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The term ''federalist'' describes several political beliefs around the world. It may also refer to the concept of parties, whose members or supporters called themselves ''Federalists''.


History


Europe federation

In
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, proponents of deeper European integration are sometimes called Federalists. A major European
NGO A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first ...

NGO
and
advocacy group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy Advocacy is an activity Activity may refer to: * Action (philosophy), in general * Human activity: human behavior, in sociology behavior may refer to al ...
campaigning for such a political union is the
Union of European Federalists The Union of European Federalists (UEF) is a European non-governmental organisation, campaigning for a Federal Europe. It consists of 20 constituent organisations and it has been active at the European, national and local levels since 1946. His ...
. Movements towards a peacefully unified European state have existed since the 1920s, notably the
Paneuropean Union The International Paneuropean Union, also referred to as the Paneuropean Movement and the Pan-Europa Movement, is the oldest European unification movement. It began with the publishing of Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi's manifesto ''P ...
. A pan-European party with representation in the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legi ...

European Parliament
fighting for the same cause is
Volt Europa Volt Europa (frequently abbreviated as Volt) is a Pro-Europeanism, pro-European and European federalism, European federalist political movement that also serves as the Pan-European identity, pan-European structure for subsidiary parties in sever ...
. In the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three Legislature, legislative branches of the European Union and one of its seven Institutions of the European Union, institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legi ...

European Parliament
the
Spinelli Group The Spinelli Group is an initiative founded with a view to reinvigorate the endeavour for federalisation of the European Union (EU), by creating a network of citizens, think tanks, NGOs, academics, writers and politicians who support the idea o ...
brings together MEPs from different political groups to work together of ideas and projects of European federalism; taking their name from Italian politician and MEP
Altiero Spinelli Altiero Spinelli (31 August 1907 – 23 May 1986) was an Italian communist politician, Political theory, political theorist and European federalism, European federalist, referred to as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. A communist ...
, who himself was a major proponent of European federalism, also meeting with fellow deputies in the
Crocodile Club The Crocodile Club was an informal group of members of the European Parliament A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament The European Parli ...
. Notable European Federalists are former
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
Jean-Claude Juncker Jean-Claude Juncker (; born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician who served as the 21st Prime Minister of Luxembourg The Prime Minister of Luxembourg ( lb, Premier Minister vu Lëtzebuerg; french: Premier ministre luxembourgeois; ger ...

Jean-Claude Juncker
, current EC president
Ursula von der Leyen Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen (; Albrecht; born 8 October 1958) is a German politician and physician who has been President of the European Commission since 1 December 2019. Prior to her current position, she served in the Cabinet of Germany f ...

Ursula von der Leyen
, leader of ALDE group
Guy Verhofstadt Guy Maurice Marie Louise Verhofstadt (; ; born 11 April 1953) is a Belgian politician who was the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group, Leader of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe from 2009 to 2019, and has been a M ...
, German Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy of Germany
Peter Altmaier Peter Altmaier (born 18 June 1958) is a German lawyer and Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU politician who served as Federal Ministry of Finance (Germany), Acting Minister of Finance from 2017 to 2018 and as Federal Ministry for Economi ...

Peter Altmaier
, German MEP
Elmar Brok Elmar Peter Brok (born 14 May 1946) is a Germany, German politician who served as Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from 1980 until 2019, who is best known for his role as chairman of the European Parliament Committee on Foreign Affairs. He ...
and the former leader of the
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
Martin Schulz Martin Schulz (born 20 December 1955) is a German politician who served as Leader of the Social Democratic Party The Leader of the Social Democratic Party (''Vorsitzender der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands'') is the most senior polit ...

Martin Schulz
.


