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The durian () is the edible fruit of several tree
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
belonging to the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
''Durio''. There are 30 recognised ''Durio'' species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia, as of 1987. ''
Durio zibethinus ''Durio zibethinus'' is the most common tree species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as t ...
'' is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions. It is native to
Borneo Borneo (; id, ) is the third- and the largest in . At the geographic centre of , in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of , west of , and east of . The among three countries: and in the north, and to the south. It ...

Borneo
and
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia So ...

Sumatra
. Named in some regions as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong
odour An odor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...
, and
thorn Thorne or Thorns may refer to: Botany * Thorns, spines, and prickles, sharp structures on plants * Thorn, quickthorn or common hawthorn (''Crataegus monogyna'') Places * Thorn, Netherlands * Thorn, German name of Toruń, Poland * Thorn, Bedfor ...
-covered rind. The fruit can grow as large as long and in diameter, and it typically weighs . Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species. Some people regard the durian as having a pleasantly sweet fragrance, whereas others find the aroma overpowering and unpleasant. The smell evokes reactions from deep appreciation to intense disgust, and has been described variously as rotten onions,
turpentine Turpentine (which is also called gum turpentine, spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, terebenthene, terebinthine and (colloquially) turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation Distillation, or classical distillation, ...
, and raw sewage. The persistence of its odour, which may linger for several days, led certain hotels and public transportation services in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
to ban the fruit. However, the nineteenth-century British
naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...

naturalist
Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was a British natural history, naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, biologist and illustrator. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution throug ...
described its flesh as "a rich
custard Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on sweetened milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animal ...

custard
highly flavoured with
almond The almond (''Prunus dulcis'', syn. ''Prunus amygdalus'') is a species of tree native to Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, ...

almond
s". The flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness, and it is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet desserts in
Southeast Asian cuisine This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, usually associated with a specific culture or region. Asia, being the largest, most populous and culturally diverse continent, ha ...
s. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked.


Etymology

First used around 1580, the name "durian" is derived from the Malay language word ''dûrî'' (meaning 'thorn'), a reference to the numerous prickly thorns of the rind, together with the noun-building suffix ''-an''. The species name 'zibethinus' derives from the name of the
civet A civet () is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different species, mostly from the family Viverridae. Most of the species diversity ...

civet
(''Viverra zibetha''), known for its odour. Older evidence can be traced back in the Old Javanese transcriptions around 12th century. The word "duryyan" was written in the copperplate of Mar'smu: "''i Mar'smu hulu wras Sang Duryyan''" meaning "''from the village Mar'smu the officer of the rice barn is Sang Durryan''". The word Sang here means that the man was a middle class of Javanese stratification (j.m.madrais).


Taxonomy

''Durio sensu lato'' has 30 recognised species. ''Durio sensu stricto'' comprises 24 of these species. The 6 additional species included in ''Durio s.l.'' are now considered by some to comprise their own genus, ''Boschia''. ''Durio s.s.'' and ''Boschia'' have indistinguishable vegetative characteristics and many shared floral characteristics. The crucial difference between the two is that anther
locule A locule (plural locules) or loculus (plural loculi) (meaning "little place" in Latin) is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism (animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular orga ...
s open by apical pores in ''Boschia'' and by longitudinal slits in ''Durio s.s.'' These two genera form a
clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolution), lineal descendants - on a phylogenetic tree. R ...

clade
that is sister to another genus in the tribe
Durioneae Durioneae is a tribe within the subfamily Helicteroideae of the plant family Malvaceae s.l. The tribe contains at least five genera, including '' Durio'', the genus of tree species that produce Durian fruits. Taxonomy Within Durioneae, ''Kos ...
, ''
Cullenia ''Cullenia'' is a genus of flowering plants native to India and Sri Lanka. Earlier classification schemes place the genus in the kapok-tree Family (biology), family (Bombacaceae), but the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group places it in the mallow family ...
''. These three genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, as opposed to bithecate) anthers. The genus ''Durio'' is placed by some taxonomists in the
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
Bombacaceae Bombacaceae were long recognised as a family of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may re ...
, or by others in a broadly defined
Malvaceae Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...

Malvaceae
that includes Bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller family of just seven genera Durionaceae. ''Durio'' is often included in Bombacaceae because of the presence of monothecate anthers, as opposed to the bithecate anthers common to the rest of the (and
angiosperms Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

angiosperms
, in general). However, the first studies to examine mallow
phylogeny A phylogenetic tree (also phylogeny or evolutionary tree Felsenstein J. (2004). ''Inferring Phylogenies'' Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.) is a branching diagram A diagram is a symbolic representation Representation may refer to: Law a ...

phylogeny
using molecular data found that the
tribe The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant usage of the term is in the discipline of anthropology. The definition is contested, in part due to conflicting theoretical understa ...
Durioneae Durioneae is a tribe within the subfamily Helicteroideae of the plant family Malvaceae s.l. The tribe contains at least five genera, including '' Durio'', the genus of tree species that produce Durian fruits. Taxonomy Within Durioneae, ''Kos ...
should be placed in the
subfamily In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions ...
Helicteroideae of an expanded Malvaceae. The authors of these studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have most likely evolved convergently in Durioneae and in the Malvatheca clade (comprising Malvaceae s.l. subfamilies
Malvoideae Malvoideae is a botanical name at the rank of subfamily, which includes in the minimum the genus '' Malva''. It was first used by Burnett in 1835, but was not much used until recently, where, within the framework of the APG System, which unites th ...
and
Bombacoideae Bombacoideae is a subfamily of the Malva, mallow family, Malvaceae. It contains herbaceous and woody plants. Their leaves are alternate, commonly palmately lobed, with small and caducous stipules. The flowers are hermaphroditic and actinomorphic; ...
). A draft
genome In the fields of molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, M ...

genome
analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000
coding Coding may refer to: Computer science * Computer programming, the process of creating and maintaining the source code of computer programs * Line coding, in data storage * Source coding, compression used in data transmission * Coding theory * Chann ...
and non-coding
gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...

gene
s, among which a class called methionine gamma-lyases – which regulate the odour of organosulfur compounds – may be primarily responsible for the distinct durian odour. Genome analysis also indicated that the closest plant relative of durian is
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...

cotton
.


