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When used as a
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A sy ...
mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the ''
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separ ...

interpunct
'' ( · ), or to the
glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arr ...
s "combining dot above" ( ◌̇ ) and "combining dot below" ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some
letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
s of the extended
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
s in use in Central European languages and
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
.


Overdot

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark: * In some forms of Arabic romanization, stands for ''
ghayin The Arabic letter ( ar, غَيْنْ ' or ') is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ), it represents the sound or . In name and sha ...
'' (غ); stands for
qāf Qoph (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, an ...

qāf
(ق). * The Latin orthography for
ChechenChechen may refer to: *Chechens, an ethnic group of the Caucasus *Chechen language *Metopium brownei, also known as the chechen, chechem, or black poisonwood tree *Related to Chechnya (Chechen Republic) *Related to the former Chechen Republic of Ich ...
includes ċ, ҫ̇, ġ, q̇, and ẋ. * In
Emilian-Romagnol Emilian-Romagnol (''emiliân-rumagnōl'' or ''längua emiglièna-rumagnôla''), also known as Emiliano-Romagnolo, is an obsolete linguistic classification given to two distinct Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic language languages: Emilian and R ...
, ''ṅ ṡ ż'' are used to represent . *
Traditional Irish typography
Traditional Irish typography
, where the dot denotes
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
, and is called a or "dot of lenition": ''ḃ ċ ḋ ḟ ġ ṁ ṗ ṡ ṫ''. Alternatively, lenition may be represented by a following letter ''h'', thus: ''bh ch dh fh gh mh ph sh th''. In
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
orthography, the dot was used only for ''ḟ ṡ'', while the following ''h'' was used for ''ch ph th''; lenition of other letters was not indicated. Later the two systems spread to the entire set of lenitable consonants and competed with each other. Eventually the standard practice was to use the dot when writing in Gaelic script and the following ''h'' when writing in antiqua. Thus ''ċ'' and ''ch'' represent the same phonetic element in Modern Irish. * lt, ė is pronounced as , as opposed to ''ę'', which is pronounced a lower (formerly nasalised), or ''e'', pronounced . * Livonian uses ȯ as one of its eight vowels. * mt, ċ is used for a
voiceless palato-alveolar affricate The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal ...
, ''ġ'' for a
voiced palato-alveolar affricate The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or p ...
, and ''ż'' for a
voiced alveolar sibilant The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of ...

voiced alveolar sibilant
. *
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
: ''ẏ'' was sometimes used to distinguish etymological ''y'' from the glyph's use as a replacement for '' þ'', which did not exist in early press typographies. *
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
: In modernized orthography, ''ċ'' is used for a
voiceless palato-alveolar affricate The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal ...
, ''ġ'' for a
palatal approximant The voiced palatal approximant, or yod, is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phonetician ...

palatal approximant
(probably a
voiced palatal fricative The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain ho ...

voiced palatal fricative
in the earliest texts), and (more rarely) ''sċ'' for a
voiceless palato-alveolar fricative A voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with ...

voiceless palato-alveolar fricative
. * pl, ż is used for a
voiced retroflex sibilant The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds ...
. * The
Sioux The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (; Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated ...
languages such as
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
and
Dakota Dakota may refer to: * Dakota people, a sub-tribe of the Sioux ** Dakota language, their language From this origin, Dakota may also refer to: Places United States * Dakota, Georgia, an unincorporated community * Dakota, Illinois, a town * Dak ...
sometimes use the dot above to indicate ejective stops. * In the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics orthography for the
Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are a North American Indigenous people. They live primarily in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Can ...

Cree
,
Ojibwe The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe The Anishinaabe are a group of culturally related Indigenous peoples resident in what are now called Canada and the United States. They include the Odawa, Saulteaux, Ojibwe (inc ...
, and
Inuktitut Inuktitut (; , Inuktitut syllabics, syllabics ; from , "person" + , "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including part ...

