TheInfoList

OR: Electric power is the rate at which
electrical energy Electrical energy is energy related to forces on electrically charged particles and the movement of electrically charged particles (often electrons in wires, but not always). This energy is supplied by the combination of electric current and electr ...
is transferred by an
electric circuit An electrical network is an interconnection of electronic component, electrical components (e.g., battery (electricity), batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches, transistors) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of e ...
. The SI unit of power is the
watt The watt (symbol: W) is the unit of power or radiant flux in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 1 joule per second or 1 kg⋅m2⋅s−3. It is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer. The watt is named after James W ...
, one
joule The joule ( , ; symbol: J) is the unit of energy in the International System of Units, International System of Units (SI). It is equal to the amount of Work (physics), work done when a force of 1 Newton (unit), newton displaces a mass through ...
per
second The second (symbol: s) is the unit of Time in physics, time in the International System of Units (SI), historically defined as of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally t ...
. Standard prefixes apply to watts as with other SI units: thousands, millions and billions of watts are called kilowatts, megawatts and gigawatts respectively. A common misconception is that electric power is bought and sold, but actually electrical energy is bought and sold. For example, electricity is sold to consumers in
kilowatt-hours A kilowatt-hour (unit symbol: kW⋅h or kW h; commonly written as kWh) is a Units of measurement, unit of energy: one kilowatt of power for one hour. In terms of SI derived units with special names, it equals 3.6 Joule, megajoules (MJ). Kil ...
(kilowatts multiplied by hours), because energy is power multiplied by time. Electric power is usually produced by
electric generator In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) or fuel-based power (chemical energy) into electric power for use in an external electrical circuit, circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include s ...
s, but can also be supplied by sources such as
electric batteries An electric battery is a source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering Electricity, electrical devices. When a battery is supplying power, its positive terminal is the cathode a ...
. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes (as domestic
mains electricity Mains electricity or utility power, power grid, domestic power, and wall power, or in some parts of Canada as hydro, is a general-purpose Alternating current, alternating-current (AC) electric power supply. It is the form of electrical power t ...
) by the
electric power industry The electric power industry covers the electricity generation, generation, electric power transmission, transmission, electric power distribution, distribution and electricity retailing, sale of electric power to the general public and industry. ...
through an
electrical grid An electrical grid is an interconnected network for electricity delivery from producers to consumers. Electrical grids vary in size and can cover whole countries or continents. It consists of:Kaplan, S. M. (2009). Smart Grid. Electrical Power ...
. Electric power can be delivered over long distances by
transmission lines In electrical engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct electromagnetic waves in a contained manner. The term applies when the conductors are long enough that the wave nature of the transmis ...
and used for applications such as
motion In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its Position (geometry), position with respect to time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of Displacement (geometry), displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, speed ...
,
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequency, fr ...
or
heat In thermodynamics, heat is defined as the form of energy crossing the boundary of a thermodynamic system by virtue of a temperature difference across the boundary. A thermodynamic system does not ''contain'' heat. Nevertheless, the term is al ...
with high
efficiency Efficiency is the often measurable ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do things well, successfully, and without ...
.