Description

Durian trees are large, growing to in height depending on the species. The leaves are
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
, elliptic to oblong and long. The flowers are produced in three to thirty clusters together on large branches and directly on the trunk with each flower having a calyx (
sepals upright=1.4, Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the ...
) and five (rarely four or six)
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
s. Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species, cultivars, and localities. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after four or five years. The durian fruit can hang from any branch, and matures roughly three months after
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
. The fruit can grow up to long and in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale-yellow to red, depending on the species. Among the thirty known species of ''Durio'', nine of them have been identified as producing edible fruits: '' D. zibethinus'', '' D. dulcis'', '' D. grandiflorus'', '' D. graveolens'', '' D. kutejensis'', '' Durio lowianus'', '' D. macrantha'', '' D. oxleyanus'' and '' D. testudinarius''. The fruit of many species has never been collected or properly examined, however, so other species may have edible fruit. The durian is somewhat similar in appearance to the
jackfruit The jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus''), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to t ...

jackfruit
, an unrelated species. ''D. zibethinus'' is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region. Since this species is open-pollinated, it shows considerable diversity in fruit colour and odour, size of flesh and seed, and tree
phenology Phenology is the study of periodic events in biological life cycle In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular ...

phenology
. In the species name, ''zibethinus'' refers to the Indian
civet A civet () is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different species, mostly from the family Viverridae. Most of the species diversity ...

civet
, ''''. There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Linnaeus
, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet. Durian flowers are large and feathery with copious
nectar Nectar is a sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosaccharides jo ...
, and give off a heavy, sour, and buttery odour. These features are typical of flowers pollinated by certain species of
bat Bats are mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meanin ...

bat
s that eat nectar and
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are microsporophytes of seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plant ...

pollen
. According to research conducted in Malaysia in the 1970s, durians were pollinated almost exclusively by cave fruit bats (''
Eonycteris spelaea The cave nectar bat, dawn bat, common dawn bat, common nectar bat or lesser dawn bat (''Eonycteris spelaea'') is a species of megabat within the genus ''Eonycteris''. The scientific name of the species was first published by George Edward Dobson, ...
''); however, a 1996 study indicated two species, ''D. grandiflorus'' and '' D. oblongus'', were pollinated by s ( Nectariniidae) and another species, ''D. kutejensis'', was pollinated by giant honey bees and birds as well as bats. Some scientists have hypothesised that the development of monothecate anthers and larger flowers (compared to those of the remaining genera in Durioneae) in the clade consisting of ''Durio, Boschia'', and ''Cullenia'' was in conjunction with a transition from beetle pollination to vertebrate pollination.


Cultivars

Over the centuries, numerous durian
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s, propagated by vegetative
clone Clone or Clones or Cloning or The Clone may refer to: Places * Clones, County Fermanagh * Clones, County Monaghan, a town in Ireland Biology * Clone (B-cell), a lymphocyte clone, the massive presence of which may indicate a pathological conditio ...

clone
s, have arisen in Southeast Asia. They used to be grown with mixed results from seeds of trees bearing superior quality fruit, but now are propagated by
layering Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants. Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches t ...

layering
,
marcotting Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants. Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches t ...
, or more commonly, by
grafting Grafting or graftage is a horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and ...
, including bud, veneer, wedge, whip or U-grafting onto seedlings of randomly selected
rootstock A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced. It could also be described as a stem with a well developed root system, to which a bud from another plant is grafted. It can refer to a ...
s. Different cultivars may be distinguished to some extent by variations in the fruit shape, such as the shape of the spines. Durian consumers express preferences for specific cultivars, which fetch higher prices in the market.


Malaysian varieties

The
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
n Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry started to register varieties of durian in 1934, and now maintains a list of registered varieties, where each cultivar is assigned a common name and a code number starting with "D". These codes are widely used through South-East Asia, and as of 2021, there are over 200 registered varieties. Many superior cultivars have been identified through competitions held at the annual Malaysian Agriculture, Horticulture, and Agrotourism Show. There are 13 common Malaysian varieties having favourable qualities of colour, texture, odour, taste, high yield, and resistance against various diseases. Musang King (D197) is the most popular durian breed from
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, rendered in Chinese as "Mao Shan Wang" (猫山王), which is usually the priciest of all cultivars. The origin of the name “Musang King” dates back to the 80s, when a man named Tan Lai Fook from Raub, Pahang stumbled upon a durian tree in Gua Musang,
Kelantan Kelantan (; JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, who speak or spok ...

