Earnings per share (EPS) is the monetary value of earnings
per outstanding share
of common stock
for a company. It is a key measure of corporate profitability and is commonly used to price stocks.
In the United States, the
Financial Accounting Standards Board
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is a private standard-setting body whose primary purpose is to establish and improve Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) within the United States in the public's interest. The Securi ...
(FASB) requires EPS information for the four major categories of the
An income statement or profit and loss accountProfessional English in Use - Finance, Cambridge University Press, p. 10 (also referred to as a ''profit and loss statement'' (P&L), ''statement of profit or loss'', ''revenue statement'', ''stateme ...
: continuing operations, discontinued operations, extraordinary items, and
In business and accounting, net income (also total comprehensive income, net earnings, net profit, bottom line, sales profit, or credit sales) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold, expenses, depreciation and amortization, interest, ...
rights have precedence over common stock. Therefore, dividends on preferred shares are subtracted before calculating the EPS. When preferred shares are cumulative, annual dividends are deducted whether or not they have been declared. Dividends in arrears
are not relevant when calculating EPS.
:Earnings per share =
;Net income formula
:Earnings per share =
;Continuing operations formula
:Earnings per share =
Diluted earnings per share
''Diluted earnings per share'' (diluted EPS) is a company's earnings per share calculated using fully diluted
Shares outstanding are all the shares of a corporation that have been authorized, issued and purchased by investors and are held by them. They are distinguished from treasury shares, which are shares held by the corporation itself, thus represent ...
(i.e. including the impact of stock option
In finance, a convertible bond or convertible note or convertible debt (or a convertible debenture if it has a maturity of greater than 10 years) is a type of bond that the holder can convert into a specified number of shares of common stock i ...
s). Diluted EPS indicates a "worst case" scenario, one that reflects the issuance of stock for all outstanding options, warrants and convertible securities that would reduce earnings per share.
Calculations of diluted EPS vary. Morningstar
reports diluted EPS "Earnings/Share $", which is net income minus preferred stock dividends divided by the
The weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others. The ...
of common stock shares outstanding over the past year; this is adjusted for dilutive shares. Some data sources may simplify this calculation by using the number of shares outstanding at the end of a reporting period. The methods of simplifying EPS calculations and eliminating inappropriate assumptions include replacing primary EPS with basic EPS, eliminating the treasury stock method of accounting from fully diluted EPS, eliminating the three-percent test for dual presentation, and providing information on individual dilative securities.
Calculations of diluted EPS under U.S. GAAP
are described under Statement No. 128 of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FAS No. 128). The objective of diluted EPS is to measure the performance of a company over the reporting period taking into account the dilutive effect of potential common stock that could be issued by the company. To compute diluted EPS, both the denominator (outstanding shares) and the numerator (earnings) may need to be adjusted.
''Diluted shares: ''
To calculate the total number of shares used in the calculation, FASB prescribes using the treasury method to calculate the dilutive effect of any instruments that could result in the issuance of shares, including:
* Stock options
* Convertible preferred stock
* Convertible bonds
* Share-based payment arrangements
* Written put options
* Contingently issuable shares
The numerator used in calculating diluted EPS is adjusted to take into account the impact that the conversion of any securities would have on earnings. For example, interest would be added back
to earnings to reflect the conversion of any outstanding convertible bonds, preferred dividends would be added back to reflect the conversion of convertible preferred stock, and any impact of these changes on other financial items, such as royalties and taxes, would also be adjusted.
International financial reporting standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards, commonly called IFRS, are accounting standards issued by the IFRS Foundation and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). They constitute a standardised way of describing the company's fina ...
, diluted earnings per share is calculated by adjusting the earnings and number of shares for the effects of dilutive options and other dilutive potential common stock
Dilutive potential common stock includes:
* convertible debt
* convertible preferred stock
* share warrants
* share options
* share rights
* Employee stock purchase plan
* contractual rights to purchase shares
* contingent issuance contracts or agreement
* Accretion/dilution analysis
* Dilutive security
* P/E ratio
* Whisper number
External linksEuropean banks’ earnings announcements
videoEarnings Per Share Screener
figures from official financial statements