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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, a fruit is the
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positiv ...

seed
-bearing structure in
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλά ...

flowering plant
s that is formed from the
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 400px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" ;"title="Labia_minora.html" ...
after
flowering A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents ...

flowering
. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants (also known as
angiosperm The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species In biology, a species is the ...
s) disseminate their
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positiv ...

seed
s. Edible fruits in particular have long propagated using the movements of humans and animals in a
symbiotic relationship Symbiosis (from Greek , , "living together", from , , "together", and , bíōsis, "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, ...

symbiotic relationship
that is the means for
seed dispersal Seed dispersal is the movement, spread or transport of seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The ban ...
for the one group and
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, pr ...
for the other; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vit ...

food
. Consequently, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's
agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generat ...
output, and some (such as the
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
and the
pomegranate The pomegranate (''Punica granatum'') is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissem ...

pomegranate
) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the seed-associated fleshy structures (or produce) of plants that typically are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
s,
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry (botany), berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus ''Musa (genus), Musa''. In some countries, Cooking banana, bananas used for c ...
s,
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
s,
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
s,
oranges The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family (biology), family Rutaceae (see list of plants known as orange); it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis, ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'', which is also called sweet orange, to dis ...
, and
strawberries The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown Hybrid (biology), hybrid species of the genus ''Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The fr ...

strawberries
. In botanical usage, the term "fruit" also includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as
nuts Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit) A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage and in a Culinary nut, culinary sense, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botan ...
,
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
pods,
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...

corn
kernels
kernels
,
tomato The tomato is the edible berry of the plant ''Solanum lycopersicum'', commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the ...

tomato
es, and
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'') ...

wheat
grains.


Botanical vs. culinary

Many common language terms used for fruit and seeds differ from botanical classifications. For example, in botany, a ''fruit'' is a ripened
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 400px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" ;"title="Labia_minora.html" ...
or
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...
that contains seeds; e.g., an apple, pomegranate, tomato or a pumpkin. A ''
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
'' is a type of fruit (and not a seed), and a ''seed'' is a ripened
ovule In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. It consists of three parts: the '' integument'', forming its outer layer, the '' nucellus'' (or remnant of the megasporangium), and the fe ...

ovule
. In culinary language, a ''fruit'', so-called, is the sweet- or not sweet- (even sour-) tasting produce of a specific plant (e.g., a peach, pear or lemon); ''nuts'' are hard, oily, non-sweet plant produce in shells (
hazelnut The hazelnut is the nut (fruit), fruit of the hazel, hazel tree and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus ''Corylus'', especially the nuts of the species ''Corylus avellana''. They are also known as cobnuts or ...

hazelnut
,
acorn Diagram of the anatomy of an acorn: A.) Cupule B.) testa) D.) Cotyledons">Testa_(botany).html" ;"title="Pericarp (fruit wall) C.) Seed coat (Testa (botany)">testa) D.) Cotyledons (2) E.) Plumule F.) Radicle G.) Remains of Gynoecium, style. Toge ...

acorn
). ''
Vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruit In ...

Vegetables
'', so called, typically are
savory Savory or Savoury may refer to: Common usage * Herbs of the genus ''Satureja'', particularly: ** Summer savory (''Satureja hortensis''), an annual herb, used to flavor food ** Winter savory (''Satureja montana''), a perennial herb, also used to ...

savory
or non-sweet produce (
zucchini The zucchini (; plural: zucchini or zucchinis), courgette (; plural: courgettes) or baby marrow (''Cucurbita pepo'') is a summer squash, a Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vine whose fruit are harvested when their immature seeds and Fruit anatomy#Epic ...

zucchini
, lettuce, broccoli, and tomato); but some may be sweet-tasting (sweet potato). Examples of botanically classified fruit that typically are called vegetables include:
cucumber Cucumber (''Cucumis sativus'') is a widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the '' Cucurbitaceae'' gourd family that bears cucumiform fruits In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Scien ...
,
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''Cucu ...

pumpkin
, and
squash Squash may refer to: Sports * Squash (sport), the high-speed racquet sport also known as squash racquets * Squash (professional wrestling), an extremely one-sided match in professional wrestling * Squash tennis, a game similar to squash racquets ...
( all are cucurbits);
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
s,
peanut The peanut, also known as the groundnut, goober (US), pindar (US) or monkey nut (UK), and taxonomically classified as ''Arachis hypogaea'', is a legume A legume () is a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly ...

