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Elections in Egypt are held for the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
and a
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
legislature. The
President of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's perso ...
is elected for a four-year term by popular vote. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for every Egyptian citizen over 18. Failure to vote can result in fine or even imprisonment, but in practice a significant percentage of eligible voters do not vote. About 63 million voters are registered to vote out of a population of more than 100 million. Turnout in the 2011 parliamentary election was 54%.


Kingdom of Egypt (1922–1953)

The
Kingdom of Egypt The Kingdom of Egypt ( ar, المملكة المصرية, Al-Mamlaka Al-Miṣreyya, The Egyptian Kingdom) was the legal form of the Egyptian state during the latter period of the Muhammad Ali dynasty#REDIRECT Muhammad Ali dynasty The Muham ...

Kingdom of Egypt
was granted nominal independence by the United Kingdom on 28 February 1922. Between the Declaration of 1922 and the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, Revolution of 1952, ten general elections were held (in 1924, 1925, 1926, 1929, 1931, 1936, 1938, 1942, 1945 and 1950). This era is generally known as Egypt's Liberal Experiment. Egypt has never recovered the level of political freedom it enjoyed during this period. During the four elections held between 1924 and 1929, candidates from the Copt, Coptic Christian minority received 15 to 23 seats. Copts received four seats in 1931, six in 1938, 12 in 1945, and five in 1950. The opposition's share of seats also varied throughout this period. The opposition won 15.1% of the seats in the 1924 Egyptian parliamentary election, 1924 election, 18.9% in 1926 Egyptian parliamentary election, 1926, 6.9% in 1929 Egyptian parliamentary election, 1929, 18.1% in 1936 Egyptian parliamentary election, 1936, 12.1% in 1942 Egyptian parliamentary election, 1942, and 29.2% in the 1950 Egyptian parliamentary election, 1950 election, the last to be held prior to the 1952 Revolution which ended Egypt's multi-party system.


Elections under the Mubarak regime


2005 Presidential election

Under the Mubarak era, the Egyptian presidential election of 2005 was the first-ever multi-party, multi-candidate contested presidential election in Egypt's history, made under the 2005/2007 constitutional amendments to the 1971 Constitution of Egypt. Despite its significance, the election was marred by voter fraud, ballot stuffing, boycotts, intimidation, vote-buying, and protests by opposition groups, leading for a low-turnout of under 30%. Before the 2005 election, the
President of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's perso ...
was nominated by a two-thirds majority of the rubber-stamp People's Assembly of Egypt, People's Assembly and approved under a referendum process that resembles a show election in authoritarian countries.


2010 Parliamentary elections

Under the Mubarak era, The People's Assembly (Egypt), People's Assembly and Shura Council were elected under an electoral system of single member plurality. Along with the combination of voter fraud, ballot stuffing, intimidation, and lack of judicial and international supervision, this ensured the National Democratic Party of Egypt, NDP a super-majority win of seats for both houses. The Muslim Brotherhood were not recognized as a political party by law, but its members were allowed to run as independents.


Latest elections


2020 Senate election


2018 Presidential election


2020 Parliamentary election


Next elections

Egyptian presidential elections are held using a two-round system; the next election should be held in 2024. The House of Representatives (Egypt), House of Representatives sits for a five-year term but can be dissolved earlier by the president.


Referendums

The first referendum in Egypt was held on 23 June 1956. The electorate agreed with the adoption of the new 1956 Constitution of Egypt, 1956 constitution, and with the election of Gamal Abdel Nasser as
President of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's perso ...
.


See also

* Electoral calendar * Electoral system * 2019 Egyptian constitutional referendum


References


Bibliography

* *


External links


Egypt Elections Watch
– ''Jadaliyya''
Aswatna Virutal Resource Center
a central resource for electoral information in Egypt
Global Integrity Report: Egypt
has analysis of election integrity in Egypt.
Adam Carr's Election Archive

IDEA Report on Egypt

Elections in Egypt
Human Rights Watch, 2010 {{Egypt topics Elections in Egypt,