Kelantan
. He brought the tree branch back to Raub for grafting, and this new breed attracted other cultivators. The cultivar was named after Gua Musang, its place of origin, while the Chinese name references the
palm civet ''Paradoxurus'' is a genus of three palm civets within the Viverridae, viverrid Family (biology), family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. The ''Paradoxurus'' species have a broad head, a narrow muzzle with a ...
, the Malay meaning of ''musang''. Musang King is known for its bright yellow flesh and is like a more potent or enhanced version of the D24. Musang King is also the preferred cultivar in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
and
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
. Other popular cultivars in Malaysia include: * "D24" (''Sultan''), a popular variety known for its bittersweet taste * "XO", which has a pale colour, thick flesh with a tinge of alcoholic fermentation * "Chook Kiok" (Cantonese meaning: bamboo leg) which has a distinctive yellowish core in the inner stem * "D168" (IOI), which has a round shape, medium size, green and yellow outer skin colour, and has flesh easy to dislodge. The flesh is medium-thick, solid, yellow in colour, and sweet. * "Red Prawn" (''Udang Merah'', D175), found in the states of
Pahang Pahang (; ms, ڤهڠ, label=JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Australian Aboriginal people of the Kimberley coast of Western Australia, ...

Pahang
and
Johor Johor (; ), also spelled as Johore, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. The fruit is medium-sized with oval shape, brownish green skin having short thorns. The flesh is thick, not solid, yellow coloured, and has a sweet taste.


Thai varieties

In Thailand, some popular varieties include Sultan (D24), Kop (D99 th, กบ – "frog" ), Chanee (D123, th, ชะนี – "gibbon" ), Berserah or Green Durian or Tuan Mek Hijau (D145 th, ทุเรียนเขียว – Green Durian ), Kan Yao (D158, th, ก้านยาว – Long Stem ), Mon Thong (D159, th, หมอนทอง – Golden Pillow ), Kradum Thong ( th, กระดุมทอง – Golden Button ), and with no common name, D169. Each cultivar has a distinct taste and odour. More than 200 cultivars of ''D. zibethinus'' exist in
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
. Mon Thong is the most commercially sought after, for its thick, full-bodied creamy and mild sweet-tasting flesh with relatively moderate smell emitted and smaller seeds, while Chanee is the best in terms of its resistance to infection by '' Phytophthora palmivora''. Kan Yao is somewhat less common, but prized for its longer window of time when it is both sweet and odourless at the same time. Among all the cultivars in Thailand, five are currently in large-scale commercial cultivation: Chanee, Mon Thong, Kan Yao, Ruang, and Kradum. By 2007, Thai government scientist Songpol Somsri had crossbred more than ninety varieties of durian to create Chantaburi No. 1, a cultivar without the characteristic odour. Another hybrid, Chantaburi No. 3, develops the odour about three days after the fruit is picked, which enables an odourless transport yet satisfies consumers who prefer the pungent odour. On 22 May 2012, two other cultivars from Thailand that also lack the usual odour, Long Laplae and Lin Laplae, were presented to the public by Yothin Samutkhiri, governor of
Uttaradit Province Uttaradit ( th, อุตรดิตถ์, ) is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (''changwat''), lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from south clockwise) Phitsanulok Phitsanulok ( th, พิษณุโลก ...
from where these cultivars were developed locally, while he announced the dates for the annual durian fair of Laplae District, and the name given to each cultivar.


Indonesian varieties

Indonesia has more than 103 varieties of durian. The most cultivated species is ''
Durio zibethinus ''Durio zibethinus'' is the most common tree species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as t ...
''. Notable varieties are Sukun durian ( Central Java), sitokong ( Betawi), sijapang (Betawi), Simas (
Bogor Bogor ( Sundanese: ᮘᮧᮌᮧᮁ, Dutch: ''Buitenzorg'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Bogor
), Sunan (Jepara), si dodol, and si hijau ( South Kalimantan) and Petruk (
Jepara Jepara is a town in the province of Central Java Central Java ( id, Jawa Tengah) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which ...
, Central Java).


Cultivation and availability

The durian is cultivated in
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% ...
regions, and stops growing when mean daily temperatures drop below . The centre of
ecological diversity Ecosystem diversity deals with the variations in ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These Biotic compone ...
for durians is the island of
Borneo Borneo (; id, ) is the third- and the largest in . At the geographic centre of , in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of , west of , and east of . The among three countries: and in the north, and to the south. It ...

Borneo
, where the fruits of the edible species of ''Durio'' including ''D. zibethinus'', ''D. dulcis'', ''D. graveolens'', ''D. kutejensis'', ''D. oxleyanus'', and ''D. testudinarius'' are sold in local markets. ''D. zibethinus'' is not grown in
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...

Brunei
because consumers there prefer other species such as ''D. graveolens'', ''D. kutejensis'', and ''D. oxleyanus''. These species are commonly distributed in Brunei, and together with other species like ''D. testudinarius'' and ''D. dulcis'' constitute a genetically diverse crop source. Although the durian is not native to
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
, Thailand is ranked the world's number one exporter of durian, producing around 700,000 tonnes of durian per year, 400,000 tonnes of which are exported to mainland China and Hong Kong. Malaysia and Indonesia follow, both producing about 265,000 tonnes each. Of this, Malaysia exported 35,000 tonnes in 1999.
Chantaburi Chanthaburi ( th, จันทบุรี, ; Chong language, Chong: จันกะบูย, ''chankabui'',องค์ บรรจุน. ''สยามหลากเผ่าหลายพันธุ์.'' กรุงเทพฯ: มต ...
in Thailand holds the World Durian Festival in early May each year. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand. In the Philippines, the centre of durian production is the
Davao Region Davao Region, formerly called Southern Mindanao ( ceb, Rehiyon sa Davao; tl, Rehiyon ng Davao), is an administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administr ...
. The
Kadayawan Festival The Kadayawan Festival is an annual festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system ...
is an annual celebration featuring the durian in Davao City. Durian was introduced into Australia in the early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975. Over thirty clones of ''D. zibethinus'' and six other ''Durio'' species have been subsequently introduced into Australia. China is the major importer, purchasing 65,000 tonnes in 1999, followed by Singapore with 40,000 tonnes and Taiwan with 5,000 tonnes. In the same year, the United States imported 2,000 tonnes, mostly frozen, and the
European Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