peanut
s, and
pea The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is ...

pea
s ();
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...

corn
,
eggplant Eggplant ( US, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous L ...
, bell pepper (or sweet pepper), and tomato, (see image). The spices
chili pepper The chili pepper (also chile, chile pepper, chilli pepper, or chilli), from Nahuatl Nahuatl (; )The Classical Nahuatl word (noun stem ''nāhua'', + absolutive ''-tl'' ) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has sev ...
and
allspice Allspice, also known as Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or pimento, is the dried unripe berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known ...
are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast,
rhubarb Rhubarb is the fleshy, edible stalks (petiole (botany), petioles) of species and hybrids (culinary rhubarb) of ''Rheum (plant), Rheum'' in the family Polygonaceae, which are cooked and used for food. The whole plant – a herbaceous perennial ...

rhubarb
is often called a fruit when used in making
pies A pie is a Baking, baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that contains a filling of various sweetness, sweet or savoury ingredients. Sweet pies may be filled with fruit (as in an apple pie), nuts (pecan pie), brown sugar (su ...

pies
, but the edible produce of rhubarb is actually the leaf stalk or
petiole Petiole may refer to: *Petiole (botany), the stalk of a leaf, attaching the blade to the stem *Petiole (insect anatomy), the narrow waist of some hymenopteran insects {{disambiguation ...
of the plant. Edible
gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( Greek language, lit. revealed seeds) are a group of Spermatophyte, seed-producing plants that includes Pinophyta, conifers, cycads, ''Ginkgo'', and gnetophyta, gnetophytes, forming the clade Gymnospermae, the living members of ...
seeds are often given fruit names, e.g.,
ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. ...

ginkgo
nuts and
pine nut Pine nuts, also called piñón (), pinoli (), or pignoli, are the edible seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procr ...
s. Botanically, a
cereal A cereal is any grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached husk, hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-pro ...
grain, such as
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...

corn
,
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bot ...

rice
, or
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'') ...

wheat
is a kind of fruit (termed a
caryopsis Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out, right In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scie ...
). However, the fruit wall is thin and fused to the seed coat, so almost all the edible grain-fruit is actually a seed.


Structure

The outer layer, often edible, of most fruits is called the ''pericarp''. Typically formed from the ovary, it surrounds the seeds; in some species, however, other structural tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, i.e., the ''epicarp'', ''mesocarp'' and ''endocarp''. Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be ''beaked''.


Development

A fruit results from the fertilizing and maturing of one or more flowers. The
gynoecium '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...

gynoecium
, which contains the '' stigma-style-ovary'' system, is centered in the flower-head, and it forms all or part of the fruit —(see graphic: 'the parts of a flower'). Inside the ovary(ies) are one or more
ovule In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. It consists of three parts: the '' integument'', forming its outer layer, the '' nucellus'' (or remnant of the megasporangium), and the fe ...

ovule
s. Here begins a complex sequence called ''
double fertilization Double fertilization is a complex fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to give rise to a new individual orga ...

double fertilization
'': a female
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternation of generations, alternating multicellular organism, multicellular phases in the life cycles of plants and algae. It is a haploid multicellular organism that develops from a haploid spore that has one ...

gametophyte
produces an egg cell for the purpose of fertilization. (A female gametophyte is called a
megagametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms ...
, and also called the
embryo sac In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. It consists of three parts: the '' integument'', forming its outer layer, the '' nucellus'' (or remnant of the megasporangium), and the fe ...
.) After
double fertilization Double fertilization is a complex fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to give rise to a new individual orga ...

double fertilization
, the ovules will become seeds. Ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther (male part) of a plant to the stigma (female part) of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by Anemophily, wind. Pollinating agents are a ...

pollination
, which is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma-style-ovary system within the flower-head, (see graphic). After pollination, a
pollen tube A pollen tube is a tubular structure produced by the male gametophyte of seed plants when it germinates. Pollen tube elongation is an integral stage in the plant life cycle. The pollen tube acts as a conduit to transport the male gamete cells from ...
grows from the (deposited) pollen through the stigma down the style into the ovary to the ovule. Two sperm are transferred from the pollen to a megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one sperm unites with the egg, forming a
zygote A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός ''zygōtos'' "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν ''zygoun'' "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gamete A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Gree ...

