A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics
Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") ...
, product or
A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic.
Things called a process include:
Business and management
A business process, business method or ...
. The verb ''to design'' expresses the process of developing a design. In some cases, the direct construction of an object without an explicit prior plan (such as in craftwork, some engineering, coding, and graphic design) may also be considered to be a design activity. The design usually has to satisfy certain
A goal is an idea
In common usage and in philosophy
Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...
s and constraints, may take into account aesthetic, functional, economic, or socio-political considerations, and is expected to interact with a certain
Environment most often refers to:
* Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally
* Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...
. Major examples of designs include
An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing that is used to convey information about an object. A common use is to specify the geometry necessary for the construction of a component and is called a detail drawing. Usually, a number of ...
A business process, business method or business function is a collection of related, structured activities or Task (project management), tasks by people or equipment in which a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular ...
A circuit diagram (wiring diagram, electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical component
An electroni ...
s, and sewing patterns
The person who produces a design is called a ''designer'', which is a term generally used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas—usually specifying which area is being dealt with (such as a
Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, accessories. It is influenced by culture and different trends, and has varied over time and place ...
Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of website
A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and pu ...
Interior design is the and of enhancing the interior of a to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches, coordinates, and manages s ...
er), but also others such as architects and engineers. A designer's sequence of activities is called a design process, possibly using
design methodsDesign methods are procedures, techniques, aids, or tools for designing. They offer a number of different kinds of activities that a designer might use within an overall design process. Conventional procedures of design, such as drawing, can be regar ...
. The process of creating a design can be brief (a quick sketch) or lengthy and complicated, involving considerable research, negotiation, reflection,
In general, a model is an informative representation of an object, person or system. The term originally denoted the plans of a building in late 16th-century English, and derived via French and Italian ultimately from Latin ''modulus'', a measure. ...
, interactive adjustment and re-design.
Design as a process
Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, produce designs. Kees Dorst and Judith Dijkhuis, both designers themselves, argued that "there are many ways of describing design processes" and discussed "two basic and fundamentally different ways", both of which have several names. The prevailing view has been called "the rational model",
"technical problem solving"
and "the reason-centric perspective".
The alternative view has been called "reflection-in-action",
[ and "the action-centric perspective".]
The rational model
The rational model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon,
[Simon, H.A. (1996] an American scientist, and two German engineering design theorists, Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz. It posits that:
# Designers attempt to optimize a design candidate for known constraints and .
# The design process is plan-driven.
# The design process is understood in terms of a discrete sequence of stages.
The rational model is based on a rationalist philosophy
The sciences of the artificial
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. p. 111. .
and underlies the waterfall model
The waterfall model is a breakdown of project activities into linear sequential phases, where each phase depends on the deliverables of the previous one and corresponds to a specialisation of tasks. The approach is typical for certain areas of en ..., [ ] systems development life cycle
In systems engineering
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage complex systems over their enterprise life cycle, life cycles. At its core, ..., [ and much of the ] engineering design
The engineering design process is a common series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes. The process is highly iterative - parts of the process often need to be repeated many times before another can be entered ... literature. According to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner.
Example sequence of stages
Typical stages consistent with the rational model include the following:
* Pre-production design
Design briefA design brief is a document for a design project developed by a person or team (the ''designer'' or ''design team'') in consultation with the ''client/customer''. They outline the deliverables and scope of the project including any products or works ... or '' Parti pris
In architecture, a ''parti pris'' is an organizing thought or decision behind an architect's design, presented in the form of a basic diagram or a simple statement.
It may be shortened to "parti". The term comes from 15th century French, in whic ...'' – an early (often the beginning) statement of design goals
Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Ari ... – analysis of current design goals
Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ... – investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics
A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. A specification is often a type of technical standard
A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or require ... – specifying requirements of a design solution for a product ( product design specification
A design specification is a detailed document providing a list of points regarding a product or process. For example, the design specification could include required dimensions, environmental factors, ergonomic factors, aesthetic
Aesthetics, o ...) or service.