European Community
imported 500 tonnes. Due to the increasing popularity of durian in China, the price had risen up to 20 times over in four years, in a market that was worth nearly £400m in 2018. Malaysia negotiated a deal with China to export the whole fruit frozen for the first time to China starting in 2019, previously only Thailand was permitted to export the whole fruit to China. The durian is a seasonal fruit, unlike some other non-seasonal tropical fruits such as the
papaya The papaya (, ) (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, () or pawpaw () is the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy ...

papaya
which are available throughout the year. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the
mangosteen Mangosteen (''Garcinia mangostana''), also known as the purple mangosteen, is a tropical evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "know ...

mangosteen
. Prices of durians are relatively high, compared with other fruits. In Singapore in 2007, the strong demand for high quality cultivars such as the D24 (''Sultan''), and Musang King (''Mao Shan Wang'') resulted in high retail prices. The edible portion of the fruit, known as the
aril An aril (pronounced ), also called an arillus, is a specialized outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed. An arillode or false aril is sometimes distinguished: whereas an aril grows from the attachment point of the seed ...

aril
and usually referred to as the "flesh" or "pulp", only accounts for about 15–30% of the mass of the entire fruit. By 2018, Musang King farmers saw very large increases in the prices they received, making the fruit far more lucrative than palm oil or rubber. This led to an increase in durian plantation. In-season durians can be found in mainstream
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese supermarkets, while in the West they are sold mainly by Asian markets.


Flavour and odour

Sliced deep-fried durian in packages at a market in Thailand The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. Writing in 1856, the British
naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...

naturalist
Alfred Russel Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was a British natural history, naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, biologist and illustrator. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution throug ...
provided a much-quoted description of the flavour of the durian: Wallace described himself as being at first reluctant to try it because of the aroma, "but in Borneo I found a ripe fruit on the ground, and, eating it out of doors, I at once became a confirmed Durian eater". He cited one traveller from 1599: "it is of such an excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all other fruits of the world, according to those who have tasted it." He cites another writer: "To those not used to it, it seems at first to smell like rotten onions, but immediately after they have tasted it they prefer it to all other food. The natives give it honourable titles, exalt it, and make verses on it." Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric,
Andrew Zimmern Andrew Scott Zimmern (born July 4, 1961) is an American culinary expert, chef An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, often ...

Andrew Zimmern
, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. While Wallace cautions that "the smell of the ripe fruit is certainly at first disagreeable", later descriptions by Westerners are more graphic in detail. Novelist
Anthony Burgess John Anthony Burgess Wilson, (; 25 February 1917 – 22 November 1993), who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer. Although Burgess was primarily a comic writer, his Utopian and dystopian fiction, d ...
writes that eating durian is "like eating sweet raspberry
blancmange Blancmange (, from french: blanc-manger ) is a sweet dessert commonly made with milk or cream and sugar thickened with rice flour, gelatin, corn starch or Chondrus crispus, Irish moss (a source of carrageenan), and often flavoured with almonds. ...

blancmange
in the lavatory". Travel and food writer Richard Sterling says: Other comparisons have been made with the
civet A civet () is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different species, mostly from the family Viverridae. Most of the species diversity ...

civet
,
sewage Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and n ...
, stale
vomit Vomiting (also known as emesis and throwing up) is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach The stomach is a muscular, in the of humans and many other animals, including several s. The stomach has a dilat ...

vomit
,
skunk Skunks are mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...

skunk
spray and used surgical swabs. The wide range of descriptions for the odour of durian may have a great deal to do with the variability of durian odour itself. Durians from different species or clones can have significantly different aromas; for example, red durian (''D. dulcis'') has a deep
caramel Caramel ( or ) is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream, and custard. The process of car ...
flavour with a
turpentine Turpentine (which is also called gum turpentine, spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, terebenthene, terebinthine and (colloquially) turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation Distillation, or classical distillation, ...
odour while red-fleshed durian (''D. graveolens'') emits a fragrance of roasted
almond The almond (''Prunus dulcis'', syn. ''Prunus amygdalus'') is a species of tree native to Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, ...

almond
s. Among the varieties of ''D. zibethinus'', Thai varieties are sweeter in flavour and less odorous than Malay ones. The degree of ripeness has an effect on the flavour as well. In 2019, researchers from the
Technical University of Munich The Technical University of Munich (TUM or TU Munich) (german: Technische Universität München) is a public research university in Munich, with additional campuses in Garching, Freising, Heilbronn and Singapore. A Technische Hochschule, technica ...
identified
ethanethiol Ethanethiol, commonly known as ethyl mercaptan and stench, is a clear liquid with a distinct odor. It is an organosulfur compound Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur. They are often associated with foul odors, but man ...

ethanethiol
and its derivatives as a reason for its fetid smell. However, the biochemical pathway by which the plant produces ethanethiol remained unclear such as the enzyme that releases ethanethiol. The fruit's strong smell led to its ban from the subway in Singapore; it is not used in many hotels because of its pungency.


