HOME

TheInfoList




Feminism is a range of
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
s and
ideologies An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of co ...
that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social
equality of the sexes Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing di ...

equality of the sexes
. Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, and that women are treated unjustly within those societies. Efforts to change that include fighting against
gender stereotypes A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for a person based on that person's biological or perceived sex. Gende ...
and establishing educational, professional, and interpersonal opportunities and outcomes for women that are equal to those for men.
Feminist movement The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaign A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific gr ...
s have campaigned and continue to campaign for
women's rights Women's rights are the and s claimed for and s worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the s during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supp ...
, including the right to:
vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracy, Democracie ...
, hold public office,
work Work may refer to: * Work (human activity), intentional activity people perform to support themselves, others, or the community ** Manual labour, physical work done by humans ** House work, housework, or homemaking * Work (physics), the product of ...

work
, earn
equal pay Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labour rights Labor rights or workers' rights are both legal rights and human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, an ...

equal pay
, own property,
receive education
receive education
, enter contracts, have equal rights within
marriage Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other Significant other (SO) is colloquially used as a term ...

marriage
, and
maternity leave Parental leave, or family leave, is an employee benefit available in almost all countries. The term "parental leave" may include maternity, Paternity (law), paternity, and adoption leave; or may be used distinctively from "maternity leave" and " ...
. Feminists have also worked to ensure access to legal abortions and
social integration Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society. Social integration, together with economic integration and identity integration, are three main dimensions of ...
, and to protect women and girls from
rape Rape is a type of sexual assault Sexual assault is an act in which one intentionally sexually touches another person without that person's consent Consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another. ...

rape
,
sexual harassment Sexual harassment is a type of involving the use of explicit or implicit sexual overtones, including the unwelcome and inappropriate promises of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Sexual harassment includes a range of actions from verbal ...
, and
domestic violence Domestic violence (also called domestic abuse or family violence) is violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization Th ...
. Changes in female dress standards and acceptable physical activities for females have often been part of feminist movements. Some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in
the West
the West
, where they are near-universally credited with achieving
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
,
gender-neutral language Gender-neutral language or gender-inclusive language is language that avoids bias towards a particular sex or social gender. In English, this includes use of nouns that are not gender-specific to refer to roles or professions, formation of phrases ...

gender-neutral language
,
reproductive rights Reproductive rights are legal right Natural rights and legal rights are the two basic types of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental norma ...
for women (including access to
contraceptive Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman ...
s and
abortion Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism ...
), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists argue for the inclusion of
men's liberation The men's liberation movement is a social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is Volition ...
within its aims, because they believe that men are also harmed by traditional
gender roles A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, ...
.
Feminist theory Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or Philosophy, philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's and men's Gender role, social roles, experiences, intere ...
, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; feminist theorists have developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues concerning gender. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Traditionally, since the 19th century, first-wave
liberal feminism Liberal feminism, also called mainstream feminism, is a main branch of feminism defined by its focus on achieving gender equality through political reform, political and legal reform within the framework of liberal democracy. As the oldest of the ...
that sought political and legal equality through
reforms Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill#The Yorkshire Associatio ...
within a
liberal democratic Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is tru ...
framework was contrasted with
labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
-based
proletarian The proletariat ( from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
women's movements that over time developed into
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
and
Marxist feminism Marxist feminism is a philosophical variant of feminism Feminism is a range of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware ...
based on
class struggle Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class warfare, is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, socia ...
theory. Since the 1960s, both of these traditions are also contrasted with
radical feminism Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender equality, equality of the sexes. Fe ...
that arose from the
radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1988 *"Radicals", a song by Tyler, The Creator from the 2011 album ''Goblin (album ...
wing of
second-wave feminism Second-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity, and though it began in the United States in the early 1960s, it lasted roughly two decades. It quickly spread across the Western world with an aim to increase equality for women by gainin ...
and that calls for a radical reordering of society to eliminate male supremacy; together liberal, socialist and radical feminism are sometimes called the "Big Three" schools of feminist thought. Since the late 20th century, many newer forms of feminisms have emerged. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only
white White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse reflection, reflect and scattering, scatter all the visible spectrum, visible wa ...
, middle class, college-educated,
heterosexual Heterosexuality is romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** ...
, or
cisgender Cisgender (sometimes cissexual or shortened to cis) describes a person whose gender identity Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between f ...
perspectives. These criticisms have led to the creation of ethnically specific or
multicultural The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "Pluralism (political theory), ethnic pluralism", with the two ...

multicultural
forms of feminism, such as
black feminism Black feminism is a philosophy that centers on the idea that "Black women are inherently valuable, that
lack women's Lack may refer to: Places * Lack, County Fermanagh Lack () is a small village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to ...
liberation is a necessity not as an adjunct to somebody else's but because our need as human persons for autonomy." Black ...
and
intersectional feminism Intersectionality is an Analytic frame, analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's Social identity, social and political identities combine to create different modes of discrimination and Social privilege, privilege. Exampl ...

intersectional feminism
.


History


Terminology

Charles Fourier François Marie Charles Fourier (;; 7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meanin ...

Charles Fourier
, a
utopian socialist Utopian socialism is the term often used to describe the first current of modern socialism Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, economic ...
and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837. The words "féminisme" ("feminism") and "féministe" ("feminist") first appeared in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
in 1872,
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...
in the 1890s, and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
in 1910. The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism". Depending on the historical moment, culture and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not (or do not) apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants. Those historians use the label "
protofeminist Protofeminism is a concept that anticipates modern feminism Feminism is a range of s and that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social . Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the ...
" to describe earlier movements.


Waves

The history of the modern western feminist movement is divided into four "waves". The
first First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
comprised women's suffrage movements of the 19th and early-20th centuries, promoting women's right to vote. The second wave, the
women's liberation movement The women's liberation movement (WLM) was a political alignment of women and feminist Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender e ...
, began in the 1960s and campaigned for legal and social equality for women. In or around 1992, a third wave was identified, characterized by a focus on individuality and diversity. Additionally, some have argued for the existence of a fourth wave, starting around 2012, which has used
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
to combat
sexual harassment Sexual harassment is a type of involving the use of explicit or implicit sexual overtones, including the unwelcome and inappropriate promises of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Sexual harassment includes a range of actions from verbal ...
,
violence against women Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), are violent Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also use ...
and
rape culture Rape culture is a sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or socia ...
; it is best known for the
Me Too movement The Me Too (or #MeToo) movement, with variations of related local or international names, is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. ...
.


19th and early-20th centuries

First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th and early-20th centuries. In the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women. New legislation included the
Custody of Infants Act 1839Custody of Infants Act of 1839 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Cro ...
in the UK, which introduced the
tender years doctrine Image:Caroline Norton by Frank Stone.jpg, Caroline Norton, the person who initiated the tender years doctrine The tender years doctrine is a legal doctrine, legal principle in family law since the late 19th century. In common law, it presumes that d ...
for child custody and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation, such as the
Married Women's Property Act 1870 The Married Women's Property Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict c 93) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed married women to be the legal owners of the money they earned and to inherit property. Background Before 1870, any money made by ...
in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, became models for similar legislation in other British territories.
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
passed legislation in 1884 and
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
in 1889; the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. With the turn of the 19th century, activism focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's
suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called a ...

suffrage
, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual,
reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual orga ...
, and
economic rights Economic, social and cultural rights are Socioeconomics, socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to an adequate standard of living, right to health, victims' rights and the right to science and culture ...
too.
Women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
(the right to vote and stand for parliamentary office) began in Britain's
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. ...

Australasia
n colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
granting women the right to vote in 1893;
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
followed suit with the Constitutional Amendment (Adult Suffrage) Act 1894 in 1894. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain, the suffragettes and
suffragists Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called act ...
campaigned for the women's vote, and in 1918 the
Representation of the People ActRepresentation of the People Act is a short title used for legislation addressing electoral matters. The term usually refers to the various statutes enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom from the 19th century onwards. It was later adopted i ...

