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A general officer is an
officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It ...
of high rank in the
armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...

armies
, and in some nations' air forces,
space force A space force is a military branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard a subdivision of the national armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily arme ...
s, or
marines Marines, or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate in Littoral Zone, littoral zones in support of naval operations. Historically, tasks undertaken by marines have included helping maintain discipline and order aboard th ...

marines
. In some usages the term "general officer" refers to a rank above colonel."general, adj. and n.". OED Online. March 2021. Oxford University Press. https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/77489?rskey=dCKrg4&result=1 (accessed May 11, 2021) The term ''general'' is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the
16th century The 16th century begins with the year () and ends with either the Julian or the year () (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582). The term is often used to refer to the 1500s, t ...
, as a shortening of ''
captain general Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a Governor, gubernatorial title. History The term "Captain General" started to appear in the 14th century, with the meaning of ...
'', which rank was taken from
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured ...
''capitaine général''. The adjective ''general'' had been affixed to officer designations since the
late medieval period The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of ''general'' is known in some countries as a
four-star rank A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in ...
. However, different countries use different systems of stars or other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO rank scale code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies, air forces, and marine organizations.


General officer ranks and history

The various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are typically known as
field officer A field officer, field-grade officer, or senior officer is an Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the br ...
s or field-grade officers, and below them are company-grade officers.


Common systems

There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, which is used throughout the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe. It is used in Germany, where it comes from originally, and from where it eventually spread to the United Kingdom and thence subsequently to other
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
countries and the United States. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled
field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space force ...

field marshal
,
marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

marshal
, or
captain general Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a Governor, gubernatorial title. History The term "Captain General" started to appear in the 14th century, with the meaning of ...
. The other is derived from the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consi ...

French Revolution
, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they (theoretically) command.


Old European system

The system used either a ''brigadier general'' or a ''colonel general'' rank (i.e. exclude one of the italicised ranks). In the 17th and 18th centuries, it became customary in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
and other German states to confer the rank of "full" general with the addition of the
branch of service Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...
from which the general emerged and which originally also determined the character of the formations which he commanded, e.g.
general of the infantryGeneral of the Infantry is a military rank of a General officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military fo ...
,
general of the cavalryGeneral of the Cavalry (german: General der Kavallerie) was a General officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically ...
and general of the artillery. Such rank designations were also introduced in the
Imperial Russian Army The Imperial Russian Army (russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, tr. ) was the land armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily in ...

Imperial Russian Army
, firstly by the emperor
Peter IPeter I may refer to: Religious hierarchs * Saint Peter (c. 1 AD – c. 64–88 AD), a.k.a. Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, apostle of Jesus * Pope Peter I of Alexandria (died 311), revered as a saint * Peter I of Armenia (died 1058), Catholicos o ...

Peter I
. The rank of
field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space force ...

field marshal
was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries (notably pre-revolutionary France and eventually much of Latin America) actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. In some states (particularly in the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
since the 1920s), the equivalent to brigadier general is
brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel, equivalent to a brigadier general or commodore (rank), commodore, typically commanding a brigade of several thous ...

brigadier
, which is not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; confusion often arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, exclusively, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain-general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant Major (later spelled sergeant major) as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a later creation. The equivalent of the rank of general in the
navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...

navy
was
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
.


French (Revolutionary) system


Arab system

The armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system that was formerly in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt.