zygote
, while the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process. Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to
endosperm 350px, right The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biolo ...
, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo. image:Ovary position.svg, upright 1.5, Insertion point: There are 3 positions of insertion of the ovary at the base of a flower: I superior; II half-inferior; III inferior. The 'insertion point' is where the androecium parts ''(a)'', the petals ''(p)'', and the sepals ''(s)'' all converge and attach to the receptacle ''(r)''. (Ovary= gynoecium ''(g)''.) As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the ''pericarp'', may become fleshy (as in berries or
drupe ), showing both fruit and seed Image:Nectarine Fruit Development.jpg, 300px, The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (Peach#Nectarines, nectarine) type of peach (''Prunus persica'') over a -month period, from bud formation ...
s), or it may form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which a fleshy structure develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. The pericarp typically is differentiated into two or three distinct layers; these are called the ''exocarp'' (outer layer, also called epicarp), ''mesocarp'' (middle layer), and ''endocarp'' (inner layer) —(see image of apple-section). In some fruits the
sepal Image:Mature flower diagram.svg, upright=1.4, Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering pl ...
s,
petal upright=1.4, Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flower A flower, sometimes ...

petal
s,
stamen The stamen ( plural ''stamina'' or ''stamens'') is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium., p. 10 Morphology and terminology A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament ...
s and/or of the flower fall away as the fleshy fruit ripens. However, for simple fruits derived from an ''
inferior ovary 300px, Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing pistil (=ovary+style+stigma), ovules, and petals. The petals and sepals are above the ovary; such a flower is said to have an inferior ovary, or the flower is said to be epigynous. ...
'' —i.e., one that lies ''below'' the attachment of other floral parts, (see graphic re 'insertion point')— there are parts (including petals, sepals, and stamens) that fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. For such a case, when floral parts other than the ovary form a significant part of the fruit that develops, it is called an
accessory fruit Accessory may refer to: * Accessory (legal term), a person who assists a criminal In anatomy * Accessory bone * Accessory muscle * Accessory nucleus, in anatomy, a cranial nerve nucleus * Accessory nerve The accessory nerve is a cranial ...
. Examples of accessory fruits include apple, rose hip, strawberry, pineapple;
see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by The Rascals, on the album ''See'' ** See (Tycho song), "See" (Tycho song), song by Tycho * T ...
, and "Table of fleshy fruit examples". Because several parts of the flower besides the ovary may contribute to the structure of a fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: * fruits develop from a ''single flower'' (while having one or more separate, unfused, carpels); they are the simple fruits. *
Syncarpous '' Stigma (botany), stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek (, "woman") and (, "house")) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gy ...

Syncarpous
fruits develop from a ''single
gynoecium '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...

gynoecium
'' (having two or more carpels fused together). * Multiple fruits form from many flowers —i.e., an inflorescence of flowers.


Classification of fruits

Consistent with the three modes of fruit development plant scientists have classified fruits into three main groups: simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and multiple (or composite) fruits. The groupings reflect how the ovary and other flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop, but they are not evolutionarily relevant as diverse plant
taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
may be in the same group. While the section of a
fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as ...

fungus
that produces
spore )'', growing on a thinned hybrid black poplar ''(Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their spores: the calyptra (1) is still attached to the capsule ( ...
s is called a ''fruiting'' body, fungi are members of the and not of the
plant kingdom Plants are mainly multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, prope ...
.