Representation of the People Act
was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928, this was extended to all women over 21.
Emmeline Pankhurst Emmeline Pankhurst (née Goulden; 15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was an English political activist. She is best remembered for organizing the UK suffragette A suffragette was a member of an activist women's organisation in the early 20th ce ...
was the most notable activist in England. ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'' named her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back." In the US, notable leaders of this movement included
Lucretia Mott Lucretia Mott (''née'' Coffin; January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an Quakers in North America, American Quaker, Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and social reformer. She had formed the idea of re ...

Lucretia Mott
,
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American writer and activist who was a leader of the women's rights movement in the U.S. during the mid- to late-1800s. She was the main force behind the 1848 Seneca Falls C ...

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
, and , who each campaigned for the
abolition of slavery Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), w ...
before championing women's right to vote. These women were influenced by the
Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholi ...

Quaker
theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God. In the US, first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the
Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally co ...
(1919), granting women the right to vote in all states. The term ''first wave'' was coined retroactively when the term ''second-wave feminism'' came into use. During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the
Hundred Days' Reform The Hundred Days' Reform or Wuxu Reform () was a failed 103-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement that occurred from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China. It was undertaken by the young Guangxu Emp ...
,
Chinese feminists Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China * Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or ethnicity **''Zhonghua minzu'', the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality ** Han Chinese, the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, ...
called for women's liberation from traditional roles and
Neo-Confucian Neo-Confucianism (, often shortened to ''lixue'' 理學, literally "School of Principle") is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring ...
gender segregation Sex segregation (or sex separation) is the physical, legal, or cultural separation of people according to their biological sex. Sex segregation can refer simply to the physical and spatial separation by sex without any connotation of illegal disc ...
. Later, the
Chinese Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...
created projects aimed at integrating women into the workforce, and claimed that the revolution had successfully achieved women's liberation. According to Nawar al-Hassan Golley, Arab feminism was closely connected with Arab nationalism. In 1899, , considered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote ''The Liberation of Women'', which argued for legal and social reforms for women. He drew links between women's position in Egyptian society and nationalism, leading to the development of Cairo University and the National Movement. In 1923
Hoda Shaarawi Huda Sha'arawi or Hoda Sha'rawi ( ar, هدى شعراوي, ; June 23, 1879 – December 12, 1947) was a pioneering Egyptian feminist Feminism is a range of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in intera ...
founded the
Egyptian Feminist Union The Egyptian Feminist Union () was the first nationwide feminist Feminism is a range of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are ...
, became its president and a symbol of the Arab women's rights movement. The
Iranian Constitutional Revolution The Persian Constitutional Revolution ( fa, مشروطیت ''Mashrūtiyyat'', or ''Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh''), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution led to the establishment of a p ...
in 1905 triggered the Iranian women's movement, which aimed to achieve women's equality in
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
, marriage, careers, and
legal rights Natural rights and legal rights are two types of rights. * Natural rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any particular culture or government, and so are ''universal'', ''fundamental Fundamental may refer to: * Foun ...
. However, during the
Iranian revolution The Iranian Revolution ( fa, انقلاب ایران, Enqelâb-e Irân, ), also known as the Islamic Revolution ( fa, انقلاب اسلامی, Enqelâb-e Eslâmī) was a series of events that culminated in the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynas ...
of 1979, many of the rights that
women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells), the type of gamete (sex cell) that fuses with the Sperm, male gamete during sexual reproduction. A female ...
had gained from the women's movement were systematically abolished, such as the Family Protection Law. In
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
, women obtained the
right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, ele ...

right to vote
only with the
Provisional Government of the French Republic The Provisional Government of the French Republic (PGFR) (french: Gouvernement provisoire de la République française (''GPRF'') is a name for an interim government of Free France between 3 June 1944 and 27 October 1946 following the liberation ...
of 21 April 1944. The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of 1944 proposed on 24 March 1944 to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by
Fernand Grenier Fernand Grenier (June 28, 1927 – January 19, 1988) was a Canadian politician from Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = Q ...
, they were given full citizenship, including the right to vote. Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to 16. In May 1947, following the November 1946 elections, the sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the " gender gap", stating in ''
Le Populaire ''Le Populaire'' is a major independent daily newspaper in Senegal.Senegal Country Comme ...
'' that women had not voted in a consistent way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes. During the
baby boom A baby boom is a period marked by a significant increase of birth rate. This demographic phenomenon is usually ascribed within certain geographical bounds of defined national and cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses ...
period, feminism waned in importance. Wars (both World War I and World War II) had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles.


Mid-20th century

By the mid-20th century, women still lacked significant rights. In
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...
, women gained the
right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, ele ...
in federal
elections An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Ind ...
in 1971; but in the canton of
Appenzell Innerrhoden Appenzell Innerrhoden (; in English sometimes Appenzell Inner-Rhodes) is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of six districts. The seat of the government and parliament is Appenzell. It is traditionally consid ...
women obtained the right to vote on local issues only in 1991, when the canton was forced to do so by the
Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (german: Bundesgericht, french: Tribunal fédéral, it, Tribunale federale, rm, ) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/ ...

Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
. In
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europ ...

Liechtenstein
, women were given the right to vote by the women's suffrage referendum of 1984. Three prior referendums held in
1968 The year was highlighted by protests and other unrests that occurred worldwide. Events January * January 5 Events Pre-1600 *1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of L ...
,
1971 The year 1971 had three partial solar eclipses (February 25 Events 175px, Portrait of Paul Reuter, died 25 February 1899 *AD 138, 138 – Roman emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius as his son, effectively making hi ...
and
1973 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day mar ...
had failed to secure women's right to vote. Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of
family law Family law (also called matrimonial law or the ''law of domestic relations'') is an area of the that deals with matters and . Overview Subjects that commonly fall under a nation's body of family law include: * , s, and s: ** Entry into legall ...
s which gave husbands control over their wives. Although by the 20th century
coverture Coverture (sometimes spelled couverture) was a legal doctrine in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtu ...
had been abolished in the UK and US, in many continental European countries married women still had very few rights. For instance, in France, married women did not receive the right to work without their husband's permission until 1965. Feminists have also worked to abolish the which precluded the prosecution of husbands for the rape of their wives. Earlier efforts by first-wave feminists such as
Voltairine de Cleyre Voltairine de Cleyre (November 17, 1866 – June 20, 1912) was an American anarchist known for being a prolific writer and speaker who opposed capitalism, marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a cultura ...
,
Victoria Woodhull Victoria Claflin Woodhull, later Victoria Woodhull Martin (September 23, 1838 – June 9, 1927), was a prominent eugenicist and an American leader of the women's suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right ...

Victoria Woodhull
and
Elizabeth Clarke Wolstenholme Elmy Elizabeth Clarke Wolstenholme Elmy (1833–1918) was a life-long campaigner and organiser, significant in the history of women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. She wrote essays and some poetry, using the pseudonyms E and Ignota. Early life El ...
to criminalize marital rape in the late 19th century had failed; this was only achieved a century later in most Western countries, but is still not achieved in many other parts of the world. French philosopher
Simone de Beauvoir Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (, ; ; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to fo ...

Simone de Beauvoir
provided a
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, ...
solution and an
existentialist Existentialism ( ) is a form of philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Re ...
view on many of the questions of feminism with the publication of ''Le Deuxième Sexe'' (''
The Second Sex ''The Second Sex'' (french: Le Deuxième Sexe) is a 1949 book by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (, ; ; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, exi ...
'') in 1949. The book expressed feminists' sense of injustice. Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early 1960s and continuing to the present; as such, it coexists with third-wave feminism. Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues of equality beyond suffrage, such as ending
gender discrimination Sexism is prejudice Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is often used to refer to a preconceived (usually unfavourable) evaluation or classification of another per ...
. Second-wave feminists see women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encourage women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. The feminist activist and author
Carol Hanisch Carol Hanisch is a radical feminist Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a Political radicalism, radical reordering of society in which androcentrism, male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts, ...
coined the slogan "The Personal is Political", which became synonymous with the second wave. Second- and third-wave feminism in China has been characterized by a reexamination of women's roles during the communist revolution and other reform movements, and new discussions about whether women's equality has actually been fully achieved. In 1956, President
Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, ( ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East Th ...

