, researchers have discovered that although French people tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, the incidence of
heart disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina pectoris, angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs inc ...
remains low in France. This phenomenon has been termed the French paradox, and is thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine, among other dietary practices. Alcohol consumption in moderation may be cardioprotective by its minor
anticoagulant Anticoagulants, commonly known as blood thinners, are chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ...
effect and
vasodilation Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessel The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is ...

vasodilation
. Although adoption of wine consumption is generally not recommended by health authorities, some research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits. Alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.


Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs

The consumption of grapes and raisins presents a potential health threat to dogs. Their toxicity to dogs can cause the animal to develop
acute kidney failure Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden decrease in kidney function that develops within 7 days, as shown by an increase in serum creatinine Creatinine ( or ; from el, κρέας, kreas, flesh) is a ...
(the sudden development of kidney failure) with
anuria Anuria is nonpassage of urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. ...
(a lack of urine production) and may be fatal.


In religion

Christians have traditionally used wine during worship services as a means of remembering the blood of Jesus Christ which was shed for the remission of sins. Christians who oppose the partaking of alcoholic beverages sometimes use grape juice as the "cup" or "wine" in the
Lord's Supper The Eucharist (; also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper among other names) is a Christian rite A rite is an established, Ceremony, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: * rites o ...

Lord's Supper
. The
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
continues to use wine in the celebration of the Eucharist because it is part of the tradition passed down through the ages starting with Jesus Christ at the Last Supper, where Catholics believe the consecrated bread and wine ''literally'' become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as
transubstantiation Transubstantiation (Latin language, Latin: ''transsubstantiatio''; Greek language, Greek: μετουσίωσις ''metousiosis'') is, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, "the change of the whole substance of bread into the substance ...
. Wine is used (not grape juice) both due to its strong Scriptural roots, and also to follow the tradition set by the early Christian Church. The Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church (1983), Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, and not corrupt.


Gallery

File:GrapesBuds.JPG, Flower buds File:GrapesFlowers.JPG, Flowers File:TenderGrapes.JPG, Immature fruit File:Grapes Angoor.JPG, Grapes in Iran File:Grapes.jpg, Wine grapes File:Cyprusgrapefarm.jpg, Vineyard in the
Troodos Mountains Troodos (sometimes spelled Troödos; el, Τρόοδος ; tr, Trodos Dağları) is the largest mountain range in Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island natio ...
File:Seedless grapes of Kallidaikurichi.jpg, seedless grapes File:Grapes in the Philippines 1.jpg, Grapes in the


See also

*
Annual growth cycle of grapevines The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year, beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy. From a winemaking perspective, each step i ...
* Drakshasava, a traditional Ayurvedic tonic made from grapes *
Grape syrup Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice. It is thick and sweet because of its high ratio of sugar to water. Grape syrup is made by boiling grapes, removing their skins, squeezing them through a sieve to extract the juice, and ...
*
List of grape dishes This is a list of notable grape dishes and foods that are prepared using grapes as a primary ingredient. Raisin dishes and foods are also included in this article. Grape dishes and foods A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry ...
*
List of grape varieties This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, Zante currant, currant, sultana (grape), sultana). The term ''grape variety'' refers to cultivars rather than act ...
* '''', a poisonous species resembling wild grapes * Propagation of grapevines *


Sources


Further reading

* Creasy, G. L. and L. L. Creasy (2009). ''Grapes'' (Crop Production Science in Horticulture). CABI. .


External links

* * {{Authority control Berries Crops originating from Europe Edible fruits Plants in the Bible Flora of Palestine (region) Flora of Israel