# Definition

Electric power, like
mechanical power : ''For the physics concept, see .'' Mechanical power is a medical term which is a measure of the amount of energy imparted to a patient by a mechanical ventilator. While in many cases mechanical ventilation is a life-saving or life-preserving int ...
, is the rate of doing work, measured in
watt The watt (symbol: W) is the unit of power or radiant flux in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 1 joule per second or 1 kg⋅m2⋅s−3. It is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer. The watt is named after James W ...
s, and represented by the letter ''P''. The term ''wattage'' is used colloquially to mean "electric power in watts." The electric power in
watt The watt (symbol: W) is the unit of power or radiant flux in the International System of Units (SI), equal to 1 joule per second or 1 kg⋅m2⋅s−3. It is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer. The watt is named after James W ...
s produced by an
electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space. It is measured as the net rate of flow of electric charge through a surface or into a control volume. The moving par ...
''I'' consisting of a charge of ''Q'' coulombs every ''t'' seconds passing through an
electric potential The electric potential (also called the ''electric field potential'', potential drop, the electrostatic potential) is defined as the amount of work (physics), work energy needed to move a unit of electric charge from a reference point to the sp ...
(
voltage Voltage, also known as electric pressure, electric tension, or (electric) potential difference, is the difference in electric potential between two points. In a Electrostatics, static electric field, it corresponds to the Work (electrical), w ...
) difference of ''V'' is $\text = \wp = \frac = \frac \frac = VI$ where *''Q'' is electric charge in
coulomb The coulomb (symbol: C) is the unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI). In 2019 redefinition of the SI base units, the present version of the SI it is equal to the electric charge delivered by a 1 ampere constant curre ...
s *''t'' is time in
second The second (symbol: s) is the unit of Time in physics, time in the International System of Units (SI), historically defined as of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally t ...
s *''I'' is electric current in
ampere The ampere (, ; symbol: A), often Clipping (morphology), shortened to amp,SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units. is the unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). One amp ...
s *''V'' is electric potential or voltage in
volt The volt (symbol: V) is the unit of electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force in the International System of Units, International System of Units (SI). It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro ...
s

# Explanation Electric power is transformed to other forms of energy when
electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes charged matter to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Electric charge can be ''positive'' or ''negative'' (commonly carried by protons and electron ...
s move through an
electric potential The electric potential (also called the ''electric field potential'', potential drop, the electrostatic potential) is defined as the amount of work (physics), work energy needed to move a unit of electric charge from a reference point to the sp ...
difference (
voltage Voltage, also known as electric pressure, electric tension, or (electric) potential difference, is the difference in electric potential between two points. In a Electrostatics, static electric field, it corresponds to the Work (electrical), w ...
), which occurs in
electrical component An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an Electronics, electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated electromagnetic field, fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products, avail ...
s in electric circuits. From the standpoint of electric power, components in an electric circuit can be divided into two categories: ## Active devices (power sources)

If the charges are moved by an 'exterior force' through the device in the direction from the lower electric potential to the higher, (so positive charge moves from the negative to the positive terminal), work will be done ''on'' the charges, and energy is being converted to electric
potential energy In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors. Common types of potential energy include the gravitational potentia ...
from some other type of energy, such as
mechanical energy In Outline of physical science, physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. The principle of conservation of mechanical energy states that if an isolated system is subject only to conservative forces, t ...
or
chemical energy Chemical energy is the energy of chemical substances that is released when they undergo a chemical reaction and transform into other substances. Some examples of storage media of chemical energy include batteries, Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2018). "How ...
. Devices in which this occurs are called '' active'' devices or ''power sources''; such as
electric generator In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) or fuel-based power (chemical energy) into electric power for use in an external electrical circuit, circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include s ...
s and batteries. Some devices can be either a source or a load, depending on the voltage and current through them. For example, a
rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell (formally a type of Accumulator (energy), energy accumulator), is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to ...
acts as a source when it provides power to a circuit, but as a load when it is connected to a battery charger and is being recharged.

When electric charges move through a potential difference from a higher to a lower voltage, that is when
conventional current An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space. It is measured as the net rate of flow of electric charge through a surface or into a control volume. The moving par ...
(positive charge) moves from the positive (+) terminal to the negative (−) terminal, work is done by the charges on the device. The
potential energy In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors. Common types of potential energy include the gravitational potentia ...
of the charges due to the voltage between the terminals is converted to
kinetic energy In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical sci ...
in the device. These devices are called ''
passive Passive may refer to: * Passive voice, a grammatical voice common in many languages, see also Pseudopassive (disambiguation), Pseudopassive * Passive language, a language from which an interpreter works * Passivity (behavior), the condition of su ...
'' components or ''loads''; they 'consume' electric power from the circuit, converting it to other forms of energy such as
mechanical work In physics, work is the energy transferred to or from an object via the application of force along a Displacement (vector), displacement. In its simplest form, for a constant force aligned with the direction of motion, the work equals the pro ...
, heat, light, etc. Examples are electrical appliances, such as
light bulb An electric light, lamp, or light bulb is an electrical component that produces light. It is the most common form of artificial lighting. Lamps usually have a base made of ceramic, metal, glass, or plastic, which secures the lamp in the soc ...
s,
electric motor An electric motor is an Electric machine, electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a Electromagneti ...
s, and electric heaters. In
alternating current Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction and changes its magnitude continuously with time in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which ...
(AC) circuits the direction of the voltage periodically reverses, but the current always flows from the higher potential to the lower potential side. ## Passive sign convention