Simple fruits

upright 1.02, A dry simple fruit: milkweed ('' follicular_fruit_reveals_seeds_within..html" ;"title="Follicle_(fruit).html" ;"title="Asclepias syriaca''); dehiscence of the
follicular_fruit_reveals_seeds_within.">Follicle_(fruit).html"_;"title="Asclepias_syriaca'');_dehiscence_of_the_Follicle_(fruit)">follicular_fruit_reveals_seeds_within. Simple_fruits_are_the_result_of_the_ripening-to-fruit_of_a_simple_or_compound_ovary_in_a_''single_flower''_with_a_''single_
follicular_fruit_reveals_seeds_within.">Follicle_(fruit).html"_;"title="Asclepias_syriaca'');_dehiscence_of_the_Follicle_(fruit)">follicular_fruit_reveals_seeds_within. Simple_fruits_are_the_result_of_the_ripening-to-fruit_of_a_simple_or_compound_ovary_in_a_''single_flower''_with_a_''single_Carpel">pistil ''__stigmas_and_style Gynoecium_(,_from_Ancient_Greek Ancient_Greek_includes_the_forms_of_the_Greek_language_used_in_ancient_Greece_and_the_classical_antiquity,_ancient_world_from_around_1500_BC_to_300_BC._It_is_often_roughly_divided_in_...
''._In_contrast,___a_single_flower_with_numerous_pistils_typically_produces_an_
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''._In_contrast,___a_single_flower_with_numerous_pistils_typically_produces_an_#Aggregate_fruit">aggregate_fruit_A_raspberry_fruit_(shown_with_a_raspberry_beetle_larva)_is_an_aggregate_fruit,_an_aggregate_of_drupelets image:Aquilegia_vulgaris_004.JPG,_The_fruit_of_an_''Aquilegia''_flower_is_one_fruit_that_forms_from_several_ovaries_of_one_flower,_and_it_is_an__...
;_and_the_merging_of_several_flowers,_or_a_'multiple'_of_flowers,_results_in_a_'multiple'_fruit.
_A_simple_fruit_is_further_classified_as_to_whether_it_is_dry_or_fleshy. To_distribute_their_seeds,_dry_fruits_may_split_open_and_discharge_their_seeds_to_the_winds,_which_is_called_dehiscence_(botany).html" "title="#Aggregate_fruit.html" "title="Carpel.html" "title="Follicle (fruit)">follicular fruit reveals seeds within.">Follicle_(fruit).html" ;"title="Asclepias syriaca''); dehiscence of the Follicle (fruit)">follicular fruit reveals seeds within. Simple fruits are the result of the ripening-to-fruit of a simple or compound ovary in a ''single flower'' with a ''single Carpel">pistil '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
''. In contrast, a single flower with numerous pistils typically produces an #Aggregate fruit">aggregate fruit A raspberry fruit (shown with a raspberry beetle larva) is an aggregate fruit, an aggregate of drupelets image:Aquilegia vulgaris 004.JPG, The fruit of an ''Aquilegia'' flower is one fruit that forms from several ovaries of one flower, and it is an ...
; and the merging of several flowers, or a 'multiple' of flowers, results in a 'multiple' fruit. A simple fruit is further classified as to whether it is dry or fleshy. To distribute their seeds, dry fruits may split open and discharge their seeds to the winds, which is called dehiscence (botany)">dehiscenceDehiscence can refer to: * Dehiscence (botany), the spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents * Wound dehiscence, a previously closed wound reopening * Superior canal dehisc ...
. Or the distribution process may rely upon the decay and degradation of the fruit to expose the seeds; or it may rely upon the eating of fruit and excreting of seeds by frugivores —both are called dehiscence (botany), indehiscence. Fleshy fruits do not split open, but they also are indehiscent and they may also rely on frugivores for distribution of their seeds. Typically, the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible
pericarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which ...
. Types of dry simple fruits, (with examples) include: *
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
– most commonly seen in aggregate fruits (e.g.,
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown Hybrid (biology), hybrid species of the genus ''Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The fr ...

strawberry
, see below). *
capsule Capsule may refer to: Anatomy * Articular capsule (joint capsule), an envelope surrounding a synovial joint * Bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule), a sac surrounding a glomerulus in a mammalian kidney * Glisson's capsule, a fibrous layer covering ...
– (
Brazil nut The Brazil nut (''Bertholletia excelsa'') is a South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also b ...
: botanically, it is not a nut). *
caryopsis Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out, right In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scie ...
– (cereal grains, including
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'') ...

wheat
,
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bot ...

rice
,
oats The oat (''Avena sativa''), sometimes called the common oat, is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...

oats
,
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogn ...

barley
). *
cypsela
cypsela
– an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum: (
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dandelion
). * fibrous drupe – (
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, th ...

