, the term excarnation (also known as defleshing) refers to the practice of removing the flesh and organs of the dead
Excarnation may be achieved through natural means, such as leaving a dead body exposed for animals to scavenge
, or by butchering the corpse by hand.
Practices making use of natural processes for excarnation include Tibetan sky burial
platform burials, and traditional Zoroastrian
funerals (see Tower of Silence
). Archaeologists believe that in this practice, people typically left the body exposed on a woven litter or altar. Following excarnation, the litter with its remains would be removed from the site. Since metatarsals
, finger bones and toe bones are very small, they would easily fall through gaps in a woven structure or roll off the side during this removal. Thus a site where only small bones are found is suggestive of ritual excarnation. Some Native American
groups in the southeastern portion of North America
practised excarnation in protohistoric
The Parsis in Mumbai maintain a hilltop reserve, the Doongerwadi forest, in Malabar Hill
with several Towers of Silence
. Due to a decline in vulture
s in India (due to changes in animal husbandry practices) the traditional excarnation practice has faced pressure to evolve while still serving the same purpose, so the trustees of the reserve introduced solar concentrators at the towers. Other scavenger birds play a part but are not as efficient as vultures.
From the pattern of marks on some human bones at prehistoric sites, researchers have inferred that members of the community removed the flesh from the bones as part of its burial practices.
Neolithic farmers living in Tavoliere, Italy
, over 7000 years ago practiced ritual defleshing of the dead. Light cut marks suggest that the bones were defleshed up to a year after death. The bones were deposited in Scaloria Cave and, when excavated, were mixed with animal bones, broken pottery and stone tools.
In the Middle Ages, excarnation was practised by European cultures as a way to preserve the bones when the deceased was of high status or had died some distance from home. One notable example of a person who underwent excarnation following death was Christopher Columbus
. The American Revolutionary War general, Anthony Wayne
, also underwent a form of excarnation. A practice known as ''mos teutonicus
'', or active excarnation, was a German custom. The bodies were broken down differently than solely defleshing, they were cut up and boiled in either wine, water, or vinegar.
In modern Japan, where cremation
is predominant, it is common for close relatives of the deceased to transfer, using special chopsticks, the remaining bones from the ashes to a special jar in which they will be interred. However, in ancient Japanese society, prior to the introduction of Buddhism
and the funerary practice of cremation, the corpse was exposed in a manner very similar to the Tibetan sky burial
. The Kalash
people of Pakistan until recently (mid 1980s) practiced above ground burial in large wooden coffins called Bahg'a were the dead were laid with all their best belongings in cemeteries called Madokjal or place of many coffins. This tradition had been dying off with the last being the burial of a shaman in 1985, until the burial in 2016 of Batakeen of Anish village Bumburet
. The Bali Aga
people of Trunyan
village on Lake Batur
practice customs found no where else on the island, these are the mountain Balinese and they practice Animistic traditions that predate the arrival of Hinduism in Bali. The burial custom here is for the bodies to be laid on the ground and left to decompose, with a cloth cover or a bamboo cage . Once the decomposition is complete the bones are placed on a stair shaped altar 500 feet to the north. A large banyan tree called the taru menyan literally called the nice smelling tree is thought to take away bad smells .
Pre-contact Hawaiians ritually defleshed the bones of high-ranking nobles (''ali'i'') so that they could be interred in reliquaries for later veneration. The remains of Captain Cook
, who the Hawaiians had believed to be the god Lono
, were treated this way after his death. The Moriori people
of the Chatham Islands
(now part of New Zealand) placed their dead in a sitting position in the sand dunes looking out to sea; others were strapped to young trees in the forest. In time, the tree grew into and through the bones, making them one.
Following the excarnation process, many societies retrieved the bones for burial.
Defleshing during the Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages in Europe, defleshing was a mortuary procedure used mainly to prepare human remains for transport over long distances. The practice was used only for nobility. It involved removing skin, muscles, and organs from a body, leaving only the bones.
In this procedure, the head, arms, and legs were detached from the body. The process left telltale cuts on the bones.
King Saint Louis IX of France
is said to have been defleshed by boiling his corpse until the flesh separated from the bones. This was intended to preserve his bones, to avoid decaying of the remains during their return to France from the Eighth Crusade
, and to provide relics. The process is known as mos Teutonicus
Distinguishing excarnation from cannibalism
Archaeologists seeking to study the practice of ritual excarnation in the archeological record must differentiate between the removal of flesh as a burial practice, and as a precursor to cannibalism
When human bones exhibiting signs of flesh removal are discovered in the fossil record, a variety of criteria can be used to distinguish between the two. One common approach is to compare the tool marks and other cuts on the bones with butchered animal bones from the same site, with the assumption that cannibalized humans would have been prepared like any other meat, whereas excarnated bodies would be prepared differently. Cannibalized bones, in contrast to excarnated bones, may also exhibit telltale signs such as human tooth marks, broken long bones (to facilitate marrow extraction), and signs of cooking, such as "pot polishing".
Category:Archaeology of death