Since electric power can flow either into or out of a component, a convention is needed for which direction represents positive power flow. Electric power flowing ''out'' of a circuit ''into'' a component is arbitrarily defined to have a positive sign, while power flowing ''into'' a circuit from a component is defined to have a negative sign. Thus passive components have positive power consumption, while power sources have negative power consumption. This is called the '' passive sign convention''.

## Resistive circuits

In the case of
resistive The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space. It is mea ...
(Ohmic, or linear) loads, Joule's law can be combined with
Ohm's law Ohm's law states that the electric current, current through a Electrical conductor, conductor between two points is directly Proportionality (mathematics), proportional to the voltage across the two points. Introducing the constant of proporti ...
(''V'' = ''I·R'') to produce alternative expressions for the amount of power that is dissipated: $\wp = I V = I^2 R = \frac$ where ''R'' is the
electrical resistance The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. Its Multiplicative inverse, reciprocal quantity is , measuring the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares s ...
.

## Alternating current without harmonics

In
alternating current Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction and changes its magnitude continuously with time in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which ...
circuits, energy storage elements such as
inductance Inductance is the tendency of an electrical conductor to oppose a change in the electric current flowing through it. The flow of electric current creates a magnetic field around the conductor. The field strength depends on the magnitude of the ...
and
capacitance Capacitance is the capability of a material object or device to store electric charge. It is measured by the change in charge in response to a difference in electric potential, expressed as the ratio of those quantities. Commonly recognized are ...
may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of energy flow (power) that, averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as
real power Real may refer to: Currencies * Brazilian real (R$) * Central American Republic real * Mexican real * Portuguese real * Spanish real * Spanish colonial real Music Albums * Real (L'Arc-en-Ciel album), ''Real'' (L'Arc-en-Ciel album) (2000) * Real ... (also referred to as active power). The amplitude of that portion of energy flow (power) that results in no net transfer of energy but instead oscillates between the source and load in each cycle due to stored energy, is known as the absolute value of reactive power Reactive may refer to: *Generally, capable of having a reaction (disambiguation) *An adjective abbreviation denoting a Bowling ball#Coverstock technology, bowling ball coverstock made of reactive resin *Reactivity (chemistry) *Reactive mind *React ... . The product of the RMS value of the voltage wave and the RMS value of the current wave is known as apparent power. The real power ''P'' in watts consumed by a device is given by $\wp = V_p I_p \cos \theta = V_I_ \cos \theta$ where *''V''p is the peak voltage in volts *''I''p is the peak current in amperes *''V''rms is the root-mean-square In mathematics and its applications, the root mean square of a set (mathematics), set of numbers x_i (abbreviated as RMS, or rms and denoted in formulas as either x_\mathrm or \mathrm_x) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arith ... voltage in volts *''I''rms is the root-mean-square In mathematics and its applications, the root mean square of a set (mathematics), set of numbers x_i (abbreviated as RMS, or rms and denoted in formulas as either x_\mathrm or \mathrm_x) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arith ... current in amperes *''θ'' = ''θ''v − ''θ''i is the phase angle by which the voltage sine wave leads the current sine wave, or equivalently the phase angle by which the current sine wave lags the voltage sine wave The relationship between real power, reactive power and apparent power can be expressed by representing the quantities as vectors. Real power is represented as a horizontal vector and reactive power is represented as a vertical vector. The apparent power vector is the hypotenuse of a right triangle formed by connecting the real and reactive power vectors. This representation is often called the ''power triangle''. Using the Pythagorean Theorem In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem or Pythagoras' theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry between the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite t ... , the relationship among real, reactive and apparent power is: $\text^2 = \text^2 + \text^2$ Real and reactive powers can also be calculated directly from the apparent power, when the current and voltage are both sinusoids with a known phase angle θ between them: $\text = \text \cos \theta$ $\text = \text \sin \theta$ The ratio of real power to apparent power is called power factor In electrical engineering, the power factor of an AC power system is defined as the ratio of the ''real power'' absorbed by the electrical load, load to the ''apparent power'' flowing in the circuit. Real power is the average of the instantaneou ... and is a number always between −1 and 1. Where the currents and voltages have non-sinusoidal forms, power factor is generalized to include the effects of distortion. ## Electromagnetic fields Electrical energy flows wherever electric and magnetic fields exist together and fluctuate in the same place. The simplest example of this is in electrical circuits, as the preceding section showed. In the general case, however, the simple equation ''P'' = ''IV'' may be replaced by a more complex calculation. The closed surface integral In mathematics, particularly multivariable calculus, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to Integral, integration over surface (differential geometry), surfaces. It can be thought of as the double integral analogue of th ... of the cross-product of the electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity vectors gives the total instantaneous power (in watts) ''out of'' the volume: $\wp = \oint_\text (\mathbf \times \mathbf) \cdot d \mathbf.