Phytochemicals

Hundreds of
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s responsible for durian flavour and aroma include diverse volatile compounds, such as
ester An ester is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemic ...

ester
s,
ketone In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...
s,
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
s (primarily
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

ethanol
), and
organosulfur compound Organosulfur compounds are organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, ...
s, with various
thiol A thiol () or thiol derivative is any organosulfur compound Organosulfur compounds are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elem ...

thiol
s. had the highest content among esters in a study of several varieties. Sugar content, primarily
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
, has a range of 8–20% among different durian varieties. Durian flesh contains diverse
polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their com ...

polyphenol
s, especially
myricetin Myricetin is a member of the flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound ...

myricetin
, and various
carotenoid Carotenoids (), also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organ ...
s, including a rich content of . People in Southeast Asia with frequent exposures to durian are able to easily distinguish the sweet-like scent of its ketones and esters from rotten or putrescine odours which are from volatile amines and
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s. Some individuals are unable to differentiate these smells and find this fruit noxious, whereas others find it pleasant and appealing. This strong odour can be detected half a mile away by animals, thus luring them. In addition, the fruit is highly appetising to diverse animals, including
squirrel Squirrels are members of the family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social terri ...

squirrel
s,
mouse deer Chevrotains, or mouse-deer, are small even-toed ungulates that make up the family Tragulidae, the only extant members of the infraorder Tragulina. The 10  extant species are placed in three genera, but several species also are known onl ...
, pigs,
sun bear The sun bear (''Helarctos malayanus'') is a species in the Family (biology), family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. It is the smallest bear, standing nearly at the shoulder and weighing . It is stockily built, with ...

sun bear
,
orangutan Orangutans are great apes The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a taxonomic family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relati ...

orangutan
,
elephants Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. They are an paraphyly, informal grouping within the proboscidean ...

elephants
, and even carnivorous
tiger The tiger (''Panthera tigris'') is the largest extant taxon, living Felidae, cat species and a member of the genus ''Panthera''. It is most recognisable for its dark vertical stripes on orange fur with a white underside. An apex predator, i ...

tiger
s. While some of these animals eat the fruit and dispose of the seed under the parent plant, others swallow the seed with the fruit, and then transport it some distance before excreting, with the seed being dispersed as a result. The thorny, armoured covering of the fruit discourages smaller animals; larger animals are more likely to transport the seeds far from the parent tree.


Ripeness and selection

According to ''
Larousse Gastronomique ''Larousse Gastronomique'' () is an encyclopedia of gastronomy. The majority of the book is about French cuisine, and contains recipes for French dishes and cooking techniques. The first edition included few non-French dishes and ingredients; late ...
'', the durian fruit is ready to eat when its husk begins to crack. However, the ideal stage of ripeness to be enjoyed varies from region to region in Southeast Asia and by species. Some species grow so tall that they can only be collected once they have fallen to the ground, whereas most cultivars of ''D. zibethinus'' are nearly always cut from the tree and allowed to ripen while waiting to be sold. Some people in
southern Thailand Southern Thailand is a southernmost cultural region of Thailand ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok , coordinates = , large ...
prefer their durians relatively young when the clusters of fruit within the shell are still crisp in texture and mild in flavour. For some people in
northern Thailand Northern Thailand ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify His prestige") , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Bangkok , coordinates = , largest_city = Bangkok , official_languages = Tha ...
, the preference is for the fruit to be soft and aromatic. In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
, most consumers prefer the fruit to be as ripe and pungent in aroma as possible and may even risk allowing the fruit to continue ripening after its husk has already cracked open. In this state, the flesh becomes richly creamy, slightly alcoholic, the aroma pronounced and the flavour highly complex. The various preferences regarding ripeness among consumers make it hard to issue general statements about choosing a "good" durian. A durian that falls off the tree continues to ripen for two to four days, but after five or six days most would consider it overripe and unpalatable, although some Thais proceed from that point to cook it with palm sugar, creating a dessert called durian (or thurian) guan.


Uses


Culinary

Durian fruit is used to flavour a wide variety of sweet edibles such as traditional Malay candy, '' ice kacang'', ''
dodol ''Dodol'' is a sweet toffee Toffee is a confection Confectionery is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional powe ...
'', ''lempuk'', rose biscuits,
ice cream Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from milk or cream and is flavoured with a sweetener A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweetness, sweet taste like that of sug ...

ice cream
,
milkshake A milkshake (sometimes simply called a shake) is a sweet drink made by blending milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to ...

milkshake
s,
mooncake A mooncake () is a Chinese bakery product traditionally eaten during the Mid-Autumn Festival (中秋節). The festival is about lunar appreciation and Moon watching, and mooncakes are regarded as a delicacy. Mooncakes are offered between fr ...

mooncake
s,
Yule log The Yule log, Yule clog, or Christmas block is a specially selected trunk (botany), log burnt on a hearth as a winter tradition in regions of Europe, particularly the United Kingdom, and subsequently North America. The origin of the folk custom is ...
s, and
cappuccino A cappuccino (; ; Italian plural: ''cappuccini'') is an espresso-based List of coffee drinks, coffee drink that originated in Italy, and is traditionally prepared with steamed milk foam (microfoam). Variations of the drink involve the use of ...