Other variations

Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: *
Adjutant general
Adjutant general
* Commandant-general *
Inspector general
Inspector general
*
General-in-chief General in Chief has been a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for ...
* General of the Army (which is distinct from the title
army general 125px, French insignia for'' général d'armée'' Army general is a title used in many countries to denote the rank of general nominally commanding an army in the field. Army general is normally the highest rank used in peacetime. The equivale ...
) *
General of the Air Force General of the Air Force (GAF) is a five-star general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military ...
(USAF only) *
General of the Armies of the United States General of the Armies of the United States, more commonly referred to as General of the Armies, is the highest ranking grade in the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United ...
(of America), a title created for General John J. Pershing, and subsequently granted posthumously to
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
* ("
general admiral General admiral or Admiral general was a Danish, Dutch, German, Russian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish naval military rank, rank. Its historic origin is a title high military or naval dignitaries of early modern Europe sometimes held, for exampl ...
") (German Navy) * Air general and aviation general * Wing general and group general * (, a Serb/Slovenian/Macedonian rank immediately inferior to colonel general, and roughly equivalent to Commonwealth/US major general) * Director general (a common administrative term sometimes used as an appointment in military services) * Director general of national defence (most senior rank in the Mexican Armed Forces) * Controller general (general officer rank in the
French National Police The National Police (french: Police nationale), formerly known as the , is one of two national police forces, along with the National Gendarmerie, and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large ...
) * Prefect general (the most senior rank of the
Argentine Naval Prefecture The Argentine Naval Prefecture ( es, Prefectura Naval Argentina or PNA) is a service of the Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of Sout ...
) *
Master-General of the Ordnance The Master-General of the Ordnance (MGO) was a very senior British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Norther ...
(very senior British military position) * Police General (most senior rank of the
Philippine National Police The Philippine National Police ( fil, Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas, acronymed as PNP) is the armed national police force in the Philippines. Its national headquarters is located at Camp Crame Camp Rafael T. Crame () is the national headquar ...
) * Commissioner (highest rank of the Bureau of Immigration) In addition to militarily educated generals, there are also generals in medicine and engineering. The rank of the most senior chaplain, (chaplain general), is also usually considered to be a general officer rank.


Specific rank of general

In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix (and sometimes referred to informally as a "full general"), is usually the most senior type of general, above
lieutenant general Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in ...

lieutenant general
and directly below
field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space force ...

field marshal
as a
four-star rank A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in ...
(NATO OF-9). Usually it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks (for example, field marshal, marshal of the air force, fleet admiral) being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, however, the rank of
captain general Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a Governor, gubernatorial title. History The term "Captain General" started to appear in the 14th century, with the meaning of ...
, general of the army, army general or
colonel general Colonel general is a or in some armies, usually equivalent to that of a in other armies. and have used the rank in that fashion throughout their histories. The rank is also closely associated with , where has formerly been a higher rank abo ...
occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal
five-star rank Five star, 5 star or ***** may refer to: Quality grading system *Five star grade in a Star (classification) system, such as for films, TV shows, restaurants, and hotels **Hotel rating **Restaurant rating **UEFA stadium categories Arts and enterta ...
(NATO OF-10). The rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e., the whole army). The rank of captain-general began appearing around the time of the organisation of professional armies in the 17th century. In most countries "captain-general" contracted to just "general".


General ranks by country

The following articles deal with the rank of general, or its equivalent, as it is or was employed in the militaries of those countries: *
General (Australia) General (abbreviated GEN) is the second-highest rank, and the highest active rank, of the Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign ...
*
General (Bangladesh) General is a four Star commissioned flag officer A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) w ...
*
General (Canada) General (Gen; ) is a military rank used by the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force typically held by the officer who is serving as the Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada), chief of the Defence Staff – the senior uniformed officer of the ...
* (China) – People's Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (ROC/Taiwan) *
General (Denmark) :''For the use of this Four-star rank in other countries, see General officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typical ...
, * General (Estonia), * General (Finland), *
General (Germany) ''General'' () is the highest rank of the German Army and German Air Force "Always in action" , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot = , an ...
, * (Greece) *
General (India) General is a Four-star rank, four-star general officer rank in the Indian Army. It is the highest active rank in the Indian Army. General ranks above the three-star rank of Lieutenant General (India), lieutenant general and below the five-star rank ...
* (North and South Korea) * *
General (Pakistan) General (abbreviated as GEN or PKGEN) is a four-star commissioned general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are ...
* General (Poland), *
General (Sri Lanka) General (abbreviated as Gen.) is the second-highest rank, and the highest active rank, of the Sri Lankan Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of general; it is also considered a four-star rank. The rank is ...
*
General (Sweden) General (Gen) is a Four-star rank, four-star commissioned Officer (armed forces), officer rank in the Swedish Army, Swedish Air Force and Swedish Amphibious Corps. General ranks immediately above Generallöjtnant, lieutenant general and is equival ...
, *
General (Switzerland) it, Generale rm, Generale , image = CHE OF9 General.svg , image_size = 80px , alt = , caption = Dress uniform shoulder strap with the rank of General , image2 = OF-9 - Général.png , image_size2 ...
*
General (United Kingdom) General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank achievable by serving officers of the British Army. The rank can also be held by Royal Marines officers in tri-service posts, for example, Gener ...
*
General (United States) A general denotes the most senior general officer, general-grade officer; it is the highest achievable commissioned officer rank (or echelon) that may be attained in the United States Armed Forces, with exception of the United States Navy, Navy ...
* General (Yugoslav People's Army)


Army generals' insignia

13.PNA-BG.svg,
()
( Algerian People's National Army) Angola-Army-OF-9.svg,
(
Angolan Army The Angolan Armed Forces (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country loca ...
) Australian Army OF-9.svg,
General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...