Latin America

In the
Spanish-speaking parts
Spanish-speaking parts
of
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
the term "federalist" is used in reference to the politics of 19th-century
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
and
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
. The Federalists opposed the Unitarians in Argentina and the
Centralist Centralisation or centralization (see American and British English spelling differences#iseize, spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing ...
s in Colombia through the 19th century. Federalists fought for complete self-government and full provincial autonomy, as opposed to the
centralized Centralisation or centralization (see American and British English spelling differences#iseize, spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing ...
government that the Unitarians and Centralists favored. Furthermore, Federalists demanded
tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
protection for their industries and, in Argentina, called for the end of the Buenos Aires customs as the only intermediary for foreign trade. During the
Federal War The Federal War ( es, Guerra Federal) — also known as the Great War or the Five Year War — was a civil war (1859–1863) in Venezuela between the Conservative Party (Venezuela), Conservative party and the Liberal Party (Venezuela), Liberal ...
(1859-1863) in Venezuela, liberal ''
caudillo A ''caudillo'' ( , ; osp, cabdillo, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meani ...
s'' confronted conservatives, leading to the establishment of the modern federal
States of Venezuela The Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is a federation made up of twenty-three states ('' es, estados''), a Capital District (Venezuela), Capital District ('' es, Distrito Capital'') and the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela, Federal D ...
.


Argentina

The one
Federalist The term ''federalist'' describes several political beliefs around the world. It may also refer to the concept of parties, whose members or supporters called themselves ''Federalists''. History Europe federation In Europe, proponents of Fede ...
leader in the Platine Region was
José Gervasio Artigas José Gervasio Artigas Arnal (; June 19, 1764 – September 23, 1850) was a political leader, military general, statesman and national hero of Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, Repú ...

José Gervasio Artigas
, who opposed the centralist governments in Buenos Aires that followed the
May Revolution The May Revolution ( es, link=no, Revolución de Mayo) was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital ...
, and created instead the
Federal League The Federal League of Base Ball Clubs, known simply as the Federal League, was an American professional baseball league that played its first season as a minor league in 1913 and operated as a "third Major League Baseball, major league", in ...
in 1814 among several Argentine Provinces and the
Banda Oriental Banda Oriental, or more fully Banda Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Bank), was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay; the modern state of Rio Gran ...
(modern-day
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
). In 1819, the Federal armies rejected the ''centralist'' Constitution of the
United Provinces of South America United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania United is located in Mount Pleasant Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. It is a community located near Norvelt, Pennsylvania. History In 1881, the United Coal Company, United Coal & ...
and defeated the forces of Supreme Director
José Rondeau
José Rondeau
at the 1820 Battle of Cepeda, effectively ending the central government and securing Provinces' sovereignty through a series of inter-Provincial pacts (v.g. ''
Treaty of Pilar The Treaty of Pilar (in Spanish, ''Tratado del Pilar'') was a pact signed among the rulers of the Argentine Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set ...
'', ''
Treaty of Benegas The Treaty of Benegas was a peace treaty signed by the Argentina, Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires Province, Buenos Aires and Santa Fe Province, Santa Fe on 24 November 1820. History After the Battle of Cepeda (1820), Batlle of Cepeda, on 1 F ...
'', ''
Quadrilateral Treaty The Quadrilateral Treaty was a pact between the Argentina, Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires Province, Buenos Aires, Santa Fe Province, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos and Corrientes Province, Corrientes, signed on 25 January 1822. Th ...
''). A new National Constitution was proposed only in 1826, during the
Presidency A presidency is an administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth ...
of Unitarian
Bernardino Rivadavia Bernardino de la Trinidad González Rivadavia (May 20, 1780 – September 2, 1845) was the first President of Argentina The president of Argentina ( es, Presidente de Argentina), officially known as the president of the Argentine Nation ...

Bernardino Rivadavia
, but it was again rejected by the Provinces, leading to the dissolution of the National Government the following year. Federalist
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
Governor
Manuel Dorrego Manuel Dorrego (11 June 1787 – 13 December 1828) was an Argentine Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavio ...

Manuel Dorrego
took over the management of the foreign affairs of the United Provinces, but he was deposed and executed in 1828 by Unitarian General
Juan Lavalle Juan Galo Lavalle (17 October 1797 – 9 October 1841) was an Argentina, Argentine military and political figure. Biography Lavalle was born in Buenos Aires to María Mercedes González Bordallo and Manuel José Lavalle, general accountant of r ...