cappuccino
. ''Es durian'' (durian ice cream) is a popular dessert in Indonesia, sold at street side stall in Indonesian cities, especially in Java. ''Pulut Durian'' or ''ketan durian'' is
glutinous rice Glutinous rice (''Oryza sativa var. glutinosa''; also called sticky rice, sweet rice or waxy rice) is a type of rice grown mainly in Southeast Asia, Southeast and East Asia, Northeastern India and Bhutan which has opaque grains, very low amylos ...

glutinous rice
steamed with
coconut milk Coconut milk is an opaque, milky-white liquid extracted from the grated pulp of mature coconuts. The opacity (optics), opacity and rich taste of coconut milk are due to its high coconut oil, oil content, most of which is saturated fat. Coconu ...
and served with ripened durian. In
Sabah Sabah () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Sabah
, red durian is fried with onions and chilli and served as a side dish. Red-fleshed durian is traditionally added to ''sayur'', an Indonesian soup made from freshwater fish. ''Ikan brengkes tempoyak'' is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia So ...

Sumatra
. Dried durian flesh can be made into
kripik ''Kripik'' or ''keripik'' are Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and ...
durian (durian chips). ''
Tempoyak Tempoyak (Jawi script, Jawi: تمڤويق), asam durian or pekasam is a Malay cuisine, Malay condiment made from fermented durian. It is usually consumed by the ethnic Malays in Maritime Southeast Asia, notably in Indonesia and Malaysia. Tempoya ...

Tempoyak
'' refers to
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling ...
durian, usually made from lower quality durian unsuitable for direct consumption. Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making
curry Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent. It uses a combination of spices or herbs, usually including ground turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also or ) is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known a ...

curry
. Sambal Tempoyak is a Malay dish made from the fermented durian fruit, coconut milk, and a collection of spicy ingredients known as
sambal Sambal is a chilli sauce Chili sauce and chili paste are condiment A condiment is a sauce In cooking, a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food, served on or used in preparing other foods. Most sauces are not normally consumed ...
. In Malay peninsula and Sumatra, ''
Pangasius ''Pangasius'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...

Pangasius
'' catfish can be either cooked as ''tempoyak ikan patin'' (fish in tempoyak curry) or as '' brengkes (pais) tempoyak'', which is a steamed fermented durian paste in
banana leaf The banana leaf is the leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together ...

banana leaf
container. In Thailand, durian is often eaten fresh with sweet sticky rice, and blocks of durian paste are sold in the markets, though much of the paste is
adulterated An adulterant is a substance found within other substances such as food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organi ...
with
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''C ...

pumpkin
. Unripe durians may be cooked as a vegetable, except in the Philippines, where all uses are sweet rather than savoury. Malaysians make both sugared and salted preserves from durian. When durian is minced with salt, onions and vinegar, it is called ''boder''. The durian seeds, which are the size of chestnuts, can be eaten whether they are boiled, roasted or fried in
coconut oil Coconut oil (or coconut butter) is an edible oil derived from the wick, meat, and milk of the coconut palm The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree The Arecaceae is a family (biology), family of Perennial pla ...

coconut oil
, with a texture that is similar to
taro ''Colocasia esculenta'' is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corm A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant ...

taro
or yam, but stickier. In
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
, the seeds are sliced thin and cooked with sugar as a confection. Uncooked durian seeds are potentially toxic due to
cyclopropene Cyclopropene is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ca ...

cyclopropene
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s and should not be ingested. Young leaves and
shoot In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anci ...

shoot
s of the durian are occasionally cooked as
greens Greens may refer to: *Leaf vegetable Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. Althou ...
. Sometimes the ash of the burned rind is added to special cakes. The petals of durian flowers are eaten in the
North Sumatra North Sumatra ( id, Sumatra Utara) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra. Its capital and largest city is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most-populous province after West Java ...
province of Indonesia and Sarawak of Malaysia, while in the
Moluccas The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of sc ...
islands the husk of the durian fruit is used as fuel to
smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted of fires (including s, s, s, s, and s), but may als ...
fish. The nectar and pollen of the durian flower that honeybees collect is an important
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some other Bee, bees. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or from secretion ...

honey
source, but the characteristics of the honey are unknown. File:Durian Patong Thajsko 2018 1.jpg, Durian market in
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
File:Tempoyak.jpg, ''Tempoyak'', made from fermented durian in
Bandung Bandung () is the capital of West Java West Java ( id, Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government ...

Bandung
,
West Java West Java ( id, Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinc ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Tempoyak Ikan Patin 3.JPG, ''Tempoyak ikan patin'',
catfish Catfish (or catfishes; order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, o ...

catfish
in tempoyak curry,
Palembang Palembang () is the capital city of the Provinces of Indonesia, Indonesian province of South Sumatra. The city proper covers on both banks of the Musi River (Indonesia), Musi River on the eastern lowland of southern Sumatra. It had a populat ...

Palembang
,
South Sumatra South Sumatra ( id, Sumatra Selatan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-l ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Ketan saus durian.jpg, ''Ketan durian'', glutinous rice with durian sauce in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Durian_cake.jpg, Durian cake made of durian-flavoured ''
dodol ''Dodol'' is a sweet toffee Toffee is a confection Confectionery is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional powe ...
'',
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian ...
traditional sweet candy File:Keripik Durian Medan.JPG, ''Keripik durian Medan'' (durian chips) in
Medan Medan (; English: ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smal ...

Medan
,
North Sumatra North Sumatra ( id, Sumatra Utara) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra. Its capital and largest city is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most-populous province after West Java ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Es Durian.jpg, A street side durian ice cream in
Bogor Bogor ( Sundanese: ᮘᮧᮌᮧᮁ, Dutch: ''Buitenzorg'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science En ...