Inuktitut
languages, a dot above a symbol signifies that the symbol's vowel should be a long vowel—the equivalent effect using the Roman orthography is achieved by doubling the vowel (ᒥ = mi, ᒦ = mii ), placing a macron over the vowel (ᑲ = ka, ᑳ = kā), or placing a
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
over the vowel (ᓄ = no, ᓅ = nô). * In
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, the dot above lowercase ''
i
i
'' and ''
j
j
'' (and uppercase '' İ'') is not regarded as an independent diacritic but as an integral part of the letter. It is called a
tittle A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic in the form of a dot on a lowercase ''i'' or ''j''. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of ''i'' and ''j'', but dot (diacritic), diacritic dots can appear o ...
. I without an overdot is a separate letter. * In the
Rheinische Dokumenta The Rheinische Dokumenta () is a phonetic Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), g ...
phonetic writing system overdots denote a special pronunciation of ''r''. * The
Ulithian Ulithian is the name of the language spoken on Ulithi Atoll and neighboring islands. Ulithian is one of the six official languages of the Federated States of Micronesia. There are some 3,000 speakers, although only 700 of these live on Ulithi Ato ...
alphabet includes ȧ, ė, and ȯ. * The
ISO 9The ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World He ...
(1968)
Romanization of CyrillicThe romanization of Cyrillic is the process of converting text written in the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyph ...
uses ''ė'', ''ḟ'', and ''ẏ''. * In the
ISO 259 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical ta ...
Romanization of Hebrew The Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a of the . Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the and their longest-surviving descendants: the and . It was largely preserved throughout history as the main of (p ...
, the overdot is used to transcribe the
dagesh The dagesh () is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a comp ...

dagesh
: ; transcribes the shuruk. * In
IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It ...
and National Library at Calcutta romanization transcribing
languages of India Languages spoken in India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the south ...

languages of India
, ''ṅ'' is used to represent . *
UNGEGN The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: Conseil économique et social ...
romanization of
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
includes ṙ. * In the
Venda language Venda or Tshivenda is a Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styling, Bantu knot ...
, ''ṅ'' is used to represent . * Some countries use the overdot as a
decimal mark A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ar ...
. The overdot is also used in the
Devanagari script Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), based on the ancient B ...

Devanagari script
, where it is called
anusvara Anusvara (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after i ...

anusvara
. In
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
and
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
, when using
Newton's notation In differential calculus In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathemat ...
the dot denotes the
time derivative A time derivative is a derivative In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are co ...
as in v=\dot. In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in 0.\dot, which is equal to the fraction , and 0.\dot\dot\dot\dot\dot\dot or 0.\dot4285\dot, which is equal to .


Underdot

* In a number of languages, an underdot indicates a raised or vowel, often the counterpart of a lower vowel marked with an
ogonek 100px, Ogonek The ( Polish: , "little tail", the diminutive of ; lt, nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph. The t ...

ogonek
or left unmarked. ** In Rotuman, "ạ" represents /ɔ/. ** In Romagnol, ''ẹ ọ'' are used to represent , o e.g. part of Riminese dialect ''fradẹll, ọcc'' "brothers, eyes". ** In academic notation of
Old Latin Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin ( la, prīsca Latīnitās, lit=the Latinity of the ancients) was the Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a ...
, ''ẹ̄'' (''e'' with underdot and macron) represents the long vowel, probably , that developed from the early Old Latin diphthong ''ei''. This vowel usually became ''ī'' in
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
. ** In academic transcription of
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
, used in describing the development of the
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of w ...