** Problem solving
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase
This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English.
To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see:
* L ... – conceptualizing and document
A document is a written
Writing is a medium of human communication
Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups t ...ing design solutions
A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience
An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art
A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an a ... – presenting design solutions
* Design during production
Development or developing may refer to:
*Development hell, when a project is stuck in development
*Filmmaking#Development, Filmmaking, development phase, including finance and budgeting
*Development (music), the process thematic material i ... – continuation and improvement of a designed solution
** Testing – '' in situ
''In situ'' (; often not italicized in English) is a Latin
Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...'' testing of a designed solution
* Post-production design feedback for future designs
Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan
A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as ... – introducing the designed solution into the environment
Evaluation is a
A system is a group of interacting
Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as oppos ... and conclusion – summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements
* Redesign – any or all stages in the design process repeated (with corrections made) at any time before, during, or after production.
Each stage has many associated best practicesA best practice is a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to any alternatives because it produces results that are superior to those achieved by other means or because it has become a standard way of doing things, e.g., a ....
Criticism of the rational model
The rational model has been widely criticized on two primary grounds:
# Designers do not work this way – extensive empirical evidence has demonstrated that designers do not act as the rational model suggests.
# Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, and the requirements and constraints continue to change.]
The action-centric model
The action-centric perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to the rational model.
It posits that:
# Designers use creativity
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea
In common usage and in philosophy
Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ... and emotion
Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, displeasure. There is currentl ... to generate design candidates.
# The design process is improvised
Improvisation is the activity of making or doing something not planned beforehand, using whatever can be found. Improvisation in the performing arts is a very spontaneous performance without specific or scripted preparation. The skills of impro ....
# No universal sequence of stages is apparent – analysis, design and implementation are contemporary and inextricably linked.
The action-centric perspective is based on an empiricist philosophy and broadly consistent with the agile approach [ and a methodical development.] [ Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers.] [ Like the rational model, the action-centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. However, research and knowledge are brought into the design process through the judgment and common sense of designers – by designers "thinking on their feet" – more than through the predictable and controlled process stipulated by the rational model.
Descriptions of design activities
At least two views of design activity are consistent with the action-centric perspective. Both involve three basic activities.
In the reflection-in-action paradigm, designers alternate between " framing", "making moves", and "evaluating moves". "Framing" refers to conceptualizing the problem, i.e., defining goals and objectives. A "move" is a tentative design decision. The evaluation process may lead to further moves in the design.
In the sensemaking–coevolution–implementation framework, designers alternate between its three titular activities. Sensemaking
Sensemaking or sense-making is the process by which people give meaning to their collective experiences. It has been defined as "the ongoing retrospective development of plausible images that rationalize what people are doing" ( Weick, Sutcliffe, ... includes both framing and evaluating moves. Implementation is the process of constructing the design object. Coevolution is "the process where the design agent simultaneously refines its mental picture of the design object based on its mental picture of the context, and vice versa".
The concept of the design cycle
A decision cycle is a sequence of steps used by an entity on a repeated basis to Decision making, reach and implement decisions and to learn from the results. The "decision cycle" phrase has a history of use to broadly categorize various methods of ... is understood as a circular time structure, which may start with the thinking of an idea, then expressing it by the use of visual or verbal means of communication (design tools), the sharing and perceiving of the expressed idea, and finally starting a new cycle with the critical rethinking of the perceived idea. Anderson points out that this concept emphasizes the importance of the means of expression, which at the same time are means of perception of any design ideas.
Philosophies of design
Philosophy of designPhilosophy of design is the study of definitions of design, and the assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. The field, which is mostly a sub-discipline of aesthetics, is defined by an interest in a set of problems, or an interest in ce ... is the study of definitions of design, and the assumptions, foundations, and implications of design. There are also countless informal or personal philosophies for guiding design as design values and its accompanying aspects within modern design vary, both between different schools of thought and among practicing designers. Design philosophies are usually for determining design goals. In this sense, design philosophies are fundamental guiding principles that dictate how a designer approaches his/her practice. For example, reflections on material culture
Material culture is the aspect of social reality
Social reality is distinct from biological reality
Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginar ... and environmental concerns ( sustainable design
Environmentally sustainable design (also called environmentally conscious design, eco design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of ecology, ecological sustaina ...) can guide a design philosophy.