Juan Lavalle
, who commanded troops dissatisfied with the negotiations that ended the War with Brazil. The following year,
Juan Manuel de Rosas Juan Manuel de Rosas (30 March 1793 – 14 March 1877), nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was an Argentine politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de ...

Juan Manuel de Rosas
, leader of Buenos Aires Federalists,
defeated Defeated may refer to: *Defeated (Breaking Benjamin song), "Defeated" (Breaking Benjamin song) *Defeated (Anastacia song), "Defeated" (Anastacia song) *"Defeated", a song by Snoop Dogg from the album ''Bible of Love'' *Defeated, Tennessee, an unin ...
Lavalle and secured his resignation. Rosas was elected Governor of Buenos Aires later that year by the Provincial Legislature. To counteract these developments, the
Unitarian League The Unitarian League ( es, Liga Unitaria) also referred to as the League of the Interior () was a league of provinces of Argentina led by José María Paz, established in 1830, aiming to unite the country under Unitarian Party, unitarian princip ...
was created by General
José María Paz Brigadier General José María Paz y Haedo (September 9, 1791 – October 22, 1854) was an Argentine military figure, notable in the Argentine War of Independence and the Argentine Civil War. Childhood Born in Córdoba, Argentina, the son o ...

José María Paz
in 1830, uniting nine Argentine Provinces. The 1831
Federal Pact The Federal Pact ( es, Pacto Federal) was a treaty first signed by the Argentina, Argentine provinces of Argentina, provinces of Buenos Aires Province, Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe Province, Argentina, Santa Fe on ...
between
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe Provinces opposed a military alliance to the League and ultimately defeated it during 1832, its former members joining the Federal Pact into a loose
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
of Provinces known as the
Argentine Confederation The Argentine Confederation (Spanish: ''Confederación Argentina'') was the last predecessor state Predecessor may refer to: * A holy person announcing the approaching appearance of a prophet, see precursor Precursor or Precursors may refer to: * ...
. Although the Unitarians were exiled in neighboring countries, the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
continued for two decades. Buenos Aires Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas exerted a growing hegemony over the rest of the country during his 1835-1852 Government and resisted several Unitarian uprisings, but was finally defeated in 1852 by a coalition Army gathered by Entre Ríos Federalist Governor
Justo José de Urquiza Justo José de Urquiza y García (; October 18, 1801 – April 11, 1870) was an Argentine Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of a ...

Justo José de Urquiza
, who accused Rosas of not complying with
Federal Pact The Federal Pact ( es, Pacto Federal) was a treaty first signed by the Argentina, Argentine provinces of Argentina, provinces of Buenos Aires Province, Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos and Santa Fe Province, Argentina, Santa Fe on ...
provisions for a National Constitution. In 1853, a
Federal Constitution Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
was enacted (the current Constitution of Argentina, through amendments) and Urquiza was elected President of the
Argentine Confederation The Argentine Confederation (Spanish: ''Confederación Argentina'') was the last predecessor state Predecessor may refer to: * A holy person announcing the approaching appearance of a prophet, see precursor Precursor or Precursors may refer to: * ...
. However, on the aftermath of 1852
Battle of Caseros The Battle of Caseros ( es, Batalla de Caseros) was fought near the town of El Palomar, Buenos Aires Province Buenos Aires (), officially the Buenos Aires Province (''Provincia de Buenos Aires'' ), is the largest and most populous Provinces ...
, the Province of Buenos Aires had seceded from the Confederation. In 1859, after the Battle of Cepeda the State of Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation, although it was granted the right to make some amendments to its Constitution. Finally, after the 1861
Battle of Pavón The Battle of Pavón, a key battle of the Argentine Civil Wars The Argentine Civil Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a coun ...
, Buenos Aires took over the Confederation. The following federal governments fought the weaker Federalist and Autonomist resistances in the countryside until the 1870s. The last Autonomist rebellion in Buenos Aires was quelled in 1880, leading to the
federalization of Buenos Aires Federalization, in Argentine law, is the process of assigning federal status to a territory with the purpose of making that territory the national capital. Federalization of Buenos Aires politically separated the city from the Buenos Aires Provinc ...
city and the stabilization of the Argentine State and government through the
National Autonomist Party The National Autonomist Party ( es, Partido Autonomista Nacional; PAN) was the ruling political party of Argentina from 1874 to 1916. In 1880, Julio Argentino Roca assumed the presidency under the motto "peace and management, administration". H ...
.