coconut
,
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is comm ...

walnut
: botanically, neither is a true nut.). * follicle – a follicles fruit is formed from a single carpel, and opens by one suture: (
milkweed ''Asclepias'' is a genus of herbaceous, perennial plant, perennial, flowering plants known as milkweeds, named for their latex, a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides, exuded where cells are damaged. Most species are ...

milkweed
); also commonly seen in aggregate fruits: (
magnolia ''Magnolia'' is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus ''Magnolia'' depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphology (biology), morphological research shows that former genera ''Talauma'', ''D ...

magnolia
,
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peony
). *
legume A legume () is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. When used as a dry grain, the seed is also called a pulse. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for human consumption, for livestock forag ...

legume
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bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
,
pea The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is ...

pea
,
peanut The peanut, also known as the groundnut, goober (US), pindar (US) or monkey nut (UK), and taxonomically classified as ''Arachis hypogaea'', is a legume A legume () is a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly ...

peanut
: botanically, the peanut is the seed of a legume, not a nut). *
loment 250px, Loments of '' Hedysarum hedysaroides'' A loment (or lomentum) is a type of dehiscence (botany), indehiscent legume fruit that breaks apart at constrictions occurring between segments, so that each segment contains one seed. It is a type of sc ...
– a type of
indehiscent 200px, Dehiscence of the follicular fruit of milkweed ('' Asclepias syriaca'') revealing seeds within Dehiscence is the splitting of a mature plant structure along a built-in line of weakness in order to release its contents. This is common among ...
legume: ( sweet vetch or wild potato). *
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
– (
beechnut
beechnut
,
hazelnut The hazelnut is the nut (fruit), fruit of the hazel, hazel tree and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus ''Corylus'', especially the nuts of the species ''Corylus avellana''. They are also known as cobnuts or ...

hazelnut
,
acorn Diagram of the anatomy of an acorn: A.) Cupule B.) testa) D.) Cotyledons">Testa_(botany).html" ;"title="Pericarp (fruit wall) C.) Seed coat (Testa (botany)">testa) D.) Cotyledons (2) E.) Plumule F.) Radicle G.) Remains of Gynoecium, style. Toge ...

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oak
): botanically, these are true nuts). *
samara Samara ( rus, Сама́ра, p=sɐˈmarə), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (; ), is the largest city and administrative centre of Samara Oblast. The city is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Samara (Volga), Samara rivers, with ...
– (
ash Ash or ashes are the solid remnants of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the ...
,
elm Elms are deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to t ...

elm
,
maple key
maple key
). *
schizocarp The indehiscent schizocarp of musk mallow ''Malva moschata'' will later split into segments called mericarps. A schizocarp is a dry fruit that, when mature, splits up into mericarp The indehiscent schizocarp of musk mallow ''Malva moschata'' wil ...
, see below – (
carrot seed
carrot seed
). *
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– (
radish The radish ('' Raphanus raphanistrum'' subsp. ''sativus'') is an edible root vegetable of the family Brassicaceae that was domesticated in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern H ...

radish
seed). * silicle – (
shepherd's purse ''Capsella bursa-pastoris'', known as shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are th ...

shepherd's purse
). * utricle – (
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown Hybrid (biology), hybrid species of the genus ''Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The fr ...

strawberry
). Fruits in which part or all of the ''pericarp'' (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are termed ''fleshy simple fruits''. Types of fleshy simple fruits, (with examples) include: *
berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissem ...
– The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit. The entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible "pericarp", (see below). *
stone fruit ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...
or
drupe ), showing both fruit and seed Image:Nectarine Fruit Development.jpg, 300px, The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (Peach#Nectarines, nectarine) type of peach (''Prunus persica'') over a -month period, from bud formation ...
– The definitive characteristic of a drupe is the hard, "lignified" stone (sometimes called the "pit"). It is derived from the ovary wall of the flower:
apricot An apricot (, ) is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The ...

apricot
,
cherry A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus ''Prunus'', and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). Commercial cherries are obtained from cultivars of several species, such as the sweet ''Prunus avium'' and the sour ''Prunus cerasus''. The ...

cherry
,
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemica ...

olive
,
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow f ...

peach
,
plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax blo ...