(
Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the is ...
) Bundesheer - Rank insignia - General.png,
( Austrian Land Forces) Bangladesh-army-OF-9.svg,
General
(
Bangladesh Army The Bangladesh Army ( bn, বাংলাদেশ সেনাবাহিনী, ''Bangladesh Senabahini'') is the land warfare Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that takes place pre ...

Bangladesh Army
) Army-BEL-OF-09.svg,
(
Belgian Army french: Composante terre , image = Flag of the Belgian Land Component.svgborder , caption = Flag of the Land Component since 1982 , dates = 1830–2002 (as the Belgian Arm ...
) 16.Bhutan Army-GEN.svg, General
(
Royal Bhutan Army The Royal Bhutan Army (RBA; dz, བསྟན་སྲུང་དམག་སྡེ་ ) is a branch of the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended f ...
) 19.RBrLF-GEN.svg,
( Royal Brunei Land Forces) Rank insignia of Генерал of the Bulgarian Army.png,

(
Bulgarian Army The Bulgarian Land Forces ( bg, Сухопътни войски на България) are the ground warfare Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that takes place predominantly on the battle ...
) blank.svg,

( Burundi Army) Canadian Army OF-9.svg,
General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...

(
Canadian Army The Canadian Army (french: Armée canadienne) is the command (military formation), command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. , the Canadian Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, 1 ...
) Colombia-Army-OF-9.svg,
(
Colombian Army The National Army of Colombia ( es, Ejército Nacional de Colombia) is the land warfare Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that takes place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of ...
) Denmark-Army-OF-9-M11.svg,
(
Royal Danish Army The Royal Danish Army ( da, Hæren, fo, Herurin, kl, Sakkutuut) is the land-based branch of the Danish Defence, together with the Danish Home Guard. For the last decade, the Royal Danish Army has undergone a massive transformation of structures ...
) Timor-Leste-Army-OF-9.svg,
( Timor-Leste Army) Estonia-Army-OF-9.svg,
(
Estonian Land Forces The Estonian Land Forces ( et, Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the Estonian army, is the name of the unified army, ground forces among the Estonian Defence Forces, Estonian Defense Forces where it has an offensive military formation role. ...
) 18.EA-GEN.svg, General
( Ethiopian Ground Forces) Kenraali M05.svg,
(
Finnish Army The Finnish Army ( Finnish: ''Maavoimat'', Swedish: ''Armén'') is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces. The Finnish Army is divided into six branches: the infantry at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during ...

Finnish Army
) 23.GLF-GEN.svg, General
(
Armed Forces of Gabon The Armed Forces of Gabon ( French: Forces armées gabonaises) or the Gabonese Defense and Security Forces ( French: forces de défense et de sécurité gabonaises) is the national professional military of the Republic of Gabon, divided into the Ar ...
) 16.Gambian Army-GEN.svg, General
( Gambian National Army) HD H 64 General.svg,
(
German Army The German Army () is the land component of the armed forces of Federal Republic of Germany, Germany. The present-day German Army was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German ''Bundeswehr'' together with the German Navy, ''Marine' ...
) 16-Ghana Army-GEN.svg, General
(
Ghana Army The Ghana Army (GA) is the main ground warfare organizational military branch of the Ghanaian Armed Forces (GAF). In 1959, two years after the Gold Coast (British colony), Gold Coast obtained independence as Ghana, the Gold Coast Regiment was withd ...

Ghana Army
) 15. Guinea-Bissau GEN.svg,
( Army of Guinea-Bissau) Guyana Defence Force (GDF) Minister of Defence rank insignia.svg, General
( Guyana Army) General of the Indian Army.svg,
General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...

(
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
) 22-TNI Army-GEN.svg,
(
Indonesian Army , lit: "Kartika's Fight Day") , decorations = , battle_honours = , website = , commander1 = President of Indonesia, President Joko Widodo , commander1_label ...

Indonesian Army
) Rank insignia of generale of the Army of Italy (1973).svg,
(
Italian Army "The safeguard of the republic shall be the supreme law" , colors = , colors_labels = , march = ''Parata d'Eroi'' ("Heroes's parade") by Francesco Pellegrino, ''4 Maggio'' (May 4) ...

