In mathematics, the eccentricity of a conic section is a non-negative real number that uniquely characterizes its shape.
More formally two conic sections are similar if and only if they have the same eccentricity.
One can think of the eccentricity as a measure of how much a conic section deviates from being circular. In particular:
*The eccentricity of a circle is zero.
*The eccentricity of an ellipse which is not a circle is greater than zero but less than 1.
*The eccentricity of a parabola is 1.
*The eccentricity of a hyperbola is greater than 1.

Definitions

Any conic section can be defined as the locus of points whose distances to a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix) are in a constant ratio. That ratio is called the eccentricity, commonly denoted as . The eccentricity can also be defined in terms of the intersection of a plane and a double-napped cone associated with the conic section. If the cone is oriented with its axis vertical, the eccentricity is :$e\; =\; \backslash frac,\; \backslash \; \backslash \; 0<\backslash alpha<90^\backslash circ,\; \backslash \; 0\backslash le\backslash beta\backslash le90^\backslash circ\; \backslash \; ,$ where β is the angle between the plane and the horizontal and α is the angle between the cone's slant generator and the horizontal. For $\backslash beta=0$ the plane section is a circle, for $\backslash beta=\backslash alpha$ a parabola. (The plane must not meet the vertex of the cone.) The linear eccentricity of an ellipse or hyperbola, denoted (or sometimes or ), is the distance between its center and either of its two foci. The eccentricity can be defined as the ratio of the linear eccentricity to the semimajor axis : that is, $e\; =\; \backslash frac$ (lacking a center, the linear eccentricity for parabolas is not defined).

Alternative names

The eccentricity is sometimes called the first eccentricity to distinguish it from the second eccentricity and third eccentricity defined for ellipses (see below). The eccentricity is also sometimes called the numerical eccentricity. In the case of ellipses and hyperbolas the linear eccentricity is sometimes called the half-focal separation.

Notation

Three notational conventions are in common use: # for the eccentricity and for the linear eccentricity. # for the eccentricity and for the linear eccentricity. # or for the eccentricity and for the linear eccentricity (mnemonic for half-''f''ocal separation). This article uses the first notation.

Values

Here, for the ellipse and the hyperbola, is the length of the semi-major axis and is the length of the semi-minor axis. When the conic section is given in the general quadratic form :$Ax^2\; +\; Bxy\; +\; Cy^2\; +Dx\; +\; Ey\; +\; F\; =\; 0,$ the following formula gives the eccentricity if the conic section is not a parabola (which has eccentricity equal to 1), not a degenerate hyperbola or degenerate ellipse, and not an imaginary ellipse:Ayoub, Ayoub B., "The eccentricity of a conic section", ''The College Mathematics Journal'' 34(2), March 2003, 116-121. :$e=\backslash sqrt$ where $\backslash eta\; =\; 1$ if the determinant of the 3×3 matrix :$\backslash beginA\; \&\; B/2\; \&\; D/2\backslash \backslash B/2\; \&\; C\; \&\; E/2\backslash \backslash D/2\&E/2\&F\backslash end$ is negative or $\backslash eta\; =\; -1$ if that determinant is positive.

Ellipses

The eccentricity of an ellipse is strictly less than 1. When circles (which have eccentricity 0) are counted as ellipses, the eccentricity of an ellipse is greater than or equal to 0; if circles are given a special category and are excluded from the category of ellipses, then the eccentricity of an ellipse is strictly greater than 0. For any ellipse, let be the length of its semi-major axis and be the length of its semi-minor axis. We define a number of related additional concepts (only for ellipses):

Other formulae for the eccentricity of an ellipse

The eccentricity of an ellipse is, most simply, the ratio of the distance between the center of the ellipse and each focus to the length of the semimajor axis . :$e\; =\; \backslash frac.$ The eccentricity is also the ratio of the semimajor axis to the distance from the center to the directrix: :$e\; =\; \backslash frac.$ The eccentricity can be expressed in terms of the flattening (defined as $f\; =\; 1\; -\; b\; /\; a$ for semimajor axis and semiminor axis ): :$e\; =\; \backslash sqrt.$ (Flattening may be denoted by in some subject areas if is linear eccentricity.) Define the maximum and minimum radii $r\_\backslash text$ and $r\_\backslash text$ as the maximum and minimum distances from either focus to the ellipse (that is, the distances from either focus to the two ends of the major axis). Then with semimajor axis , the eccentricity is given by :$e\; =\; \backslash frac\; =\; \backslash frac,$ which is the distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis.