Gamal Abdel Nasser
of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
initiated "
state feminism State feminism is feminism created or approved by the government of a state or nation. It usually specifies a particular program. The term was coined by Helga Hernes with particular reference to the situation in Norway, which had a tradition of gove ...
", which outlawed discrimination based on gender and granted women's suffrage, but also blocked political activism by feminist leaders. During 's presidency, his wife,
Jehan Sadat ) , birth_date = , birth_place = Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt , order1 = First Lady of Egypt , term_label1 = In role , term_start1 = October 15, 1970 , term_end1 = October 6, 1981 , presiden ...
, publicly advocated further women's rights, though Egyptian policy and society began to move away from women's equality with the new Islamist movement and growing conservatism. However, some activists proposed a new feminist movement,
Islamic feminism A combination of Islam and feminism has been advocated as "a feminist discourse and practice articulated within an Islamic paradigm" by Margot Badran in 2002. Islamic feminists ground their arguments in Islam and its teachings, seek the full equa ...
, which argues for women's equality within an Islamic framework. In
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...
, revolutions brought changes in women's status in countries such as
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest Sovereign state, country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and th ...
, where feminist ideology during the Sandinista Revolution aided women's quality of life but fell short of achieving a social and ideological change. In 1963,
Betty Friedan Betty Friedan ( February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender equal ...

Betty Friedan
's book ''
The Feminine Mystique ''The Feminine Mystique'' is a book by Betty Friedan Betty Friedan ( February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American Feminism, feminist writer and activist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book ''T ...
'' helped voice the discontent that American women felt. The book is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States. Within ten years, women made up over half the First World workforce.


Late 20th and early 21st centuries


Third-wave feminism

Third-wave feminism is traced to the emergence of the
Riot grrrl Riot grrrl is an underground feminist punk movement that began during the early 1990s within the United States in Olympia, Washington and the greater Pacific Northwest and has expanded to at least 26 other countries. Riot grrrl is a subc ...
feminist
punk subculture The punk subculture includes a diverse and widely known array of ideologies An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Ps ...
in
Olympia, Washington Olympia is the capital city, capital of the U.S. state of Washington (state), Washington and the county seat and largest city of Thurston County, Washington, Thurston County. It is southwest of the state's most populous city, Seattle, and is a c ...
, in the early 1990s, and to
Anita Hill Anita Faye Hill (born July 30, 1956) is an American lawyer and academic. She is a university professor of social policy, law, and women's studies at Brandeis University , mottoeng = Truth even unto its innermost parts , established = , typ ...
's televised testimony in 1991—to an all-male, all-white
Senate Judiciary Committee The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a Standing committee (United States Congress), standing committee of 22 U.S. senators whose role is to oversee the United States Department of Jus ...
—that
Clarence Thomas Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is any member of the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme ...
, nominated for the
Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or Americ ...

Supreme Court of the United States
, had sexually harassed her. The term ''third wave'' is credited to Rebecca Walker, who responded to Thomas's appointment to the Supreme Court with an article in ''
Ms. Ms or Ms. (normally , but also , or when unstressed)''Oxford English Dictionary'' online, Ms, ''n.2''. Etymology: "An orthographic and phonetic blend of Mrs ''n.1'' and miss ''n.2'' Compare mizz ''n.'' The pronunciation with final /-z/ would appe ...
'' magazine, "Becoming the Third Wave" (1992). She wrote: Third-wave feminism also sought to challenge or avoid what it deemed the second wave's
essentialist Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function. In early Western thought, Plato's idealism held that all things have such an "essence"—an "idea" or "form". In Categories (A ...
definitions of
femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mob ...

femininity
, which, third-wave feminists argued, over-emphasized the experiences of upper middle-class white women. Third-wave feminists often focused on " micro-politics" and challenged the second wave's paradigm as to what was, or was not, good for women, and tended to use a
post-structuralist Post-structuralism is a term for philosophical, theoretical and literary forms of theory that both build upon and reject ideas established by structuralism In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns o ...
interpretation of gender and sexuality. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave, such as
Gloria Anzaldúa Gloria may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music Christian liturgy and music * "Gloria in excelsis Deo", a doxology or hymn ** Gloria (Handel) ** Gloria (Jenkins) ** Gloria (Poulenc), a 1959 composition by Francis Poulenc ** Gloria (Vivaldi ...
,
bell hooks Gloria Jean Watkins (born September 25, 1952), better known by her pen name bell hooks, is an American author, professor, Feminism, feminist, and Activism, social activist. The name "bell hooks" is borrowed from her maternal great-grandmother, B ...
,
Chela SandovalChela Sandoval (born July 31, 1956), associate professor of Chicana Studies at University of California, Santa Barbara, is a noted theorist of postcolonial feminism and third world feminism. Beginning with her 1991 pioneering essay 'U.S. Third Wor ...
,
Cherríe Moraga Cherríe Moraga (born September 25, 1952) is a Chicana writer, feminist activist, poet, essayist, and playwright. She is part of the faculty at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the Department of English. Moraga is also a founding me ...
,
Audre Lorde Audre Lorde (; born Audrey Geraldine Lorde; February 18, 1934 – November 17, 1992) was an American writer, feminist, Womanism, womanist, librarian, and civil rights activist. She was a self-described "Black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet," who ...

Audre Lorde
,
Maxine Hong Kingston Maxine Hong Kingston (; born Maxine Ting Ting Hong;Huntley, E. D. (2001). ''Maxine Hong Kingston: A Critical Companion'', p. 1. October 27, 1940) is a Chinese American author and Professor Emerita at the University of California, Berkeley ...
, and many other non-white feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities. Third-wave feminism also contained internal debates between difference feminists, who believe that there are important psychological differences between the sexes, and those who believe that there are no inherent psychological differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due to
social conditioning Social conditioning is the sociological process of training individuals in a society to respond in a manner generally approved by the society in general and peer groups within society. The concept is stronger than that of socialization, which is t ...
.


Standpoint theory

Standpoint theory is a feminist theoretical point of view stating that a person's social position influences their knowledge. This perspective argues that research and theory treat women and the feminist movement as insignificant and refuses to see traditional science as unbiased. Since the 1980s, standpoint feminists have argued that the feminist movement should address
global issue A global issue is any issue (problem, risk) that adversely affects the global community and environment, possibly in a Global catastrophic risk, catastrophic way, including environmental issues, political crisis, health crisis, social issues and e ...
s (such as rape,
incest Incest ( ) is between family members or close . This typically includes sexual activity between people in (blood relations), and sometimes those related by ( or ), adoption, or . The is one of the most widespread of all cultural s, both in ...
, and prostitution) and culturally specific issues (such as
female genital mutilation Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the . The practice is found in some countries of Afric ...
in some parts of
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...
and Arab societies, as well as
glass ceiling A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that prevents a given demographic (typically applied to women) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.Federal Glass Ceiling Commission''Solid Investments: Making Fu ...

glass ceiling
practices that impede women's advancement in developed economies) in order to understand how gender inequality interacts with racism,
homophobia Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality Homosexuality is Romance (love), romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or Human sexual activity, sexual behavior between members of the same sex or ...

homophobia
,
classism Class discrimination, also known as classism, is prejudice Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is often used to refer to a preconceived (usually unfavourable) evaluation o ...
and
colonization Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such l ...
in a "
matrix of domination The matrix of domination or matrix of oppression is a sociological paradigm that explains issues of oppression that deal with race, class, and gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, feminini ...
".