Approaches to design
A design approach is a general philosophy that may or may not include a guide for specific methods. Some are to guide the overall goal of the design. Other approaches are to guide the tendencies of the designer.
Some of these approaches include:
Critical design takes a critical theory based approach to design. This kind of design uses design fiction and speculative design proposals to challenge assumptions and conceptions about the role objects play in everyday life. Critical design plays ... uses designed artifacts as an embodied critique or commentary on existing values, morals, and practices in a culture.
* Participatory Design
Participatory design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure th ... (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is the practice of collective creativity to design, attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable.
* Scientific design refers to industrialised design based on scientific knowledge. Science can be used to study the effects and need for a potential or existing product in general and to design products that are based on scientific knowledge. For instance, a scientific design of may be based on investigations of filtration performance, mitigation performance, thermal comfort, biodegradability
Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of Carbon compounds, carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial, and aquatic ... and flow resistance.
* Service design
Service design is the activity of planning and arranging people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service in order to improve its quality, and the interaction between the service providerA service provider (SP) provides org ... designing or organizing the experience around a product and the service associated with a product's use.
* Sociotechnical system
Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people
A people is a plurality of person
A person (plural people or persons) is a bei ... design, a philosophy and tools for participative designing of work arrangements and supporting processes – for organizational purpose, quality, safety, economics and customer requirements in core work processes, the quality of peoples experience at work and the needs of society
* Transgenerational designTransgenerational design is the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory Disability, impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living. The term ''transgeneration ..., the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living.
* User-centered design
User-centered design (UCD) or user-driven development (UDD) is a framework of process (not restricted to interfaces or technologies) in which usability
Usability can be described as the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its us ..., which focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed artifact.
Design can broadly be applied to various fields such as art, engineering and production.
Design and art
Today, the term design is generally used for what was formerly called the
The applied arts are all the arts that apply design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the .... The new term, for a very old thing, was perhaps initiated by Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy ( , ; November 5, 1893 – July 14, 1986) was a French-born American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this by '' Time'' magaz ... and teachings at the Bauhaus
The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German
German(s) may refer to:
* of or related to Germany
* Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German anc ... and Ulm School of Design
Ulm () is a city
A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It c ... in Germany during the 20th century.
The boundaries between art and design are blurred, largely due to a range of applications both for the term 'art' and the term 'design'. Applied arts
The applied arts are all the arts that apply design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the ... can include industrial design
Industrial design is a process of design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype ..., graphic design
Graphic design is the profession and academic discipline whose activity consists in projecting visual communications intended to transmit specific messages to social groups, with specific objectives. As opposed to art, whose aim is merely contemp ..., fashion design
Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, accessories. It is influenced by culture and different trends, and has varied over time and place ..., and the decorative arts
The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification ... which traditionally includes craft objects. In graphic arts (2D image making that ranges from photography to illustration), the distinction is often made between fine art
In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthe ... and commercial art
Commercial art is the art of creative services
Creative services are a subsector of the creative industries, a part of the economy that creates wealth by offering creativity for hire to other businesses. Creative Services also means a department ..., based on the context within which the work is produced and how it is traded.
Some methods for creating work, such as employing intuition, are shared across the disciplines within the applied arts
The applied arts are all the arts that apply design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the ... and fine art
In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthe .... Mark Getlein, writer, suggests the principles of design are "almost instinctive", "built-in", "natural", and part of "our sense of 'rightness'." However, the intended application and context of the resulting works will vary greatly.