plum
,
mango A mango is an edible drupe, stone fruit produced by the tropical tree ''Mangifera indica'' which is believed to have originated from the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northeastern India. ''M. indica'' has been cultivated ...

mango
. *
pome In botany, a pome is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. Well-known pomes include the apple, pear, and quince. Etymology The word ''pome'' entered English in the late 14th century, and ref ...

pome
– The
pome In botany, a pome is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. Well-known pomes include the apple, pear, and quince. Etymology The word ''pome'' entered English in the late 14th century, and ref ...

pome
fruits:
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
s,
pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species In biology Biology is the natural science that stu ...

pear
s,
rosehip '' (beach rose) Image:Rosa rubiginosa hips.jpg, Dog rose showing the bright red hips The rose hip or rosehip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit of the rose plant. It is typically red to orange, but ranges from dark purp ...

rosehip
s, saskatoon berry, et al., are a syncarpous#Types, syncarpous (fused) fleshy fruit, a simple fruit, developing from a half-inferior ovary, see graphic re 'Insertion point'. Pomes are of the family Rosaceae,


Berries

Berries are a type of simple fleshy fruit that issue from a single ovary. (The ovary itself may be compound, with several carpels.) The botanical term "true berry" includes grapes, currants, cucumbers, eggplants (aubergines), tomatoes, chili peppers, and bananas, but excludes certain fruits that are called "-berry" by culinary custom or by common usage of the term —such as strawberries and raspberries. Berries may be formed from one or more carpels (i.e., from the simple or compound ovary) from the same, single flower. Seeds typically are embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary. Examples here and in the table below: *
tomato The tomato is the edible berry of the plant ''Solanum lycopersicum'', commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the ...

tomato
– In culinary terms, the tomato is regarded as a vegetable, but it is botanically classified as a fruit and a berry. *
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry (botany), berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus ''Musa (genus), Musa''. In some countries, Cooking banana, bananas used for c ...
– The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. * Pepo (botany), pepo – Berries with skin that is hardened: Cucurbitaceae, cucurbits, including gourds, squash, melons. * hesperidium – Berries with a rind and a juicy interior: most citrus fruit. * cranberry, gooseberry, redcurrant,
grape A grape is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

grape
. The ''strawberry'', regardless of its appearance, is classified as a dry, not a fleshy fruit. Botanically, it is ''not'' a berry (botany)#Accessory fruits, berry; it is an accessory fruit, aggregate-accessory fruit, the latter term meaning the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the Receptacle (botany), receptacle that holds the Ovary (botany), ovaries.Esau, K. (1977). ''Anatomy of seed plants''. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Numerous dry
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s are attached to the outside of the fruit-flesh, (see image); they appear to be seeds but each is actually an ovary of a flower, with a seed inside. Schizocarps are dry fruits, though some appear to be fleshy. They originate from syncarpous ovaries but do not actually dehiscence (botany), dehisce; rather, they split into segments with one or more seeds. They include a number of different forms from a wide range of families, including carrot, parsnip, parsley, cumin.


Aggregate fruits

File:Lilyfruit.jpg, upright 1.02, ''Lilium'' unripe capsule fruit; an aggregate fruit. An aggregate fruit is also called an aggregation, or ''etaerio''; it develops from a single flower that presents numerous simple pistils (see graphic of raspberry pistils). Each pistil contains one
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...
; together they form a fruitlet. The ultimate (fruiting) development of the aggregation of pistils is called an aggregate fruit, etaerio fruit, or simply an etaerio. Different types of aggregate fruits can produce different etaerios, such as achenes, drupelets, follicles, and berries. For example, the Ranunculaceae species, including ''Clematis'' and ''Ranunculus'', produces an etaerio of
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s; ''Rubus'' species, including raspberry: an etaerio of drupelets; ''Calotropis'' species: an etaerio of follicles fruit; ''Annona'' species: an etaerio of berries. Some other broadly recognized species and their etaerios (or aggregations) are: * Teasel; fruit is an aggregation of cypsela (botany), cypselas. * tuliptree#Description, Tuliptree; fruit is an aggregation of samara (fruit), samaras. * Magnolia and peony#Morphology, peony; fruit is an aggregation of follicles. * liquidambar#Species, American sweet gum; fruit is an aggregation of capsules. * Platanus occidentalis#Description, Sycamore; fruit is an aggregation of achenes. The ''raspberry''; its pistils are called ''drupelets'' because each pistil is like a small
drupe ), showing both fruit and seed Image:Nectarine Fruit Development.jpg, 300px, The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (Peach#Nectarines, nectarine) type of peach (''Prunus persica'') over a -month period, from bud formation ...
attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits such as blackberry the receptacle, an accessory part, elongates and then develops as part of the fruit, making the blackberry an ''#Accessory fruit, aggregate-accessory'' fruit. The
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown Hybrid (biology), hybrid species of the genus ''Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The fr ...