Fourth-wave feminism

Fourth-wave feminism is a proposed extension of third-wave feminism which corresponds to a resurgence in interest in feminism beginning around 2012 and associated with the use of social media. According to feminist scholar Prudence Chamberlain, the focus of the fourth wave is justice for women and opposition to sexual harassment and violence against women. Its essence, she writes, is "incredulity that certain attitudes can still exist". Fourth-wave feminism is "defined by technology", according to
Kira Cochrane Kira Cochrane (; born 1977) is a British journalist and novelist. She is the Head of Features at ''The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1 ...
, and is characterized particularly by the use of
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
,
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
,
Instagram Instagram is an American photo 396x396px, '' View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-world scene, made with a camera obscura. Original (left) & Film coloriz ...

Instagram
,
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
,
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
, and blogs such as
Feministing Feministing.com was a feminist blog founded in 2004 by sisters Jessica and Vanessa Valenti. It had 1.2 million unique monthly visitors at its peak. The blog helped to popularize the term ''slut-shaming Slut-shaming is the practice of criticiz ...
to challenge misogyny and further gender equality. Issues that fourth-wave feminists focus on include street harassment, street and workplace harassment, campus sexual assault and rape culture. Scandals involving the harassment, abuse, and murder of women and girls have galvanized the movement. These have included the 2012 Delhi gang rape, 2012 Jimmy Savile sexual abuse scandal, Jimmy Savile allegations, the Bill Cosby sexual assault case, Bill Cosby allegations, 2014 Isla Vista killings, 2016 trial of Jian Ghomeshi, 2017 Harvey Weinstein sexual abuse allegations, Harvey Weinstein allegations and subsequent Weinstein effect, and the 2017 Westminster sexual scandals. Examples of fourth-wave feminist campaigns include the Everyday Sexism Project, No More Page 3, Stop Bild Sexism, ''Mattress Performance (Carry That Weight), Mattress Performance'', ''10 Hours of Walking in NYC as a Woman'', YesAllWomen, #YesAllWomen, Free the Nipple (campaign), Free the Nipple, One Billion Rising, the 2017 Women's March, the 2018 Women's March, and the Me Too (hashtag), #MeToo movement. In December 2017, Time (magazine), ''Time'' magazine chose several prominent female activists involved in the #MeToo movement, dubbed "the silence breakers", as Time Person of the Year, Person of the Year.Zacharek, Stephanie; Dockterman Eliana; and Sweetland Edwards, Haley (6 December 2017)
"The Silence Breakers"
''Time'' magazine.


Postfeminism

The term postfeminism is used to describe a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism since the 1980s. While not being "anti-feminist", postfeminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third- and fourth-wave feminist goals. The term was first used to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism, but it is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas. Other postfeminists say that feminism is no longer relevant to today's society. Amelia Jones has written that the postfeminist texts which emerged in the 1980s and 1990s portrayed second-wave feminism as a monolithic entity. Dorothy Chunn describes a "blaming narrative" under the postfeminist moniker, where feminists are undermined for continuing to make demands for gender equality in a "post-feminist" society, where "gender equality has (already) been achieved". According to Chunn, "many feminists have voiced disquiet about the ways in which rights and equality discourses are now used against them".


Theory

Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including feminist anthropology, anthropology, feminist sociology, sociology, feminist economics, economics, women's studies, feminist literary criticism, literary criticism, Art history#Psychoanalytic art history, art history, Feminist theory#Psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis, and feminist philosophy, philosophy. Feminist theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations, and sexuality. While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, and patriarchy. In the field of literary criticism, Elaine Showalter describes the development of feminist theory as having three phases. The first she calls "feminist critique", in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. The second Showalter calls "gynocriticism", in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning". The last phase she calls "gender theory", in which the "ideological inscription and the literary effects of the sex/gender system are explored". This was paralleled in the 1970s by French structuralist feminism, French feminists, who developed the concept of ''écriture féminine'' (which translates as "female or feminine writing"). Hélène Cixous argues that writing and philosophy are ''Wikt:phallocentric, phallocentric'' and along with other French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasize "writing from the body" as a subversive exercise. The work of Julia Kristeva, a feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, and Bracha Ettinger, artist and psychoanalyst, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular. However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright points out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the English-speaking world, Anglophone world". More recent feminist theory, such as that of Lisa Lucile Owens, has concentrated on characterizing feminism as a universal emancipatory movement.


Movements and ideologies

Many overlapping feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years. Feminism is often divided into three main traditions called liberal, radical and socialist/Marxist feminism, sometimes known as the "Big Three" schools of feminist thought. Since the late 20th century, newer forms of feminisms have also emerged. Some branches of feminism track the political leanings of the larger society to a greater or lesser degree, or focus on specific topics, such as the environment.


Liberal feminism

Liberal feminism, also known under other names such as reformist, mainstream, or historically as bourgeois feminism, arose from 19th century first-wave feminism, and was historically linked to 19th century liberalism and progressivism, while 19th century conservatives tended to oppose feminism as such. Liberal feminism seeks equality of men and women through political and legal reform within a
liberal democratic Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is tru ...
 framework, without radically altering the structure of society; liberal feminism "works within the structure of mainstream society to integrate women into that structure." During the 19th and early 20th centuries liberal feminism focused especially on women's suffrage and Female education, access to education. Norwegian supreme court justice and former president of the liberal Norwegian Association for Women's Rights, Karin Maria Bruzelius, has described liberal feminism as "a realistic, sober, practical feminism". Susan Wendell argues that "liberal feminism is an historical tradition that grew out of liberalism, as can be seen very clearly in the work of such feminists as Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill, but feminists who took principles from that tradition have developed analyses and goals that go far beyond those of 18th and 19th century liberal feminists, and many feminists who have goals and strategies identified as liberal feminist [...] reject major components of liberalism" in a modern or party-political sense; she highlights "equality of opportunity" as a defining feature of liberal feminism. Liberal feminism is a very broad term that encompasses many, often diverging modern branches and a variety of feminist and general political perspectives; some historically liberal branches are equality feminism, social feminism, equity feminism, difference feminism, individualist feminism, individualist/libertarian feminism and some forms of state feminism, particularly the state feminism of the Nordic countries. The broad field of liberal feminism is sometimes confused with the more recent and smaller branch known as libertarian feminism, which tends to diverge significantly from mainstream liberal feminism. For example, "libertarian feminism does not require social measures to reduce material inequality; in fact, it opposes such measures [...] in contrast, liberal feminism may support such requirements and egalitarian versions of feminism insist on them." Catherine Rottenberg notes that the wikt:raison d'être, raison d'être of classic liberal feminism was "to pose an immanent critique of liberalism, revealing the gendered exclusions within liberal democracy’s proclamation of universal equality, particularly with respect to the law, institutional access, and the full incorporation of women into the public sphere." Rottenberg contrasts classic liberal feminism with modern neoliberal feminism which "seems perfectly in sync with the evolving neoliberal order." According to Zhang and Rios, "liberal feminism tends to be adopted by 'mainstream' (i.e., middle-class) women who do not disagree with the current social structure." They found that liberal feminism with its focus on equality is viewed as the dominant and "default" form of feminism. Some modern forms of feminism that historically grew out of the broader liberal tradition have more recently also been described as List of conservative feminisms, conservative in relative terms. This is particularly the case for libertarian feminism which conceives of people as self-owners and therefore as entitled to freedom from coercive interference.


Radical feminism

Radical feminism arose from the
radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1988 *"Radicals", a song by Tyler, The Creator from the 2011 album ''Goblin (album ...
wing of second-wave feminism and calls for a radical reordering of society to eliminate male supremacy. It considers the male-controlled capitalist hierarchy as the defining feature of women's oppression and the total uprooting and reconstruction of society as necessary. Separatist feminism does not support heterosexual relationships. Lesbian feminism is thus closely related. Other feminists criticize separatist feminism as sexist.