Bogor
,
West Java West Java ( id, Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinc ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Durian Gelato.JPG, Durian
gelato Gelato (, ) is a frozen dessert Frozen dessert is a dessert made by freezing liquids, semi-solids, and sometimes even solids. They may be based on flavored water (shave ice, ice pops, sorbet, snow cones), on fruit purées (such as sorbet), o ...

gelato
in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
File:Durianlog.JPG, Durian-flavoured Yule log File:Durian Keju Bollen Opened.JPG, ''Durian Keju Bollen'', a pastry filled with cheese and durian cream in
Bandung Bandung () is the capital of West Java West Java ( id, Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government ...

Bandung
,
West Java West Java ( id, Jawa Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinc ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Durian Pancake.jpg, Durian pancake in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Durian Crêpe in Malaysia.jpg, Durian
crêpe A crêpe or crepe ( or , , Quebec French: ) is a type of very thin pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to ...

crêpe
in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
File:Tart durian Pontianak.JPG, Durian cakes from
Pontianak Pontianak or Khuntien is the capital of the Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South- ...
,
West Kalimantan West Kalimantan ( id, Kalimantan Barat) is a province of Indonesia Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division, administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level reg ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia


Nutrition

Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27%
carbohydrates A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
(including 4%
dietary fibre Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes. Dietary fibers are diverse in chemical composition, and can be grouped generally by their ...
), 5%
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
and 1%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in ...
(DV) of
thiamine Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrog ...

thiamine
and moderate content of other
B vitamins B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond ...
,
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain ca ...

vitamin C
, and the
dietary mineral In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, s ...
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
(15–24% DV, table). Different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia vary in their carbohydrate content by 16–29%, fat content by 2–5%, protein content by 2–4%,
dietary fibre Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes. Dietary fibers are diverse in chemical composition, and can be grouped generally by their ...
content by 1–4%, and
caloric value The calorie is a unit of energy defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a quantity of water by one degree. For historical reasons, two main definitions of calorie are in wide use. The small calorie or gram calorie (usual ...
by 84–185 kcal per 100 grams. The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in
oleic acid Oleic acid is a fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and t ...

oleic acid
and
palmitic acid Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations t ...

palmitic acid
.


History

The origin of the durian is thought to be in the region of
Borneo Borneo (; id, ) is the third- and the largest in . At the geographic centre of , in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of , west of , and east of . The among three countries: and in the north, and to the south. It ...

Borneo
and
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago. They consist of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia So ...

Sumatra
, with wild trees in the
Malay peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language f ...
, and
orchard An orchard is an intentional plantation of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree ...

orchard
s commonly cultivated in a wide region from
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
to
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
. Four hundred years ago, it was traded across present-day
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
, and was actively cultivated especially in
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
and
South Vietnam South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN; vi, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa; french: République du Viêt Nam), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam , image_map ...
. The earliest known European reference to the durian is the record of
Niccolò de' Conti Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1395–1469) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer. Born in Chioggia, who traveled to India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countrie ...
, who travelled to Southeast Asia in the 15th century. Translated from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
in which
Poggio Bracciolini Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), usually referred to simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italians, Italian scholar and an early Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist. He was responsible for rediscover ...

Poggio Bracciolini
recorded de Conti's travels: "They eople of Sumatrahave a green fruit which they call durian, as big as a watermelon. Inside there are five things like elongated oranges, and resembling thick butter, with a combination of flavours." The Portugal, Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described durians in ''Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India'' published in 1563. In 1741, ''Herbarium Amboinense'' by the German botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius was published, providing the most detailed and accurate account of durians for over a century. The genus ''Durio'' has a complex Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy that has seen the subtraction and addition of many species since it was created by Rumphius. During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop (''Annona muricata''), for both of these species had thorny green fruit. The Malay name for the soursop is ''durian Belanda'', meaning ''Dutch durian''. In the 18th century, Johann Anton Weinmann considered the durian to belong to Chestnut, Castaneae as its fruit was similar to the horse chestnut. ''D. zibethinus'' was introduced into Sri Lanka, Ceylon by the Portuguese in the 16th century and was reintroduced many times later. It has been planted in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens. The first seedlings were sent from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, to Auguste Saint-Arroman of Dominica in 1884. In Southeast Asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably since the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century. In ''My Tropic Isle'', Australian author and naturalist Edmund James Banfield tells how, in the early 20th century, a friend in Singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and cared for on his tropical island off the north coast of Queensland. Since the early 1990s, the domestic and international demand for durian in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN) region has increased significantly, partly due to the increasing affluence of Southeast Asia. In 1949, the British botanist E. J. H. Corner published ''The Durian Theory, or the Origin of the Modern Tree''. His theory was that Zoochorous, endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of Biological dispersal, seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of ''Durio'' species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular red durian (''D. dulcis'') exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants. However, in more recent circumscriptions of Durioneae, the tribe into which ''Durio'' and its sister taxa fall, fleshy arils and spiny fruits are derived within the clade. Some genera possess these characters, but others do not. The most recent molecular evidence (on which the most recent, well-supported circumscription of Durioneae is based) therefore refutes Corner's Durian Theory.