$ The result is a scalar since it is the '' surface integral In mathematics, particularly multivariable calculus, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to Integral, integration over surface (differential geometry), surfaces. It can be thought of as the double integral analogue of th ... '' of the '' Poynting vector In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scienc ... ''. # Production ## Generation The fundamental principles of much electricity generation were discovered during the 1820s and early 1830s by the British scientist Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, ... . His basic method is still used today: electric current is generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, steel, nickel, ... . For electric utilities An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and Electricity retailing, distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market. The electrical utility ... , it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The other processes, electricity transmission Transmission may refer to: Medicine, science and technology * Power transmission ** Electric power transmission ** Propulsion transmission, technology allowing controlled application of power *** Automatic transmission *** Manual transmission *** ... , distribution, and electrical energy storage and recovery using pumped-storage Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH), or pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES), is a type of hydroelectricity, hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing (electrical power), load balancing. The method ... methods are normally carried out by the electric power industry The electric power industry covers the electricity generation, generation, electric power transmission, transmission, electric power distribution, distribution and electricity retailing, sale of electric power to the general public and industry. ... . Electricity is mostly generated at a power station A power station, also referred to as a power plant and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the electricity generation, generation of electric power. Power stations are generally connected to an el ... by electromechanical generators, driven by heat engine In thermodynamics and engineering, a heat engine is a system that converts heat to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do work (physics), mechanical work. It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to ... s heated by combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combusti ... , geothermal power Geothermal power is electricity generation, electrical power generated from geothermal energy. Technologies in use include dry steam power stations, flash steam power stations and binary cycle power stations. Geothermal electricity generation ... or nuclear fission Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction, reaction in which the atomic nucleus, nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller atomic nucleus, nuclei. The fission process often produces gamma ray, gamma photons, and releases a very large ... . Other generators are driven by the kinetic energy In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical sci ... of flowing water and wind. There are many other technologies that are used to generate electricity such as photovoltaic Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. The photovoltaic effect is commercially us ... solar panels. A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cell An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions. The electrochemical cells which generate an electric current are called voltaic o ... s that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy."battery" (def. 4b) ''Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary'' (2009). Retrieved 25 May 2009. Since the invention of the first battery (or " voltaic pile file:Voltaic pile.svg, upright=1.2, Schematic diagram of a copper–zinc voltaic pile. The copper and zinc discs were separated by cardboard or felt spacers soaked in salt water (the electrolyte). Volta's original piles contained an additional zin ... ") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (, ; 18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist and lay List of lay Catholic scientists, Catholic who was a pioneer of electricity and Power (physics), power who is credite ... and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell The Daniell cell is a type of electrochemical cell invented in 1836 by John Frederic Daniell, a British chemist and meteorologist, and consists of a copper pot filled with a copper (II) sulfate solution, in which is immersed an unglazed earthenwar ... in 1836, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48
billion Billion is a word for a large number, and it has two distinct definitions: * 1,000,000,000, i.e. one thousand million, or (ten to the ninth power), as defined on the short scale. This is its only current meaning in English. * 1,000,000,000,000, ...
in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries are available in many sizes; from miniature
button cell A button cell, watch battery, or coin battery is a small single-cell battery (electricity), battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically in diameter and high — resembling a button. Stainless steel usually forms the bottom body and positive Ter ...
s used to power
hearing aid A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss. Hearing aids are classified as medical devices in most countries, and regulated by the respective regulations. Small audio amplifiers su ...
s and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for
telephone exchange A telephone exchange, telephone switch, or central office is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or in large enterprises. It interconnects telephone subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital syst ...
s and computer
data center A data center (American English) or data centre (British English)See American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, spelling differences. is a building, a dedicated space within a building, or a group of buildings used to house comp ...
s.