Materialist ideologies

Rosemary Hennessy and Chrys Ingraham say that materialist forms of feminism grew out of Western Marxist thought and have inspired a number of different (but overlapping) movements, all of which are involved in a critique of capitalism and are focused on ideology's relationship to women.
Marxist feminism Marxist feminism is a philosophical variant of feminism Feminism is a range of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware ...
argues that capitalism is the root cause of women's oppression, and that discrimination against women in domestic life and employment is an effect of capitalist ideologies. Socialist feminism distinguishes itself from Marxist feminism by arguing that women's liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of women's oppression. Anarcha-feminism, Anarcha-feminists believe that
class struggle Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class warfare, is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, socia ...
and anarchism, anarchy against the State (polity), state require struggling against patriarchy, which comes from involuntary hierarchy.


Other modern feminisms


Ecofeminism

Eco-feminist, Ecofeminists see men's control of land as responsible for the oppression of women and destruction of the ecology, natural environment. Ecofeminism has been criticized for focusing too much on a mystical connection between women and nature.


Black and postcolonial ideologies

Sara Ahmed argues that Black feminism, Black and Postcolonial feminism, postcolonial feminisms pose a challenge "to some of the organizing premises of Western feminist thought." During much of its history of feminism, history, feminist movements and #Theoretical schools, theoretical developments were led predominantly by middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America. However, women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms. This trend accelerated in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States and the end of Western European colonialism in Africa, the Caribbean, parts of Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Since that time, women in Third World, developing nations and postcolonialism, former colonies and who are of colour or various ethnicities or living in poverty have proposed additional feminisms. Womanism emerged after early feminist movements were largely white and middle-class. Postcolonial feminists argue that colonial oppression and Western feminism marginalized postcolonial women but did not turn them passive or voiceless. Third-world feminism and indigenous feminism are closely related to postcolonial feminism. These ideas also correspond with ideas in African feminism, motherism, Stiwanism, negofeminism, femalism, transnational feminism, and Africana womanism.


Social constructionist ideologies

In the late twentieth century various feminists began to argue that gender roles are social construction, socially constructed,Pdf.
/ref> and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories. :''Reproduced in'': :* Post-structural feminism draws on the philosophies of post-structuralism and deconstruction in order to argue that the concept of gender is created socially and culturally through discourse. Postmodern feminism, Postmodern feminists also emphasize the social construction of gender and the discursive nature of reality; however, as Pamela Abbott et al. write, a postmodern approach to feminism highlights "the existence of multiple truths (rather than simply men and women's standpoints)".


Transgender people

Third-wave feminists tend to view the struggle for Transgender rights, trans rights as an integral part of intersectional feminism. Fourth-wave feminism, Fourth-wave feminists also tend to be trans-inclusive. The American National Organization for Women (NOW) president Terry O'Neill (feminist), Terry O'Neill said the struggle against transphobia is a feminist issue and NOW has affirmed that "trans women are women, trans girls are girls." Several studies have found that people who identify as feminists tend to be more accepting of trans people than those who do not. An ideology variously known as trans-exclusionary radical feminism (or its acronym, TERF) or gender-critical feminism is critical of the concept of gender identity, transgender rights, holds that biological sex is immutable, and that trans women are not women. These views have been described as transphobia, transphobic by other feminists.


Cultural movements

Riot grrrls took an anti-corporate stance of self-sufficiency and Individualism, self-reliance. Riot grrrl's emphasis on universal female identity and separatism often appears more closely allied with second-wave feminism than with the third wave. The movement encouraged and made "adolescent girls' standpoints central", allowing them to express themselves fully. Lipstick feminism is a cultural feminist movement that attempts to respond to the backlash of second-wave radical feminism of the 1960s and 1970s by reclaiming symbols of "feminine" identity such as make-up, suggestive clothing and having a sexual allure as valid and empowering personal choices.


Demographics

According to 2014 Ipsos poll covering 15 developed countries, 53 percent of respondents identified as feminists, and 87% agreed that "women should be treated equally to men in all areas based on their competency, not their gender". However, only 55% of women agreed that they have "full equality with men and the freedom to reach their full dreams and aspirations". Taken together, these studies reflect the importance differentiating between claiming a "feminist identity" and holding "feminist attitudes or beliefs"


United States

According to a 2015 poll, 18 percent of Americans use the label of 'feminist' to describe themselves, while 85 percent are feminists in practice as they reported they believe in "equality for women". Despite the popular belief in what feminism stands for, 52 percent did not identify as feminist, 26 percent were unsure, and four percent provided no response. Sociological research shows that, in the US, increased educational attainment is associated with greater support for feminist issues. In addition, politically liberal people are more likely to support feminist ideals compared to those who are conservative.


United Kingdom

According to numerous polls, 7% of Britons use the label of 'feminist' to describe themselves, with 83% being feminist in practice by saying they support equality of opportunity for women – this included even higher support from men (86%) than women (81%).


Sexuality

Feminist views on sexuality vary, and have differed by historical period and by cultural context. Feminist attitudes to female sexuality have taken a few different directions. Matters such as the sex industry, sexual representation in the media, and issues regarding consent to sex under conditions of male dominance have been particularly controversial among feminists. This debate has culminated in the late 1970s and the 1980s, in what came to be known as the feminist sex wars, which pitted Anti-pornography movement, anti-pornography feminism against sex-positive feminism, and parts of the feminist movement were deeply divided by these debates. Feminists have taken a variety of positions on different aspects of the sexual revolution from the 1960s and 70s. Over the course of the 1970s, a large number of influential women accepted lesbian and bisexuality, bisexual women as part of feminism.


Sex industry

Opinions on the sex industry are diverse. Feminists who are critical of the sex industry generally see it as the exploitative result of patriarchal social structures which reinforce sexual and cultural attitudes complicit in rape and sexual harassment. Alternately, feminists who support at least part of the sex industry argue that it can be a medium of feminist expression and a means for women to take control of their sexuality. For the views of feminism on male prostitutes see the article on Male prostitution#Feminist studies, male prostitution. Feminist views of pornography range from condemnation of pornography as a form of violence against women, to an embracing of some forms of pornography as a medium of feminist expression. Similarly, feminists' views on prostitution vary, ranging from critical to supportive.


Affirming female sexual autonomy

For feminists, a woman's right to control her own Right to sexuality, sexuality is a key issue. Feminists such as Catharine MacKinnon argue that women have very little control over their own bodies, with female sexuality being largely controlled and defined by men in patriarchal societies. Feminists argue that sexual violence committed by men is often rooted in ideologies of male sexual entitlement and that these systems grant women very few legitimate options to refuse sexual advances. Feminists argue that all cultures are, in one way or another, dominated by ideologies that largely deny women the right to decide how to express their sexuality, because men under patriarchy feel entitled to define sex on their own terms. This entitlement can take different forms, depending on the culture. In some conservative and religious cultures marriage is regarded as an institution which requires a wife to be sexually available at all times, virtually without limit; thus, forcing or coercing sex on a wife is not considered a crime or even an abusive behaviour. In more liberal cultures, this entitlement takes the form of a general sexualization of the whole culture. This is played out in the sexual objectification of women, with pornography and other forms of sexual entertainment creating the fantasy that all women exist solely for men's sexual pleasure and that women are readily available and desiring to engage in sex at any time, with any man, on a man's terms. In 1968, feminist Anne Koedt argued in her essay ''The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm'' that women's biology and the Clitoris, clitoral orgasm had not been properly analyzed and popularized, because men "have orgasms essentially by friction with the vagina" and not the clitoral area.