Culture and folk medicine


Cultural influences

A common local belief is that the durian is harmful when eaten with coffee or alcoholic beverages. The latter belief can be traced back at least to the 18th century when Rumphius stated that one should not drink alcohol after eating durians as it will cause indigestion and Halitosis, bad breath. In 1929, J. D. Gimlette wrote in his ''Malay Poisons and Charm Cures'' that the durian fruit must not be eaten with brandy. In 1981, J. R. Croft wrote in his ''Bombacaceae: In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea'' that "a feeling of morbidity" often follows the consumption of alcohol too soon after eating durian. Several medical investigations on the validity of this belief have been conducted with varying conclusions, though a study by the University of Tsukuba finds the fruit's high sulphur content inhibits the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing a 70 percent reduction of the ability to clear toxins from the body. The durian is commonly known as the "king of fruits", a label that can be attributed to its formidable look and overpowering odour. In its native Southeast Asia, the durian is an everyday food and portrayed in the local media in accordance with the cultural perception it has in the region. The durian symbolised the subjective nature of ugliness and beauty in Hong Kong director Fruit Chan's 2000 in film, 2000 film ''Durian Durian'' (榴槤飄飄, ''lau lin piu piu''), and was a nickname for the reckless but lovable protagonist of the eponymous Singaporean TV comedy ''Durian King'' played by Adrian Pang. Likewise, the oddly shaped Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, Esplanade building in Singapore (Theatres on the Bay) is often called "The Durian" by locals, and "The Big Durian" is the nickname of Jakarta,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
. A durian falling on a person's head can cause serious injuries because it is heavy, armed with sharp thorns, and can fall from a significant height. Wearing a hardhat is recommended when collecting the fruit. A common saying is that a durian has eyes, and can see where it is falling, because the fruit allegedly never falls during daylight hours when people may be hurt. However, people have died from durian falling on their heads, especially young children. A saying in Malay and Indonesian, ''durian runtuh'', which translates to "getting hit by a durian", is the equivalent of the English phrase "windfall gain". Nevertheless, signs warning people not to linger under durian trees are found in Indonesia. Strong nylon or woven rope netting is often strung between durian trees in orchards, serving a threefold purpose: the nets aid in the collection of the mature fruits, deter ground-level scavengers, and prevent the durians from falling onto people. A naturally spineless variety of durian growing wild in Davao City, Davao, Philippines, was discovered in the 1960s; fruits borne from these seeds also lacked spines. Since the bases of the scales develop into spines as the fruit matures, sometimes spineless durians are produced artificially by scraping scales off immature fruits. In Malaysia, a spineless durian clone D172 is registered by Agriculture Department on 17 June 1989. It was called "Durian Botak" ('Bald Durian'). In Indonesia, Ir Sumeru Ashari, head of Durian Research Centre, Universitas Brawijaya reported spineless durian from Kasembon, Malang. Another cultivar is from Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia. Animals such as Sumatran elephants and tigers are known to consume durians. One of the names Thailand contributed to the list of storm names for Western North Pacific tropical cyclones was 'Typhoon Durian, Durian', which was retired after the second storm of this name in 2006 Pacific typhoon season, 2006. Being a fruit much loved by a variety of wild beasts, the durian sometimes signifies the long-forgotten animalistic aspect of humans, as in the legend of Orang Mawas, the Malaysian version of Bigfoot, and Orang Pendek, its Sumatran version, both of which have been claimed to feast on durians.


Folk medicine

In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. The leaf juice is applied on the head of a fever patient. The most complete description of the medicinal use of the durian as remedies for fevers is a Malay prescription, collected by Burkill and Haniff in 1930. It instructs the reader to boil the roots of ''Hibiscus rosa-sinensis'' with the roots of ''Durio zibethinus'', ''Nephelium longan'', ''Nephelium mutabile'' and ''Artocarpus, Artocarpus integrifolia'', and drink the decoction or use it as a poultice. Southeast Asian traditional beliefs, as well as traditional Chinese food therapy, consider the durian fruit to have warming properties liable to cause excessive sweating. The traditional method to counteract this is to pour water into the empty shell of the fruit after the pulp has been consumed and drink it. An alternative method is to eat the durian in accompaniment with
mangosteen Mangosteen (''Garcinia mangostana''), also known as the purple mangosteen, is a tropical evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "know ...

mangosteen
, which is considered to have cooling properties. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are traditionally advised not to consume durian. The Javanese people, Javanese believe durian to have aphrodisiac qualities, and impose a set of rules on what may or may not be consumed with it or shortly thereafter. A saying in Indonesian language, Indonesian, ''durian jatuh sarung naik'', meaning "the durian falls and the sarong comes up", refers to this belief. The warnings against the supposed lecherous quality of this fruit soon spread to the West – the Swedenborgian philosopher Herman Vetterling commented on so-called "erotic properties" of the durian in the early 20th century.


Environmental impact

The increased demand for durians in China has prompted a shift in Malaysia from small-scale durian orchards to large-scale industrial operations, with forests being cleared to make way for large durian plantations.


See also

* Breadfruit * Jackfruit * Delicacy#Delicacies, List of delicacies * List of durian diseases and pests


Notes

a. Wallace makes an almost identical comment in his 1866 publication ''The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utang and the bird of paradise''. b. The traveller Wallace cites is Linschott (Wallace's spelling for Jan Huyghen van Linschoten), whose name appears repeatedly in Internet searches on durian, with such citations themselves tracing back to Wallace. In translations of Linschoten's writings, the fruit is spelled as ''duryoen''.


References

{{Featured article Durio, Fruits originating in Asia Tropical fruit Tropical agriculture Medicinal plants of Asia Non-timber forest products Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus Helicteroideae