Italian Army
) 16. Kenyan Army GEN.svg, General
(
Kenya Army The Kenya Army is the land arm of the Kenya Defence Forces. History The origin of the present day Kenya Army lie with the British Army The British Army is the principal Army, land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British ...
) blank.svg, General
( Lesotho Army) Army-LUX-OF-CiC.svg,
(
Luxembourg Army The Luxembourg Army is the national military force of Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxe ...
) 18-APM-GEN.svg,

(
Army of North Macedonia The Army of the Republic of North Macedonia ( mk, Армија на Република Северна Македонија) is a defense force consisting of an army and air force; it is responsible for defending the sovereignty and territorial int ...
) 16. Malawi Army - GEN.svg, General
( Malawian Army) Malaysia-army-OF-9.svg,
(
Malaysian Army The Malaysian Army ( ms, Tentera Darat Malaysia; Jawi alphabet, Jawi: تنترا دارت مليسيا) is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Steeped in British Army traditions, the Malaysian Army does not carry the title ‘royal ...
) Mexico army OF9.svg,
(
Mexican Army The Mexican Army ( es, Ejército Mexicano) is the combined land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time fra ...

Mexican Army
) Mongolian Army-GEN-service.svg,

( Mongolian Ground Force) Namibia-army-OF-9.svg, General
(
Namibian Army The Namibian Army is the ground warfare Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that takes place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the Earth, planet. Land warfare is categoriz ...
) Nl-landmacht-generaal.svg,
(
Royal Netherlands Army The Royal Netherlands Army ( nl, Koninklijke Landmacht) is the Ground warfare, land branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces. Though the Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, its origins date back to 1572, when the was raised – m ...

Royal Netherlands Army
) Nigeria-Army-OF-9.svg, General
(
Nigerian Army The Nigerian Army (NA) is the largest component of the Nigerian Armed Forces, and is responsible for land warfare operations. It is governed by the Nigerian Army Council (NAC). History The original elements of the Royal West African Front ...
) Norway-army-OF-9.svg,
(
Norwegian Army The Norwegian Army ( no, Hæren) is the land warfare Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that takes place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the planet. Land warfare is ca ...
) OF-9 Pakistan Army.svg,
General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...

(
Pakistan Army The Pakistan Army (; ) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of ...
) PA GEN Svc.svg,
(
Philippine Army The Philippine Army (PA) (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * ...
) Army-POL-OF-09.svg,
(
Polish Army The Land Forces () are a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. They currently contain some 62,000 active personnel and form many components of the European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history str ...
) Army-POR-OF-09.svg,
(
Portuguese Army The Portuguese Army ( pt, Exército Português) is the land component of the Armed Forces of Portugal and is also its largest branch. It is charged with the defence of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, Repúb ...
) Romania-Army-OF-9.svg,
(
Romanian Land Forces The Romanian Land Forces ( ro, Forțele Terestre Române) is the army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the ...
) 16-Rwanda Army-GEN.svg, General
(Rwandan Defence Forces) 18-Serbian Army-GEN.svg,

(Serbian Army) blank.svg, General
(Sierra Leone Army) blank.svg, General
(Singapore Army) Army-SVK-OF-09.svg,
(Ground Forces of the Slovak Republic) SAA-OF-9.svg, General
(South African Army) blank.svg, General
(South Sudan Army) Sri Lanka-army-OF-9.svg, General (Sri Lanka), General
(Sri Lanka Army) blank.svg, General
(Umbutfo Eswatini Defence Force, Eswatini Army) SWE-General.svg,
(Swedish Army) CHE OF9 General.svg,
(Military of Switzerland, Swiss Land Forces) 17-Tanzania Army-GEN.svg,
(Tanzanian Army) Turkey-army-OF-9a.svg,
(Turkish Land Forces) Uganda-Army-OF-9.svg, General
(Uganda People's Defence Force, Ugandan Land Forces) Погон генерала ЗСУ (2020).svg,

(Ukrainian Ground Forces) British Army OF-9.svg, General (United Kingdom), General
(British Army) US Army O10 (Army greens).svg, General (United States), General
(United States Army, US Army) blank.svg, General
(Zambian Army) Zimbabwe-Army-OF-9.svg, General (Zimbabwe), General
(Zimbabwe National Army)


