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Geographic data and information is defined in the
ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 is a International standard, standard technical committee formed within International Organization for Standardization, ISO, tasked with covering the areas of digital geographic information (such as used by geographic information systems ...
series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
(a
geographic location In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. Th ...
or
geographic position Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...
). It is also called geospatial data and information, georeferenced data and information, as well as geodata and geoinformation. Approximately 90% of government sourced data has a location component. Location information (known by the many names mentioned here) is stored in a
geographic information system A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The ( ...
(GIS). There are also many different types of geodata, including vector files, raster files,
geographic databases A spatial database is a general-purpose database (usually a relational database) that has been enhanced to include spatial data that represents objects defined in a geometric space, along with tools for querying and analyzing such data. Most spati ...
, web files, and multi-temporal data.


Fields of study

Geographic data and information are the subject of a number of overlapping
fields of study An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact ...
, mainly: *
Geocomputation Geocomputation (sometimes GeoComputation) is a field of study at the intersection of geography and computation. See also *Geoinformatics Bibliography

* Openshaw, S., and R. J. Abrahart. (1996). “Geocomputation.” In ''Proceedings of the 1 ...
*
Geographic information science Geographic information science or geographical information science (GIScience or GISc) is the scientific discipline The branches of science, also referred to as science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a ...
*
Geoinformatics Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science Information science (also known as information studies) is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, classification ...
*
Geomatics Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 is a International standard, standard technical committee formed within International Organization for Standardization, ISO, tasked with covering the areas of digital geographic information (su ...
*
Geovisualization Geovisualization or geovisualisation (short for geographic visualization), also known as cartographic visualization, refers to a set of tools and techniques supporting the analysis of geospatial data Geographic data and information is defined in t ...
This is in addition to other more specific branches, such as: *
Cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
*
Geodesy Geodesy ( ) is the Earth science of accurately measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measu ...
*
Geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

Geography
*
Geostatistics Geostatistics is a branch of statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...
*
Photogrammetry Photogrammetry is the science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through the process of recording, measuring and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant ima ...
*
Remote sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object, in contrast to in situ ''In situ'' (; often not italicized in English) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a class ...

Remote sensing
*
Spatial data analysis Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal Scientific technique, techniques which studies entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Spatial analysis includes a variety of techniques, many still ...
*
Surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land survey ...

Surveying
*
Topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...


See also

*
Earth observation data Earth observation (EO) is the gathering of information about the physical, chemical, and biosphere, biological systems of the planet Earth. It can be performed via remote sensing, remote-sensing technologies and by ground-based techniques. Accordi ...
*
Geographic feature A feature (also called an object or entity), in the context of geography and geographic information science, is a discrete phenomenon that exists at a location in the space and scale of relevance to geography; that is, at or near the surface of the ...
*
Georeferencing Georeferencing means that the internal coordinate system In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are re ...
*
Geospatial intelligence In the United States, geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativit ...


References


Further reading

* Roger A. Longhorn and Michael Blakemore (2007), ''Geographic Information: Value, Pricing, Production, and Consumption'', CRC Press.


External links

* {{geography-stub