strawberry
is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, of which the seeds are contained in the
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s. Notably in all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower, with numerous pistils.


Multiple fruits

A multiple fruit is formed from a cluster of flowers, (a 'multiple' of flowers) —also called an ''inflorescence''. Each ('smallish') flower produces a single fruitlet, which, as all develop, all merge into one mass of fruit. Examples include pineapple, ficus, fig, mulberry, Osage orange, breadfruit. An inflorescence (a cluster) of white flowers, called a head, is produced first. After Fertilization#Fertilisation in plants, fertilization, each flower in the cluster develops into a drupe; as the drupes expand, they develop as a ''connation, connate'' organ, merging into a multiple fleshy fruit called a ''syncarp''. Progressive stages of multiple flowering and fruit development can be observed on a single branch of the Indian mulberry, or ''noni'', (see image). During the sequence of development, a progression of second, third, and more inflorescences are initiated in turn at the head of the branch or stem.


Accessory fruit forms

For some fruits, some (or all) of the edible parts do ''not'' issue from the ovary; such fruit development can comprise all the pistils and other parts produced from one flower as well as all those produced from many flowers. This form of development is called ''accessory'' fruiting, and it occurs among all three classes of fruit development —simple, aggregate, and multiple. Accessory fruits are frequently designated by the hyphenated term showing both characters; e.g., pineapple is a multiple-accessory fruit.


Table of fleshy fruit examples


Seedless fruits

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry (botany), berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus ''Musa (genus), Musa''. In some countries, Cooking banana, bananas used for c ...
s and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially grapefruit, mandarin oranges, navel
oranges The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family (biology), family Rutaceae (see list of plants known as orange); it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis, ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'', which is also called sweet orange, to dis ...
), Mikan, satsumas, table grapes, and of watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of ''parthenocarpy'', where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit-set may (or may not) require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit. Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as ''stenospermocarpy'', which requires normal pollination and fertilization.


Seed dissemination

Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the Biological dispersal, modes of dispersal applied to their seeds. Dispersal is achieved by wind or water, by explosive dehiscence, and by interactions with animals. Some fruits present their outer skins or shells coated with spikes or hooked burrs; these evolved either to deter would-be foragers from feeding on them, or to serve to attach themselves to the hair, feathers, legs, or clothing of animals, thereby using them as dispersal agents. These plants are termed zoochorous; common examples include cocklebur, unicorn plant, and beggarticks, beggarticks (or Spanish needle). By developments of mutual evolution the fleshy produce of fruits typically appeals to hungry animals, such that the seeds contained within are taken in, carried away and later deposited (i.e., Defecation, defecated) at a distance from the parent plant. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of
nuts Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit) A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage and in a Culinary nut, culinary sense, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botan ...
typically motivate birds and squirrels to hoarding, hoard them, burying them in soil to retrieve later during the winter of scarcity; thereby, uneaten seeds are sown effectively under natural conditions to Germination, germinate and grow a new plant some distance away from the parent. Other fruits have evolved wing#In nature, flattened and elongated wings or helicopter, helicopter-like blades, e.g.,
elm Elms are deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to t ...

elm
, maple, and tuliptree. This mechanism increases dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny "Pappus (flower structure), parachutes", e.g.,
dandelion ''Taraxacum'' () is a large genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may al ...

dandelion
, Asclepias, milkweed, Tragopogon, salsify. Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean, thereby spreading their seeds. Other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine. Some fruits have evolved propulsive mechanisms that fling seeds substantial distances —(perhaps up to 100 m in the case of the sandbox tree)— via explosive dehiscence or other such mechanisms, (see impatiens and squirting cucumber.


