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Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of
fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecula ...

fire
and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating
system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal e ...

system
s. In structures, be they land-based, offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, ...
and fire code, which are enforced by the
authority having jurisdiction Construction is a general term meaning the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no gener ...
. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is made. Building inspectors check on compliance of a building under
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
with the building code. Once
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
is complete, a building must be maintained in accordance with the current fire code, which is enforced by the fire prevention officers of a local fire department. In the event of fire emergencies,
Firefighter A firefighter is a rescuer A rescuer is a person who rescues something from harm or danger. They are trained in technical rescue, diver rescue, mountain rescue, extrication rescue, or/and advance technical firefighting. The term is commonly u ...

Firefighter
s, fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel are called to mitigate, investigate and learn from the
damage of a fire
damage of a fire
. Lessons learned from fires are applied to the authoring of both building codes and fire codes.


Classifying fires

When deciding on what fire protection is appropriate for any given situation, it is important to assess the types of fire hazards that may be faced. Some jurisdictions operate systems of classifying fires using code letters. Whilst these may agree on some classifications, they also vary. Below is a table showing the standard operated in Europe and Australia against the system used in the United States. 1 Technically there is no such thing as a "Class E" fire, as electricity itself does not burn. However it is considered a dangerous and very deadly complication to a fire, therefore using the incorrect extinguishing method can result in serious injury or death. Class E, however generally refers to fires involving electricity, therefore a bracketed E, "(E)" denoted on various types of extinguishers. Fires are sometimes categorized as "one alarm", "two alarm", "three alarm" (or higher) fires. There is no standard definition for what this means quantifiably, though it always refers to the level response by the local authorities. In some cities, the numeric rating refers to the number of fire stations that have been summoned to the fire. In others, the number counts the number of "dispatches" for additional personnel and equipment.


Components

Fire protection in land-based
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a w ...

building
s,
offshore construction Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources. It is also called maritime engineering. Construction an ...
or onboard
ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fishing. Ships are generally disti ...

ship
s is typically achieved via all of the following: *
Passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually without movement. Examples of passive systems include floor-ceili ...
- the installation of
firewalls Firewall may refer to: * Firewall (computing), a technological barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between computer networks or hosts * Firewall (construction), a barrier inside a building, designed to limit the sprea ...
and fire rated floor assemblies to form fire compartments intended to limit the spread of
fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecula ...

fire
, high temperatures, and
smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted of fires (including s, s, s, s, and s), but may als ...

smoke
. *
Active fire protection Active fire protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection. AFP is characterized by items and/or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
- manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires, such as
fire sprinkler A fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been exceeded. Fire sprinklers are extensively used ...
systems and (
fire alarm A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, rel ...

fire alarm
) systems. *
Education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, lea ...

Education
- the provision of information regarding passive and active fire protection systems to building owners, operators, occupants, and emergency personnel so that they have a working understanding of the intent of these systems and how they perform in the fire safety plan.


Balanced approach

Passive fire protection (PFP) in the form of compartmentalisation was developed prior to the invention of or widespread use of active fire protection (AFP), mainly in the form of automatic fire sprinkler systems. During this time, PFP was the dominant mode of protection provided in facility designs. With the widesprea
installation of fire sprinklers
in the past 50 years, the reliance on PFP as the only approach was reduced.


Building operation in conformance with design

Fire protection within a structure is a
system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal e ...

system
that relies on all of its components. The building is designed in compliance with the local
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, ...
and
fire code#REDIRECT Fire safety#REDIRECT Fire safety Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat ...
by the architect and other consultants. A building permit is issued after review by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). Deviations from that original plan should be made known to the AHJ to make sure that the change is still in compliance with the law to prevent any unsafe conditions that may violate the law and put people at risk. For example, if the
firestop A firestop or fire-stopping is a form of passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually ...
systems in a structure were inoperable, a significant part of the fire safety plan might be compromised in the event of a fire because the walls and floors that contain the firestops are intended to have a
fire-resistance rating A fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, ...
. Likewise, if the sprinkler system or fire alarm system is inoperable for lack of proper maintenance, the likelihood of damage or personal injury is increased.