Science

Sandra Harding says that the "moral and political insights of the women's movement have inspired social scientists and biologists to raise critical questions about the ways traditional researchers have explained gender, sex and relations within and between the social and natural worlds." Some feminists, such as Ruth Hubbard and Evelyn Fox Keller, criticize traditional rhetoric of science, scientific discourse as being historically biased towards a male perspective. A part of the feminist research agenda is the examination of the ways in which power inequities are created or reinforced in scientific and academic institutions. Physicist Lisa Randall, appointed to a task force at Harvard by then-president Lawrence Summers after his controversial discussion of why women may be underrepresented in science and engineering, said, "I just want to see a whole bunch more women enter the field so these issues don't have to come up anymore." Lynn Hankinson Nelson writes that feminist empiricists find fundamental differences between the experiences of men and women. Thus, they seek to obtain knowledge through the examination of the experiences of women and to "uncover the consequences of omitting, misdescribing, or devaluing them" to account for a range of human experience. Another part of the feminist research agenda is the uncovering of ways in which power inequities are created or reinforced in society and in scientific and academic institutions. Furthermore, despite calls for greater attention to be paid to structures of gender inequity in the academic literature, structural analyses of gender bias rarely appear in highly cited psychological journals, especially in the commonly studied areas of psychology and personality. One criticism of feminist epistemology is that it allows social and political values to influence its findings. Susan Haack also points out that feminist epistemology reinforces traditional stereotypes about women's thinking (as intuitive and emotional, etc.); Meera Nanda further cautions that this may in fact trap women within "traditional gender roles and help justify patriarchy".


Biology and gender

Modern feminism challenges the essentialist view of gender as biologically intrinsic. For example, Anne Fausto-Sterling's book, ''Myths of Gender'', explores the assumptions embodied in scientific research that support a biologically essentialist view of gender. In ''Delusions of Gender,'' Cordelia Fine disputes scientific evidence that suggests that there is an innate biological difference between men's and women's minds, asserting instead that cultural and societal beliefs are the reason for differences between individuals that are commonly perceived as sex differences.


Feminist psychology

Feminism in psychology emerged as a critique of the dominant male outlook on psychological research where only male perspectives were studied with all male subjects. As women earned doctorates in psychology, females and their issues were introduced as legitimate topics of study. Feminist psychology emphasizes social context, lived experience, and qualitative analysis. Projects such as Psychology's Feminist Voices have emerged to catalogue the influence of feminist psychologists on the discipline.


Culture


Design

There is a long history of feminist activity in design disciplines like industrial design, graphic design and fashion design. This work has explored topics like beauty, DIY, feminine approaches to design and community-based projects. Some iconic writing includes Cheryl Buckley's essays on design and patriarchy and Joan Rothschild's ''Design and feminism: Re-visioning spaces, places, and everyday things''. More recently, Isabel Prochner's research explored how feminist perspectives can support positive change in industrial design, helping to identify systemic social problems and inequities in design and guiding socially sustainable and grassroots design solutions.


Businesses

Feminist activists have established a range of feminist businesses, including feminist bookstores, credit unions, presses, mail-order catalogs and restaurants. These businesses flourished as part of the second and third waves of feminism in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.


Visual arts

Corresponding with general developments within feminism, and often including such self-organizing tactics as the consciousness-raising group, the movement began in the 1960s and flourished throughout the 1970s. Jeremy Strick, director of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, described the feminist art movement as "the most influential international movement of any during the postwar period", and Peggy Phelan says that it "brought about the most far-reaching transformations in both artmaking and art writing over the past four decades". Feminist artist Judy Chicago, who created ''The Dinner Party'', a set of Vagina and vulva in art, vulva-themed ceramic plates in the 1970s, said in 2009 to ''ARTnews'', "There is still an institutional lag and an insistence on a male Eurocentrism, Eurocentric narrative. We are trying to change the future: to get girls and boys to realize that women's art is not an exception—it's a normal part of art history." A feminist approach to the visual arts has most recently developed through cyberfeminism and the posthuman turn, giving voice to the ways "contemporary female artists are dealing with gender, social media and the notion of embodiment".


Literature

The feminist movement produced feminist fiction, feminist non-fiction, and feminist poetry, which created new interest in Women's writing (literary category), women's writing. It also prompted a general reevaluation of women's Women's history, historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest. There has also been a close link between feminist literature and activism, with feminist writing typically voicing key concerns or ideas of feminism in a particular era. Much of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. In Western feminist literary scholarship, Studies like Dale Spender's ''Mothers of the Novel'' (1986) and Jane Spencer's ''The Rise of the Woman Novelist'' (1986) were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing. Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early-20th-century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. In the 1980s Pandora Press, responsible for publishing Spender's study, issued a companion line of 18th-century novels written by women. More recently, Broadview Press continues to issue 18th- and 19th-century novels, many hitherto out of print, and the University of Kentucky has a series of republications of early women's novels. Particular works of literature have come to be known as key feminist texts. ''A Vindication of the Rights of Woman'' (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. ''A Room of One's Own'' (1929) by Virginia Woolf, is noted in its argument for both a literal and figural space for women writers within a literary tradition dominated by patriarchy. The widespread interest in women's writing is related to a general reassessment and expansion of the literary canon. Interest in post-colonial literatures, LGBT literature, gay and lesbian literature, writing by people of colour, working people's writing, and the cultural productions of other historically marginalized groups has resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered "literature", and genres hitherto not regarded as "literary", such as children's writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many others are now the subjects of scholarly interest. Most Literary genre, genres and subgenres have undergone a similar analysis, so literary studies have entered new territories such as the "Gothic fiction#The female Gothic and The Supernatural Explained, female gothic" or Women in science fiction, women's science fiction. According to Elyce Rae Helford, "Science fiction and fantasy serve as important vehicles for feminist thought, particularly as bridges between theory and practice." Feminist science fiction is sometimes taught at the university level to explore the role of social constructs in understanding gender. Notable texts of this kind are Ursula K. Le Guin's ''The Left Hand of Darkness'' (1969), Joanna Russ' ''The Female Man'' (1970), Octavia Butler's ''Kindred (novel), Kindred'' (1979) and Margaret Atwood's ''Handmaid's Tale'' (1985). Feminist nonfiction has played an important role in voicing concerns about women's lived experiences. For example, Maya Angelou's ''I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings'' was extremely influential, as it represented the specific racism and sexism experienced by black women growing up in the United States. In addition, many feminist movements have embraced poetry as a vehicle through which to communicate feminist ideas to public audiences through anthologies, poetry collections, and public readings. Moreover, historical pieces of writing by women have been used by feminists to speak about what women's lives would have been like in the past, while demonstrating the power that they held and the impact they had in their communities even centuries ago. An important figure in the history of women in relation to literature is Hrotsvitha. Hrotsvitha was a canoness from 935 - 973, as the first female poetess in the German lands, and first female historian Hrotsvitha is one of the few people to speak about women's lives from a woman's perspective during the Women in the Middle Ages, Middle Ages.


Music

Women's music (or womyn's music or wimmin's music) is the music by Women in music, women, for women, and about women. The genre emerged as a musical expression of the second-wave feminist movement as well as the labour (economics), labour, civil rights, and peace movements. The movement was started by lesbians such as Cris Williamson, Meg Christian, and Margie Adam, African-American women activists such as Bernice Johnson Reagon and her group Sweet Honey in the Rock, and peace activist Holly Near. Women's music also refers to the wider industry of women's music that goes beyond the performing artists to include studio musicians, record producer, producers, sound engineers, technicians, cover artists, distributors, promoter (entertainment), promoters, and festival organizers who are also women. Riot grrrl is an underground music, underground feminist hardcore punk movement described in the #Cultural movements, cultural movements section of this article. Feminism became a principal concern of Musicology, musicologists in the 1980sBeard, David; Gload, Kenneth. 2005. Musicology : The Key Concepts. London and New York: Routledge. as part of the New Musicology. Prior to this, in the 1970s, musicologists were beginning to discover women composers and performers, and had begun to review concepts of Western canon, canon, genius, genre and periodization from a feminist perspective. In other words, the question of how women musicians fit into traditional music history was now being asked. Through the 1980s and 1990s, this trend continued as musicologists like Susan McClary, Marcia Citron and Ruth Solie began to consider the cultural reasons for the marginalizing of women from the received body of work. Concepts such as music as gendered discourse; professionalism; reception of women's music; examination of the sites of music production; relative wealth and education of women; popular music studies in relation to women's identity; patriarchal ideas in music analysis; and notions of gender and difference are among the themes examined during this time. While the music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the Conducting, leader of an orchestra. In popular music, while there are many women singers recording songs, there are very few women behind the Audio mixer, audio console acting as Record producer#Women in producing, music producers, the individuals who direct and manage the recording process.