North America


Quebec

''Federalism'', in regard to the
National Question The National Question is a term used for a variety of issues related to nationalism. It is seen especially often in socialist thought and doctrine. In socialism * ''Social Democracy and the Nationalities Question'' by Otto Bauer in 1907 * ''Th ...
, refers to support for
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
remaining within
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, while either keeping the ''
status quo is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation wit ...
'' or pursuing greater autonomy and constitutional recognition of a Quebec nation, with corresponding rights and powers for Quebec within the Canadian federation. This ideology is opposed to
Quebec sovereigntism The Quebec sovereignty movement (french: Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement whose objective is to achieve the sovereignty of Quebec, a province of Canada since 1867, including in all matters related to any provision of ...
, proponents of Quebec independence, most often (but not for all followers) along with an economic union with Canada similar to the European Union.


United States

In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
the term ''
federalist The term ''federalist'' describes several political beliefs around the world. It may also refer to the concept of parties, whose members or supporters called themselves ''Federalists''. History Europe federation In Europe, proponents of Fede ...
'' usually applies to a member of one of the following groups: * Statesmen and public figures supporting the proposed
Constitution of the United States The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...
between 1787 and 1789. The most prominent advocates were
James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, diplomat, expansionist, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited wi ...

James Madison
,
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
, and
John Jay John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of ...

John Jay
. They published ''
The Federalist Papers ''The Federalist Papers'' is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the Pseudonym, collective pseudonym "Publius" to promote the History of the United States Constitution, ratifica ...
'', which expounded the principles of the early federalist movement to promote and adopt the proposed Constitution. * Statesmen and public figures supporting the administrations of presidents
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. Natio ...

George Washington
(1789–1797) and
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of ...

John Adams
(1797–1801). They became the
Federalist Party The Federalist Party was the first political party in the United States American electoral politics has been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic. Since the 1850s, they have been the Histo ...
, founded by Alexander Hamilton. During the 1790s and early 1800s, the Federalist Party opposed the
Democratic-Republican Party The Democratic-Republican Party, also referred to as the Jeffersonian Republican Party and known at the time under various other names, was an American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – ...
(founded by
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison) over issues of how broadly or narrowly to apply the provisions of the new Constitution. The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies is an organization of
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of ae ...
and
libertarian Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and funda ...
lawyers and others dedicated to debate of these principles.


Global federalism

The
World Federalist Movement The World Federalist Movement is a movement that advocates for strengthened and democratic world institutions subjected to the federalist principles of subsidiarity, solidarity and democracy. Famous advocates of world federalism include Albert E ...
is a
global citizens movement The term global citizens movement refers to a constellation of organized and overlapping citizens groups seeking to foster global solidarity in policy and consciousness. The term is often used synonymously with the anti-globalization movement or t ...
that advocates for strengthened and democratic world institutions subjected to the federalist principles of subsidiarity, solidarity and democracy. It states that "[w]orld federalists support the creation of democratic global structures accountable to the citizens of the world and call for the division of international authority among separate agencies".


See also

* Anti-Federalism * Confederation * Federal (disambiguation) * Federalism * Federalist Era *
Federalist Party The Federalist Party was the first political party in the United States American electoral politics has been dominated by two major political parties since shortly after the founding of the republic. Since the 1850s, they have been the Histo ...
* Federation * World Federation


References


External links


World Federalist Movement



The New Federalist Party 2008

The Anti-Federalist Movement - A Discussion
* "unitario ." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 Nov. 2008

* Crow, John A. (1992). ''The Epic of Latin America''. University of California Press. {{ISBN, 978-0-520-07723-2. * "Cepeda, battles of." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Nov. 200

Federalism,