## Electric power industry

The electric power industry provides the production and delivery of power, in sufficient quantities to areas that need
electricity Electricity is the set of physics, physical Phenomenon, phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. Electricity is related to magnetism, both being part of the phenomenon of electromagne ...
, through a
grid connection An electrical grid is an interconnected network for electricity delivery from producers to consumers. Electrical grids vary in size and can cover whole countries or continents. It consists of:Kaplan, S. M. (2009). Smart Grid. Electrical Power ...
. The grid distributes electrical energy to customers. Electric power is generated by central
power station A power station, also referred to as a power plant and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the electricity generation, generation of electric power. Power stations are generally connected to an el ...
s or by
distributed generation Distributed generation, also distributed energy, on-site generation (OSG), or district/decentralized energy, is electrical Power generation, generation and Grid energy storage, storage performed by a variety of small, Electrical grid, grid-connect ...
. The electric power industry has gradually been trending towards deregulation – with emerging players offering consumers competition to the traditional public utility companies.

# Use

Electric power, produced from central generating stations and distributed over an electrical transmission grid, is widely used in industrial, commercial and consumer applications. The per capita electric power consumption of a country correlates with its industrial development. Ignacio J. Pérez-Arriaga (ed), ''Regulation of the Power Sector'', Springer Science & Business Media, 2014 , page 8 Electric motors power manufacturing machinery and propel subways and railway trains. Electric lighting is the most important form of artificial light. Electrical energy is used directly in processes such as extraction of aluminum from its ores and in production of steel in
electric arc furnace An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats material by means of an electric arc. Industrial arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately one-tonne capacity (used in foundries A foundry is a factory that produces ...
s. Reliable electric power is essential to telecommunications and broadcasting. Electric power is used to provide air conditioning in hot climates, and in some places electric power is an economically competitive source of energy for building space heating. Use of electric power for pumping water ranges from individual household wells to irrigation projects and energy storage projects.

* EGRID *
Electric energy consumption Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electrical energy. Electric energy consumption is the actual energy demand made on existing electricity supply for transportation, residential, industrial, commercial, and ot ...
*
Electric power system An electric power system is a network of electrical components deployed to supply, transfer, and use electric power. An example of a power system is the electrical grid that provides power to homes and industries within an extended area. The e ...
*
High-voltage cable A high-voltage cable (HV cable) is a cable used for electric power transmission at high voltage. A cable includes a conductor and Insulator (electricity), insulation. Cables are considered to be fully insulated. This means that they have a fully r ...
*
Power engineering Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric power Electric power is the rate at which electric ...
*
Rural electrification Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas. Rural communities are suffering from colossal market failures as the national grids fall short of their demand for electricity. As of 2017, over 1 billi ...

# Bibliography

Reports on August 2003 Blackout, North American Electric Reliability Council website
* *