Hyperbolas

The eccentricity of a hyperbola can be any real number greater than 1, with no upper bound. The eccentricity of a rectangular hyperbola is $\backslash sqrt$.

Quadrics

Ellipses, hyperbolas with all possible eccentricities from zero to infinity and a parabola on one cubic surface. The eccentricity of a three-dimensional quadric is the eccentricity of a designated section of it. For example, on a triaxial ellipsoid, the ''meridional eccentricity'' is that of the ellipse formed by a section containing both the longest and the shortest axes (one of which will be the polar axis), and the ''equatorial eccentricity'' is the eccentricity of the ellipse formed by a section through the centre, perpendicular to the polar axis (i.e. in the equatorial plane). But: conic sections may occur on surfaces of higher order, too (see image).

Celestial mechanics

In celestial mechanics, for bound orbits in a spherical potential, the definition above is informally generalized. When the apocenter distance is close to the pericenter distance, the orbit is said to have low eccentricity; when they are very different, the orbit is said be eccentric or having eccentricity near unity. This definition coincides with the mathematical definition of eccentricity for ellipses, in Keplerian, i.e., $1/r$ potentials.

** Analogous classifications **

A number of classifications in mathematics use derived terminology from the classification of conic sections by eccentricity:
*Classification of elements of SL_{2}(R) as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic – and similarly for classification of elements of PSL_{2}(R), the real Möbius transformations.
*Classification of discrete distributions by variance-to-mean ratio; see cumulants of some discrete probability distributions for details.
*Classification of partial differential equations is by analogy with the conic sections classification; see elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential equations.

See also

*Kepler orbits *Eccentricity vector *Orbital eccentricity *Roundness (object) *Conic constant

References

External links

MathWorld: Eccentricity

{{DEFAULTSORT:Eccentricity (Mathematics) Category:Conic sections Category:Analytic geometry

Definitions

Any conic section can be defined as the locus of points whose distances to a point (the focus) and a line (the directrix) are in a constant ratio. That ratio is called the eccentricity, commonly denoted as . The eccentricity can also be defined in terms of the intersection of a plane and a double-napped cone associated with the conic section. If the cone is oriented with its axis vertical, the eccentricity is :$e\; =\; \backslash frac,\; \backslash \; \backslash \; 0<\backslash alpha<90^\backslash circ,\; \backslash \; 0\backslash le\backslash beta\backslash le90^\backslash circ\; \backslash \; ,$ where β is the angle between the plane and the horizontal and α is the angle between the cone's slant generator and the horizontal. For $\backslash beta=0$ the plane section is a circle, for $\backslash beta=\backslash alpha$ a parabola. (The plane must not meet the vertex of the cone.) The linear eccentricity of an ellipse or hyperbola, denoted (or sometimes or ), is the distance between its center and either of its two foci. The eccentricity can be defined as the ratio of the linear eccentricity to the semimajor axis : that is, $e\; =\; \backslash frac$ (lacking a center, the linear eccentricity for parabolas is not defined).

Alternative names

The eccentricity is sometimes called the first eccentricity to distinguish it from the second eccentricity and third eccentricity defined for ellipses (see below). The eccentricity is also sometimes called the numerical eccentricity. In the case of ellipses and hyperbolas the linear eccentricity is sometimes called the half-focal separation.