Food uses

A cornucopia of fruits —fleshy (simple) fruits from apples to berries to watermelon; dry (simple) fruits including beans and rice, coconuts and carrots; aggregate fruits including strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, pawpaw; multiple fruits such as pineapple, fig, mulberries; (see above re all)— are commercially valuable as human food. They are eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other fruit preserves. They are used extensively in manufactured and processed foods (cakes, cookies, baked goods, flavorings, ice cream, yogurt, canned vegetables, frozen vegetables and meals) and beverages such as fruit juices and alcoholic beverages (brandy, fruit beer, wine). Spices like vanilla, black pepper, paprika, and
allspice Allspice, also known as Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or pimento, is the dried unripe berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known ...
are derived from berries. Olive, Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil and similar processing is applied to other oil bearing fruits/vegetables. Fruits are also used for socializing and gift-giving in the form of fruit baskets and fruit bouquets. Typically, many botanical fruits —"vegetables" in culinary ''parlance''— (including tomato, green beans, leaf greens, bell pepper, cucumber, eggplant, okra, pumpkin, squash, zucchini) are bought and sold daily in fresh produce markets and greengroceries and carried back to kitchens, at home or restaurant, for preparation of meals.


Storage

All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care, and in many fruits, the plant hormone Ethylene-ripened fruits, ethylene causes ripening. Therefore, maintaining most fruits in an efficient cold chain is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life.Why Cold Chain for Fruits:


Nutritional value

Various culinary fruits provide significant amounts of fiber and water, and many are generally high in vitamin C. An overview of numerous studies showed that fruits (e.g., whole apples or whole oranges) are satisfying (filling) by simply eating and chewing them. The dietary fiber consumed in eating fruit promotes satiety, and may help to control body weight and aid reduction of blood cholesterol, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Fruit consumption is under preliminary research for the potential to improve nutrition and affect chronic diseases. Regular consumption of fruit is generally associated with reduced risks of several diseases and functional declines associated with aging.


Food safety

For food safety, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected; at the store, they should not be damaged or bruised; and precut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice. All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage. Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as from utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. Fruits and vegetables that are not going to be cooked should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs. All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.


Allergies

Fruit allergies make up about 10 percent of all food related allergies.


Nonfood uses

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, various cultures have developed many different uses for fruits they do not depend on for food. For example: * Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles; * Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements (e.g., annual honesty, cotoneaster, Nelumbo, lotus,
milkweed ''Asclepias'' is a genus of herbaceous, perennial plant, perennial, flowering plants known as milkweeds, named for their latex, a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides, exuded where cells are damaged. Most species are ...

milkweed
, unicorn plant, and
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'') ...

wheat
). Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including beautyberry, cotoneaster, holly, pyracantha, skimmia, and viburnum. * Fruits of opium poppy are the source of opium, which contains the drugs codeine and morphine, as well as the biologically inactive chemical theabaine from which the drug oxycodone is synthesized. * Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches. * Many fruits provide natural dyes (e.g.,
cherry A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus ''Prunus'', and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). Commercial cherries are obtained from cultivars of several species, such as the sweet ''Prunus avium'' and the sour ''Prunus cerasus''. The ...

cherry
, mulberry, sumac, and
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is comm ...

walnut
). * Dried gourds are used as bird houses, cups, decorations, dishes, musical instruments, and water jugs. * Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. * The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur inspired the invention of Velcro. * Coir fiber from
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, th ...

coconut
shells is used for brushes, doormats, floor tiles, insulation, mattresses, sacking, and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make bird houses, bowls, cups, musical instruments, and souvenir heads. * Fruit is often a subject of still life paintings.


See also

* Fruit tree * Fruitarianism * List of culinary fruits * List of foods * List of fruit dishes


References


Further reading

* Gollner, Adam J. (2010). ''The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession''. Scribner. * Watson, R. R., and Preedy, V.R. (2010, eds.). ''Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables''. Academic Press.


External links


Images of fruit development from flowers
at bioimages.Vanderbilt.edu

at bioimages.Vanderbilt.edu

from California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
Photo ID of Fruits
by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli * {{Authority control Fruit, Pollination