Design and engineering
Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ..., design is a component of the process. Many overlapping methods and processes can be seen when comparing Product design
Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ..., Industrial design
Industrial design is a process of design
A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype ... and Engineering
Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ .... The American Heritage Dictionary
American(s) may refer to:
* American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States
The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or A ... defines design as: ''"To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent,"'' and ''"To formulate a plan"'', and defines engineering as: ''"The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems."''. Both are forms of problem-solving with a defined distinction being the application of "scientific and mathematical principles". The increasingly scientific focus of engineering in practice, however, has raised the importance of more new "human-centered" fields of design. [ How much science is applied in a design is a question of what is considered "] science
Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...". Along with the question of what is considered science, there is social science
Social science is the branch
A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany
Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ... versus natural science
Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer r .... Scientists at Xerox PARC
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California. Founded in 1969 by Jack Goldman, Jacob E. "Jack" Goldman, Xerox Corporation's chief scientist, the company was originally a divis ... made the distinction of design versus engineering at "moving minds" versus "moving atoms" (probably in contradiction to the origin of term "engineering – engineer" from Latin "in genio" in meaning of a "genius" what assumes existence of a "mind" not of an "atom").
Design and production
The relationship between design and
Production may be:
Economics and business
* Production (economics)
* Production, the act of manufacturing goods
* Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services)
* Production as a statistic, g ... is one of planning and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the execution process. Design involves problem-solving and creativity
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea
In common usage and in philosophy
Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc .... In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process. A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering processes although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary or impractical to expect a designer with a broad multidisciplinary
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic discipline
An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or u ... knowledge required for such designs to also have a detailed specialized knowledge of how to produce the product.
Design and production are intertwined in many creative professional
A creative professional who is also known as a creative specialist is a person who is employed for the extraction of skills in creative endeavors. Creative professions include writing, art, design, theater, television, radio, motion pictures, relat ... careers, meaning problem-solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for separating design from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a skyscraper
A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ..., requires separating (design) architect
An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...ure from (production) construction
Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' .... A Low-budget project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer, can be rearranged and printed dozens of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, few drops of ink, and less than one hour's pay of a desktop publisher.
This is not to say that production never involves problem-solving or creativity, nor that design always involves creativity. Designs are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection of a design may task a production position (e.g. production artistA production artist is a technical and creative position in a creative profession. The job title
The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) is an International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization ( ..., construction worker
A construction worker is a worker employed in manual labour
Manual labour (in British English
British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language
English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language fi ...) with utilizing creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the design process. Likewise, a design may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the designer.
"Process design" (in contrast to "design process" mentioned above) is to the planning of routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product of design, not the method of design. The term originated with the industrial designing of
In a scientific
Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well ...es. With the increasing complexities of the information age#REDIRECT Information Age
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historical periodHuman history is commonly divided into three main Era, eras — Ancient history, Ancient, Post-classical history, ..., consultants and executives have found the term useful to describe the design of business processes as well as manufacturing processes.
* Design-based learning
Design methodsDesign methods are procedures, techniques, aids, or tools for designing. They offer a number of different kinds of activities that a designer might use within an overall design process. Conventional procedures of design, such as drawing, can be regar ...
* Design research
Design research was originally constituted as primarily research into the process of design, developing from work in design methodsDesign methods are procedures, techniques, aids, or tools for designing. They offer a number of different kinds of ac ...
* Design scienceA concept of design science was introduced in 1957 by R. Buckminster Fuller who defined it as a systematic form of designing. He expanded on this concept in his ''World Design Science Decade'' proposal to the International Union of Architects in 1961 ...
* Design theory
Design theory is a subfield of design research concerned with various theoretical approaches towards understanding and delineating design principles, design knowledge, and design practice.
Design theory has been approached and interpr ...
* Design thinking
Design thinking is the set of cognitive, strategic and practical processes by which design concepts (proposals for products, buildings, machines, communications, etc.) are developed. Many of the key concepts and aspects of design thinking have been ...
* Design prototyping
* Evidence-based design
Evidence-based design (EBD) is the process of constructing a building or physical environment based on scientific research to achieve the best possible outcomes. Evidence-based design is especially important in evidence-based medicine
* Visual design elements and principles
* List of design awards