Air force generals' insignia

16.ANAF-GEN.svg,
(National Air Force of Angola) BE-Air Force-OF9.svg,
(Belgian Air Component) 19.RBrAF-GEN.svg,
(Royal Brunei Air Force) Rank insignia of Генерал of the Bulgarian Air forces.png,

(Bulgarian Air Force) Canada-Air force-OF-9-collected.svg, General
(Royal Canadian Air Force) SS.OO.1.- GDA.svg,
(Chilean Air Force) Colombia-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Colombian Air Force) RDAF Gen.svg,
(Royal Danish Air Force) 17.Ecuadorian Air Force-GEN.svg,
(Ecuadorian Air Force) Estonia-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Estonian Air Force) Finland-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Finnish Air Force) Georgia Air Force OF-10.png,

(Georgian Air Force) LD B 64 General.svg,
(German Air Force) blank.svg, General
(Guinea Air Force) 16. Kenyan Air Force GEN.svg, General
(Kenya Air Force) blank.svg, General
(Malawian Defence Force, Malawi Air Force) Malaysia-Air Force-OF-9.svg,
(Royal Malaysian Air Force) Mongolian Army-GEN-service.svg,

(Mongolian Air Force) Netherlands-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Royal Netherlands Air Force) Norway-air force-OF-9.svg,
(Royal Norwegian Air Force) blank.svg,
(Paraguayan Air Force) Peru-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Peruvian Air Force) PAF GEN Svc.svg,
(Philippine Air Force) Rank insignia of generał of the Air Force of Poland.svg,
(Polish Air Force) Portugal-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Portuguese Air Force) Romania-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Romanian Air Force) 16-Rwanda Air Force-GEN.svg, General
(Rwandan Air Force) 18-Serbian Air Force-GEN.svg,

(Serbian Air Force and Air Defence) blank.svg, General
(Republic of Singapore Air Force) SVK-Air Force-OF-09.svg,
(Slovak Air Force) SAAF-OF-9.svg, General
(South African Air Force) blank.svg, General
(South Sudan Air Force) SP-09 General del Aire.svg,
(Spanish Air Force) Sweden-AirForce-OF-9.svg,
(Swedish Air Force) 17-Tanzania Air Force-GEN.svg, General
(Tanzania Air Force Command) Turkey-air-force-OF-9a.svg,
(Turkish Air Force) Uganda-AirForce-OF-9.svg, General
(Ugandan Air Force) blank.svg,

(Ukrainian Air Force) US Air Force O10 shoulderboard.svg, General (United States), General
(United States Air Force, US Air Force) blank.svg, General
(Zambian Air Force)


Naval infantry generals' insignia

Generic-Navy-O12.svg,
(Colombian Naval Infantry) 22-TNI Navy-ADM.svg,
(Indonesian Marine Corps) Maldives Army OF-9.svg,
General
(MNDF Marine Corps, Maldivian Marine Corps) Netherlands-Navy-OF-9.svg,
(Netherlands Marine Corps) Sweden-Navy-OF-9.svg,
(Swedish Amphibious Corps) British Royal Marines OF-9.svg, General (United Kingdom), General
(Royal Marines, UK Royal Marines) US Marine 10 shoulderboard vertical.svg, General (United States), General
(United States Marine Corps, US Marine Corps)


Air force and naval equivalents

Some countries (such as the United States) use the general officer ranks for both the army and the air force, as well as their marine corps; other states only use the general officer ranks for the army, while in the air force they use air officers as the equivalent of general officers. They use the air force rank of air chief marshal as the equivalent of the specific army rank of general. This latter group includes the United Kingdom, British Royal Air Force and many current and former Commonwealth air forces—e.g. Royal Australian Air Force, Indian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, Nigerian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, etc. In most navy, navies, flag officers are the equivalent of general officers, and the naval rank of
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
is equivalent to the specific army rank of general. A noteworthy historical exception was the Oliver Cromwell, Cromwellian naval rank "general at sea". In recent years in the American service there is a tendency to use ''flag officer'' and ''flag rank'' to refer to generals and admirals of the services collectively.


See also

*General officers in the United States *List of comparative military ranks *List of Roman generals *General officer commanding *''Général'' *''Generalissimo'' *''Shōgun''


Notes


References


External links


Generals of World War II

Schema-root.org: US Generals
News feeds for US Generals in the news
Marines.mil: General Officer Biographies
Biographies of US Marine Corps General Officers
Bios & Information on Generals of Western History
Information on 10 Generals who influenced Western History {{DEFAULTSORT:General Officer Generals, Military ranks