See also

*
Fire prevention Fire prevention is a function of many fire departments A fire department (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English lan ...
*
Automatic fire suppression Image:COMPUTER ROOM DISCHARGE.JPG, 250px, Operation of a gas fire extinguishing system in a server room, alt= Automatic fire suppression systems control and extinguish fires without human intervention. Examples of automatic systems include fire spri ...
*
Occupancy Within the context of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been a ...
*
Building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, ...
*
Firefighting Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various r ...

Firefighting
*
Fire test A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ...
*
Listing and approval use and compliance Listing and approval use and compliance is the activity of adhering to specific conformance testing requirements to establish minimum performance for safety-related products and materials. The conformance could be for an ''active'' certification ...
*
Passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually without movement. Examples of passive systems include floor-ceili ...
**
Compartmentalization Compartmentalization or compartmentalisation may refer to: * Compartmentalization (biology) * Compartmentalization (engineering) * Compartmentalization (fire protection) * Compartmentalization (information security) * Compartmentalization (psycholo ...
**
Firestop A firestop or fire-stopping is a form of passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually ...
**
IntumescentAn intumescent is a substance that swells as a result of heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The various mechanisms of ene ...

Intumescent
**
Endothermic In thermochemistry Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy which is associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. A reaction may release or absorb energy, and a phase change may do the same, such as in melting and bo ...
** Firestop pillow **
Fire door A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating (sometimes referred to as a ''fire protection rating'' for closures) used as part of a passive fire protection system to reduce the spread of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of ...

Fire door
**
Fireproofing -based plaster fireproofing being installed. fireproofing of cable trays, using calcium silicate Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2. It is also ref ...

Fireproofing
**
Fire-resistance rating A fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, ...
*
Active fire protection Active fire protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection. AFP is characterized by items and/or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
** External water spray system **
Fire Sprinkler A fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been exceeded. Fire sprinklers are extensively used ...
**
Fire alarm A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, rel ...

Fire alarm
**
Fire alarm system A fire alarm system warns people when smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted of fi ...
**
Fire alarm control panel .A fire alarm control panel (FACP), fire alarm control unit (FACU), or simply fire alarm panel is the controlling component of a fire alarm system. The panel receives information from devices designed to detect and report fires, monitors their ope ...
**
Fire detectionFire detectors sense one or more of the products or phenomena resulting from fire, such as smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity ...
**
Manual call point Manual may refer to: Instructions * User guide A user guide, also commonly known as a user manual, is intended to assist users in using a particular product, service or application. It's usually written by a technician, product developer, or a com ...
**
False alarm A false alarm, also called a nuisance alarm, is the deceptive or erroneous report of an emergency, causing unnecessary panic and/or bringing resources (such as emergency services) to a place where they are not needed. False alarm An alarm de ...
** Sprinkler Systems **
Smoke Alarm
Smoke Alarm
*
Hypoxic air fire prevention system Hypoxic air technology for fire prevention, also known as oxygen reduction system (ORS), is an active fire protection Active fire protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection. AFP is characterized by items and/or system A system is a ...
*
Gaseous fire suppression Gaseous fire suppression, also called clean agent fire suppression, is a term to describe the use of inert gases and chemical agents to extinguish a fire. These agents are governed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard for C ...
*
Condensed aerosol fire suppression Condensed aerosol fire suppression is a particle-based form of fire extinction. It is similar to gaseous fire suppression (or dry chemical fire extinction). It employs a fire-extinguishing agent consisting of: very fine solid particles as well ...
*
Fire protection engineering Fire protection engineering is the application of science and engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, veh ...
**
Flame detector A flame detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to the presence of a flame or fire, allowing flame detection. Responses to a detected flame depend on the installation, but can include sounding an alarm, deactivating a fuel line (such as ...
*
Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Association{{No footnotes, date=November 2009 History Founded in 1930, The Fire Equipment Manufacturers’ FEMA is an international, non-profit trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector assoc ...


Notes


Further reading

* Huang, Kai. 2009. Population and Building Factors That Impact Residential Fire Rates in Large U.S. Cities. Applied Research Project. Texas State University. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/287/.


External links


National Fire Protection Association (US)

National Fire Sprinkler Association (US)

Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Association (US)
{{Authority control Building engineering