Cinema

Feminist cinema, advocating or illustrating feminist perspectives, arose largely with the development of feminist film theory in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Women who were radicalized during the 1960s by political debate and sexual liberation; but the failure of radicalism to produce substantive change for women galvanized them to form consciousness-raising groups and set about analysing, from different perspectives, dominant cinema's construction of women. Differences were particularly marked between Feminist film theory#History, feminists on either side of the Atlantic. 1972 saw the first feminist film festivals in the U.S. and U.K. as well as the first feminist film journal, List of film periodicals, ''Women and Film''. Trailblazers from this period included Claire Johnston and Laura Mulvey, who also organized the Women's Event at the Edinburgh International Film Festival, Edinburgh Film Festival. Other theorists making a powerful impact on feminist film include Teresa de Lauretis, Anneke Smelik and Kaja Silverman. Approaches in philosophy and psychoanalysis fuelled feminist film criticism, feminist independent film and feminist distribution. It has been argued that there are two distinct approaches to independent, theoretically inspired feminist filmmaking. 'Deconstruction' concerns itself with analysing and breaking down codes of mainstream cinema, aiming to create a different relationship between the spectator and dominant cinema. The second approach, a feminist counterculture, embodies feminine writing to investigate a specifically feminine cinematic language. During the 1930s–1950s heyday of the big Hollywood studios, the status of women in the industry was abysmal. Since then female directors such as Sally Potter, Catherine Breillat, Claire Denis and Jane Campion have made art movies, and directors like Kathryn Bigelow and Patty Jenkins have had mainstream success. This progress stagnated in the 1990s, and men outnumber women five to one in behind the camera roles.


Politics

Feminism had complex interactions with the major political movements of the twentieth century.


Socialism

Since the late nineteenth century, some feminists have allied with socialism, whereas others have criticized socialist ideology for being insufficiently concerned about women's rights. August Bebel, an early activist of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, German Social Democratic Party (SPD), published his work ''Die Frau und der Sozialismus'', juxtaposing the struggle for equal rights between sexes with social equality in general. In 1907 there was an International Socialist Women's Conferences#Stuttgart 1907, International Conference of Socialist Women in Stuttgart where suffrage was described as a tool of class struggle. Clara Zetkin of the SPD called for women's suffrage to build a "''socialist order, the only one that allows for a radical solution to the women's question''". In Britain, the women's movement was allied with the Labour party (UK), Labour party. In the U.S., Betty Friedan emerged from a radical background to take leadership. Radical Women is the oldest socialist feminist organization in the U.S. and is still active. During the Spanish Civil War, Dolores Ibárruri (''La Pasionaria'') led the Communist Party of Spain (main), Communist Party of Spain. Although she supported equal rights for women, she opposed women fighting on the front and clashed with the Anarcha-Feminism, anarcha-feminist Mujeres Libres. Feminists in Ireland in the early 20th century included the revolutionary Irish Republicanism, Irish Republican, suffragette and Socialism, socialist Constance Markievicz who in 1918 was the first woman elected to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, British House of Commons. However, in line with Sinn Féin abstentionism, abstentionist policy, she would not take her seat in the House of Commons. She was re-elected to the Second Dáil in the 1921 Irish elections, elections of 1921. She was also a commander of the Irish Citizens Army which was led by the socialist & self-described feminist, Irish leader James Connolly during the 1916 Easter Rising.


Fascism

Fascism has been prescribed dubious stances on feminism by its practitioners and by women's groups. Amongst other demands concerning social reform presented in the Fascist manifesto in 1919 was expanding the suffrage to all Italian citizens of age 18 and above, including women (accomplished only in 1946, after the defeat of fascism) and eligibility for all to stand for office from age 25. This demand was particularly championed by special Fascist women's auxiliary groups such as the ''fasci femminilli'' and only partly realized in 1925, under pressure from dictator Benito Mussolini's more conservative coalition partners. Cyprian Blamires states that although feminists were among those who opposed the rise of Adolf Hitler, feminism has a complicated relationship with the Nazi movement as well. While Nazis glorified traditional notions of patriarchal society and its role for women, they claimed to recognize women's equality in employment. However, Hitler and Mussolini declared themselves as opposed to feminism, and after the rise of Nazism in Germany in 1933, there was a rapid dissolution of the political rights and economic opportunities that feminists had fought for during the pre-war period and to some extent during the 1920s. Georges Duby et al. write that in practice fascist society was hierarchical and emphasized male virility, with women maintaining a largely subordinate position. Blamires also writes that neofascism has since the 1960s been hostile towards feminism and advocates that women accept "their traditional roles".


Civil rights movement and anti-racism

The civil rights movement has influenced and informed the feminist movement and vice versa. Many American feminists adapted the language and theories of black equality activism and drew parallels between women's rights and the rights of non-white people. Despite the connections between the women's and civil rights movements, some tensions arose during the late 1960s and the 1970s as non-white women argued that feminism was predominantly white, straight, and middle class, and did not understand and was not concerned with issues of race and sexuality. Similarly, some women argued that the civil rights movement had sexist and homophobic elements and did not adequately address minority women's concerns. These criticisms created new feminist social theories about identity politics and the intersections of racism, classism, and sexism; they also generated new feminisms such as black feminism and Chicana feminism in addition to making large contributions to lesbian feminism and other integrations of Queer of color critique, queer of colour identity.


Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism has been criticized by feminist theory for having a negative effect on the female workforce population across the globe, especially in the global south. Masculinist assumptions and objectives continue to dominate economic and geopolitical thinking. Women's experiences in non-industrialized countries reveal often deleterious effects of modernization policies and undercut orthodox claims that development benefits everyone. Proponents of neoliberalism have theorized that by increasing women's participation in the workforce, there will be heightened economic progress, but feminist critics have stated that this participation alone does not further equality in gender relations. Neoliberalism has failed to address significant problems such as the devaluation of feminized labour, the structural privileging of men and masculinity, and the politicization of women's subordination in the family and the workplace. The "feminization of employment" refers to a conceptual characterization of deteriorated and devalorized labour conditions that are less desirable, meaningful, safe and secure. Employers in the global south have perceptions about feminine labour and seek workers who are perceived to be undemanding, docile and willing to accept low wages. Social constructs about feminized labour have played a big part in this, for instance, employers often perpetuate ideas about women as 'secondary income earners to justify their lower rates of pay and not deserving of training or promotion.


Societal impact

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equal payment to men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the right to own property.


Civil rights

From the 1960s on, the campaign for women's rights was met with mixed results in the U.S. and the U.K. Other countries of the European Economic Community, EEC agreed to ensure that discriminatory laws would be phased out across the European Community. Some feminist campaigning also helped reform attitudes to child sexual abuse. The view that young girls cause men to have sexual intercourse with them was replaced by that of men's responsibility for their own conduct, the men being adults. In the U.S., the National Organization for Women (NOW) began in 1966 to seek women's equality, including through the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which did not pass, although Equal Rights Amendment#State constitutions, some states enacted their own. Reproductive rights in the U.S. centred on the court decision in Roe v. Wade, ''Roe'' v. ''Wade'' enunciating a woman's right to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to term. Western women gained more reliable birth control, allowing family planning and careers. The movement started in the 1910s in the U.S. under Margaret Sanger and elsewhere under Marie Stopes. In the final three decades of the 20th century, Western women knew a new freedom through birth control, which enabled women to plan their adult lives, often making way for both career and family. The division of labor, division of labour within households was affected by the increased entry of women into workplaces in the 20th century. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild found that, in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework, although Cathy Young responded by arguing that women may prevent equal participation by men in housework and parenting. Judith K. Brown writes, "Women are most likely to make a substantial contribution when subsistence activities have the following characteristics: the participant is not obliged to be far from home; the tasks are relatively monotonous and do not require rapt concentration and the work is not dangerous, can be performed in spite of interruptions, and is easily resumed once interrupted." In international law, the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women'' (CEDAW) is an international convention adopted by the United Nations General Assembly and described as an international bill of rights for women. It came into force in those nations ratifying it.