Notation

Three notational conventions are in common use: # for the eccentricity and for the linear eccentricity. # for the eccentricity and for the linear eccentricity. # or for the eccentricity and for the linear eccentricity (mnemonic for half-''f''ocal separation). This article uses the first notation.

Values

Here, for the ellipse and the hyperbola, is the length of the semi-major axis and is the length of the semi-minor axis. When the conic section is given in the general quadratic form :$Ax^2\; +\; Bxy\; +\; Cy^2\; +Dx\; +\; Ey\; +\; F\; =\; 0,$ the following formula gives the eccentricity if the conic section is not a parabola (which has eccentricity equal to 1), not a degenerate hyperbola or degenerate ellipse, and not an imaginary ellipse:Ayoub, Ayoub B., "The eccentricity of a conic section", ''The College Mathematics Journal'' 34(2), March 2003, 116-121. :$e=\backslash sqrt$ where $\backslash eta\; =\; 1$ if the determinant of the 3×3 matrix :$\backslash beginA\; \&\; B/2\; \&\; D/2\backslash \backslash B/2\; \&\; C\; \&\; E/2\backslash \backslash D/2\&E/2\&F\backslash end$ is negative or $\backslash eta\; =\; -1$ if that determinant is positive.

Ellipses

The eccentricity of an ellipse is strictly less than 1. When circles (which have eccentricity 0) are counted as ellipses, the eccentricity of an ellipse is greater than or equal to 0; if circles are given a special category and are excluded from the category of ellipses, then the eccentricity of an ellipse is strictly greater than 0. For any ellipse, let be the length of its semi-major axis and be the length of its semi-minor axis. We define a number of related additional concepts (only for ellipses):

Other formulae for the eccentricity of an ellipse

The eccentricity of an ellipse is, most simply, the ratio of the distance between the center of the ellipse and each focus to the length of the semimajor axis . :$e\; =\; \backslash frac.$ The eccentricity is also the ratio of the semimajor axis to the distance from the center to the directrix: :$e\; =\; \backslash frac.$ The eccentricity can be expressed in terms of the flattening (defined as $f\; =\; 1\; -\; b\; /\; a$ for semimajor axis and semiminor axis ): :$e\; =\; \backslash sqrt.$ (Flattening may be denoted by in some subject areas if is linear eccentricity.) Define the maximum and minimum radii $r\_\backslash text$ and $r\_\backslash text$ as the maximum and minimum distances from either focus to the ellipse (that is, the distances from either focus to the two ends of the major axis). Then with semimajor axis , the eccentricity is given by :$e\; =\; \backslash frac\; =\; \backslash frac,$ which is the distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis.

Hyperbolas

The eccentricity of a hyperbola can be any real number greater than 1, with no upper bound. The eccentricity of a rectangular hyperbola is $\backslash sqrt$.

Quadrics

Ellipses, hyperbolas with all possible eccentricities from zero to infinity and a parabola on one cubic surface. The eccentricity of a three-dimensional quadric is the eccentricity of a designated section of it. For example, on a triaxial ellipsoid, the ''meridional eccentricity'' is that of the ellipse formed by a section containing both the longest and the shortest axes (one of which will be the polar axis), and the ''equatorial eccentricity'' is the eccentricity of the ellipse formed by a section through the centre, perpendicular to the polar axis (i.e. in the equatorial plane). But: conic sections may occur on surfaces of higher order, too (see image).

Celestial mechanics

In celestial mechanics, for bound orbits in a spherical potential, the definition above is informally generalized. When the apocenter distance is close to the pericenter distance, the orbit is said to have low eccentricity; when they are very different, the orbit is said be eccentric or having eccentricity near unity. This definition coincides with the mathematical definition of eccentricity for ellipses, in Keplerian, i.e., $1/r$ potentials.

See also

*Kepler orbits *Eccentricity vector *Orbital eccentricity *Roundness (object) *Conic constant

References

External links

MathWorld: Eccentricity

{{DEFAULTSORT:Eccentricity (Mathematics) Category:Conic sections Category:Analytic geometry