Romance languages
, ẹ and ọ represent the close-mid vowels and , in contrast with the open-mid vowels and , which are represented as ''e'' and ''o'' with
ogonek 100px, Ogonek The ( Polish: , "little tail", the diminutive of ; lt, nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph. The t ...

ogonek
(ę ǫ). ** Academic transcription of
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
uses the same conventions as Vulgar Latin above. ** In academic transcription of , ''ẹ ọ ạ'' (typically ) represent higher vowels than standard ''e o a'', and the first two often contrast with lower vowels marked with a , ''e̦ o̦'' (typically ). * In
Inari Sami Inari Sami (, "the Inarian language", or , "the Inari (Aanaar) Sámi language") is a Sami languages, Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami people, Inari Sami of Finland. It has approximately 300 speakers, the majority of whom are middle-aged or o ...
, an underdot denotes a half-long voiced consonant: ''đ̣, j̣, ḷ, ṃ, ṇ, ṇj, ŋ̣, ṛ'', and ''ṿ''. The underdot is used in dictionaries, textbooks, and linguistic publications only. * In
IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It ...
and National Library at Calcutta romanization, transcribing
languages of India Languages spoken in India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the south ...

languages of India
, a dot below a letter distinguishes the
retroflex consonant A retroflex, apico-domal, or cacuminal () consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral ...
s ''ṭ, ḍ, ṛ, ḷ, ṇ, ṣ'', while ''m'' with underdot (''ṃ'') signifies an ''
anusvara Anusvara (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after i ...

anusvara
''. Very frequently (in modern transliterations of Sanskrit) an underdot is used instead of the
ring (diacritic) A ring diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing sti ...
below the vocalic ''r'' and ''l''. * In romanizations of some
Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...

Afroasiatic languages
, particularly
Semitic Languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication u ...

Semitic Languages
and
Berber Languages The Berber languages, also known as the Amazigh languages (Berber name: , ; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵎⵣⵗⵜ, , ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related l ...

Berber Languages
, an underdot indicates an
emphatic consonant In Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religions * Abrahamic ...
. The romanization of Arabic uses . * In the
DIN 31636 DIN 31636 is the German standard for the Romanization of Hebrew The Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a of the . Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the and their longest-surviving descendants: the and ...
and
ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information ...
Romanization of Hebrew The Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a of the . Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the and their longest-surviving descendants: the and . It was largely preserved throughout history as the main of (p ...
, ''ṿ'' represents vav ( ו), while ''v'' without the underdot represents beth ( ב). ''ḳ'' represents qoph ( ק) * The underdot is also used in the PDA orthography for Domari to show pharyngealization—the underdotted consonants represent the emphaticized sounds . *In Asturian, '' '' (underdotted double ''ll'') represents the
voiced retroflex plosive The voiced retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, ...

voiced retroflex plosive
or the
voiceless retroflex affricate The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronou ...
, depending on dialect, and ''ḥ'' (underdotted ''h'') the
voiceless glottal fricative The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some Speech communication, spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant ''ph ...

voiceless glottal fricative
. *In
O'odham language The O'odham peoples, including the Tohono O'odham, the Pima people, Pima or Akimel O'odham, and the Hia C-ed O'odham, are indigenous people of the Americas, indigenous Uto-Aztecan peoples of the Sonoran desert in southern and central Arizona and ...
, '''' (''d'' with underdot) represents a
voiced retroflex stop The voiced retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians ex ...

voiced retroflex stop
. *
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...
: The ''nặng''
tone Tone may refer to: Color-related * Tone, mix of tint and shade, in painting and color theory * Tone, the lightness Lightness is a visual perception of the luminance (L) of an object. It is often judged relative to a similarly lit object. ...
(low, glottal) is represented with a dot below the base vowel: ''ạ ặ ậ ẹ ệ ị ọ ộ ợ ụ ự ỵ''. * In
Igbo Igbo may refer to: * Igbo people, an ethnic group of Nigeria * Igbo language, their language * anything related to Igboland, a cultural region in Nigeria See also