Jurisprudence

Feminist jurisprudence is a branch of jurisprudence that examines the relationship between women and law. It addresses questions about the history of legal and social biases against women and about the enhancement of their legal rights. Feminist jurisprudence signifies a reaction to the Philosophy of law, philosophical approach of modern Law#Legal theory, legal scholars, who typically see the law as a process for interpreting and perpetuating a society's universal, gender-neutral ideals. Feminist legal scholars claim that this fails to acknowledge women's values or legal interests or the harms that they may anticipate or experience.


Language

Proponents of gender-neutral language argue that the use of gender-specific language often implies male superiority or reflects an unequal state of society. According to ''The Handbook of English Linguistics'', generic masculine pronouns and gender-specific job titles are instances "where English linguistic convention has historically treated men as prototypical of the human species." Merriam-Webster chose "feminism" as its 2017 Word of the Year, noting that "Word of the Year is a quantitative measure of interest in a particular word."


Theology

Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts. Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in light of the Christian egalitarianism, equality of Women in Christianity, women and men, and that this interpretation is necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of sex, and are involved in issues such as the ordination of women, male dominance and the balance of parenting in Christian views on marriage, Christian marriage, claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of women compared to men, and the overall treatment of women in the church. Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded within an Islamic framework. Advocates seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Women in the Quran, Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, ''hadith'' (sayings of Muhammad), and ''Sharia#Women, sharia'' (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized Islam and secularism, secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement. Buddhist feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of Women in Buddhism, women within Buddhism. It is an aspect of feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually, and in leadership from a Buddhist perspective. The Buddhist feminist Rita Gross describes Buddhist feminism as "the radical practice of the co-humanity of women and men." Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of Women in Judaism, women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. The main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or ''minyan'', the exemption from positive time-bound ''Mitzvah, mitzvot'', and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate Jewish view of marriage#Divorce, divorce. Many Jewish women have become leaders of feminist movements throughout their history. Dianic Wicca is a feminist-centred thealogy. Secular or atheist feminism, atheist feminists have engaged in feminist criticism of religion, arguing that many religions have oppressive rules towards women and misogynistic themes and elements in religious texts.


Patriarchy

Patriarchy is a social system in which society is organized around male authority figures. In this system, fathers have authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege and is dependent on female subordination. Most forms of feminism characterize patriarchy as an unjust social system that is oppressive to women. Carole Pateman argues that the patriarchal distinction "between masculinity and femininity is the political difference between freedom and subjection." In feminist theory the concept of patriarchy often includes all the social mechanisms that reproduce and exert male dominance over women. Feminist theory typically characterizes patriarchy as a social construction, which can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations. Some radical feminists have proposed that because patriarchy is too deeply rooted in society, separatism is the only viable solution. Other feminists have criticized these views as being anti-men.


Men and masculinity

Feminist theory has explored the social construction of masculinity and its implications for the goal of gender equality. The social construct of masculinity is seen by feminism as problematic because it associates males with aggression and competition, and reinforces patriarchal and unequal gender relations. Patriarchal cultures are criticized for "limiting forms of masculinity" available to men and thus narrowing their life choices. Some feminists are engaged with men's issues activism, such as bringing attention to male rape and spousal battery and addressing negative social expectations for men. Male participation in feminism is generally encouraged by feminists and is seen as an important strategy for achieving full societal commitment to gender equality. Many male feminists and Pro-feminism, pro-feminists are active in both women's rights activism, feminist theory, and masculinity studies. However, some argue that while male engagement with feminism is necessary, it is problematic because of the ingrained social influences of patriarchy in gender relations. The consensus today in feminist and masculinity theories is that men and women should cooperate to achieve the larger goals of feminism. It has been proposed that, in large part, this can be achieved through considerations of women's Agency (sociology), agency.


Reactions

Different groups of people have responded to feminism, and both men and women have been among its supporters and critics. Among American university students, for both men and women, support for feminist ideas is more common than self-identification as a feminist. The US media tends to portray feminism negatively and feminists "are less often associated with day-to-day work/leisure activities of regular women." However, as recent research has demonstrated, as people are exposed to self-identified feminists and to discussions relating to various forms of feminism, their own self-identification with feminism increases.


Pro-feminism

Pro-feminism is the support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism. The activities of pro-feminist men's groups include anti-violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counselling male perpetrators of violence. Pro-feminist men also may be involved in men's health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, men's studies, and the development of gender equity curricula in schools. This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and women's services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centres.


Anti-feminism and criticism of feminism

Anti-feminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms. In the 19th century, anti-feminism was mainly focused on opposition to women's suffrage. Later, opponents of women's entry into institutions of higher learning argued that education was too great a physical burden on women. Other anti-feminists opposed women's entry into the labour force, or their right to join unions, to sit on juries, or to obtain birth control and control of their sexuality. Some people have opposed feminism on the grounds that they believe it is contrary to traditional values or religious beliefs. Anti-feminists argue, for example, that social acceptance of divorce and non-married women is wrong and harmful, and that men and women are fundamentally different and thus their different traditional roles in society should be maintained. Other anti-feminists oppose women's entry into the workforce, political office, and the voting process, as well as the lessening of male authority in families. Writers such as Camille Paglia, Christina Hoff Sommers, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Lisa Lucile Owens and Daphne Patai oppose some forms of feminism, though they identify as feminists. They argue, for example, that feminism often promotes misandry and the elevation of women's interests above men's, and criticize radical feminist positions as harmful to both men and women. Daphne Patai and Noretta Koertge argue that the term "anti-feminist" is used to silence academic debate about feminism. Lisa Lucile Owens argues that certain rights extended exclusively to women are patriarchal because they relieve women from exercising a crucial aspect of their moral agency.


Secular humanism

Secular humanism is an ethical framework that attempts to dispense with any unreasoned dogma, pseudoscience, and superstition. Critics of feminism sometimes ask "Why feminism and not humanism?" Some humanists argue, however, that the goals of feminists and humanists largely overlap, and the distinction is only in motivation. For example, a humanist may consider abortion in terms of a utilitarian ethical framework, rather than considering the motivation of any particular woman in getting an abortion. In this respect, it is possible to be a humanist without being a feminist, but this does not preclude the existence of feminist humanism. Humanism played a significant role in protofeminism during the Renaissance period in such that humanists made educated women popular figures despite the challenge of the patriarchal organization of society.


See also

* ''Feminist Studies'' * Index of feminism articles * Lesbian erasure * Men's rights movement * Masculism * Multiracial feminist theory * Straw feminism *Feminism and racism * Black feminism * White feminism * Matriarchy * Matrilineality * List of queens regnant * Feminist peace research


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * Mitchell, Brian (1998). ''Women in the Military: Flirting with Disaster''. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing. xvii, 390 p. . * * * * * * * * * * * * * Posted 13 December 2011
Pdf.

Feminist.com

Psychology's Feminist Voices

''Topics in Feminism''
at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


External links


Articles

* *
''Topics in Feminism''
at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Active research


Feminist Perspectives Scale
: And academic survey to determine acceptance or rejection of feminist ideas from: :*


Multimedia and documents

*
''Early Video on the Emancipation of Women''
documentary filmed ca. 1930, which includes footage from the 1890s
Documents from the Women's Liberation Movement
Special Collections Library, Duke University
History of feminism
at ''Heritage Calling'', Historic England {{Authority control Feminism, 1830s neologisms Social theories