* Ibo (disambiguation) * Igbo mythology * Igbo music * Igbo art * * Igbo-Ukwu, ...
, an underdot can be used on ''i'', ''o'', and ''u'' to make ''ị'', ''ọ'', and ''ụ''. The underdot symbolizes a reduction in the
vowel height A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...
. * In
Yoruba Yoruba may refer to: * Yoruba people The Yoruba people () are a Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the U ...
, an underdot can be used on ''e'' and ''o'' to make ''ẹ'' and ''ọ'', symbolizing a reduction in the
vowel height A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...
, as well as on ''s'' to make ''ṣ'', symbolizing a
postalveolar Postalveolar or post-alveolar consonants are consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain ...
articulation. * In Americanist phonetic notation, ''x'' with underdot '' '' represents a
voiceless uvular fricative The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with th ...

voiceless uvular fricative
. * Underdots are used in the
Rheinische Dokumenta The Rheinische Dokumenta () is a phonetic Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), g ...
phonetic writing system to denote a voiced ''s'' and special pronunciations of ''r'' and ''a''. * In the Fiero-Rhodes orthography for Eastern Ojibwe and Odaawaa, in ''g̣'', ''ḥ'', and ''ḳ'', underdot is used to indicate
labialization Labialization is a Secondary articulation, secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the Human mouth, oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricte ...
when either or following them was lost in
syncope Syncope may refer to: * Syncope (medicine), also known as fainting * Syncope (phonology), the loss of one or more sounds, particularly an unstressed vowel, from the interior of a word * Syncopation, a musical effect caused by off-beat or otherwise ...
. * The Sicilian nexus ''ḍḍ'' is used to represent . * In Kalabari, ''ḅ'' and ''ḍ'' are used. * In Marshallese, underdots on consonants represent velarization, such as the velarized bilabial nasal ''ṃ''. * In Old Irish typography the letters ḃ, ḋ and ṫ are some times written as ḅ, ḍ and ṭ. * UNGEGN romanization of
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
includes ḍ, g̣, ḳ, ṭ, ẉ, and ỵ. * In Mizo, ''ṭ'' represents . * The underdot is also used in the
Devanagari script Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (''Nāgarī'', ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary), based on the ancient B ...

Devanagari script
, where it is called
nukta The nuqta ( Hindi–Urdu: //, fa, , noqte; from ar, نقطة, nuqta, dot), also spelled nukta, is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typog ...
.


Raised dot

* Number digits in
Enclosed Alphanumerics Enclosed Alphanumerics is a Unicode block of Typography, typographical symbols of an alphanumeric within a circle, a bracket or other not-closed enclosure, or ending in a full stop. It is currently fully allocated. Within the Basic Multilingu ...
like * In Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, in addition to the middle dot as a letter, centred dot diacritic, and dot above diacritic, there also is a two-dot diacritic in the
Naskapi language Naskapi (also known as ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ/Iyuw Iyimuun in the Naskapi language) is an Algonquian languages, Algonquian language spoken by the Naskapi in Quebec and Labrador, Canada. It is written in Eastern Cree syllabics. The term Naska ...
representing /_w_V/ which depending on the placement on the specific Syllabic letter may resemble a colon when placed vertically, diaeresis when placed horizontally, or a combination of middle dot and dot above diacritic when placed either at an angle or enveloping a small raised letter . Additionally, in Northwestern Ojibwe, a small raised /wi/ as /w/, the middle dot is raised farther up as either or ; there also is a raised dot Final , which represents /w/ in some Swampy Cree language, Swampy Cree and /y/ in some Northwestern Ojibwe.


Encoding

In Unicode, the dot is encoded at: * and at: * * * There is also: * * Pre-composed characters: *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *                     *                   *                   *                   *                   *                   *                   *                   *                   *                   *                   *           *           *             *       *       *       *       *             *       *         *     *   *   *   *     *  


See also

*Anunaasika *Chandrabindu *Diaeresis (diacritic) *Tittle *Dotted and dotless I *Arabic alphabet *Hebrew diacritics *Mathematical operators and symbols in Unicode ** ∴ ** ∵ ** ∶ ** ∷


References


External links


Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
{{Latin script, , dot Latin-script diacritics Polish letters with diacritics, Diakrytyka Vietnamese alphabets