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Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal to different types of
audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a , (in which they are called "readers"), , (in which they are called "listeners"), (in which they are called "players"), or academics in any medium. Audience members p ...

audience
. This can be seen, for example, (especially in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
) when a song appears on two or more of the
record chart A record chart, in the music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by Musical composition, writing songs and musical compositions, creating and selling Sound recording and reproduction, r ...
s which track differing musical styles or
genres Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner th ...
. If the second chart combines genres, such as a "
Hot 100 The ''Billboard'' Hot 100 is the music industry The music industry consists of the individuals and organizations that earn money by Musical composition, writing songs and musical compositions, creating and selling Sound recording and repr ...
" list, the work is not a ''crossover''. In some contexts the term "crossover" can have negative connotations associated with
cultural appropriation Cultural appropriation is the adoption of an element or elements of one culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, ...
, implying the dilution of a music's distinctive qualities to appeal to mass tastes. For example, in the early years of
rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and sty ...
, many songs originally recorded by
African-American music African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to b ...
ians were re-recorded by white artists such as
Pat Boone Patrick Charles Eugene Boone (born June 1, 1934) is an American singer, composer, actor, writer, television personality, motivational speaker, and spokesman. He was a successful pop singer in the United States during the 1950s and early 1960s. H ...
in a more toned-down style, often with changed
lyrics Lyrics are word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many langu ...
, that lacked the hard edge of the original versions. These covers were popular with a much broader audience. Crossover frequently results from the appearance of the music in a film soundtrack. For instance,
Sacred Harp Sacred Harp singing is a tradition of sacred choral music that originated in New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and ...
music experienced a spurt of crossover popularity as a result of its appearance in the 2003 film '' Cold Mountain'', and
bluegrass music Bluegrass music is a genre of American roots music that developed in the 1940s in the United States Appalachia Appalachia () is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York State Ne ...
experienced a revival due to the reception of 2000's ''
O Brother, Where Art Thou? ''O Brother, Where Art Thou?'' is a 2000 crime comedy-drama Comedy-drama, or dramedy, is a genre of dramatic works that combines elements of comedy and Drama (film and television), drama. History The advent of radio drama, film, cinema and i ...
''.


Classical crossover

Classical crossover broadly encompasses both
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consis ...
that has become popularized and a wide variety of
popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training.Popular Music. (2015). ''Funk & ...
forms performed in a classical manner or by classical artists. It can also refer to collaborations between classical and popular performers, as well as music that blends elements of classical music (including
opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such a "work" (the literal translation of the Italian word "opera") is typically a c ...

opera
tic and
symphonic A symphony is an extended musical composition File:Chord chart.svg, 250px, Jazz and rock genre musicians may memorize the melodies for a new song, which means that they only need to provide a chord chart to guide improvising musicians. Mus ...

symphonic
) with popular music (including
pop Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Romania * Poppleton railway station (station code), York, England People ...
,
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
, middle of the road, and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
, among other types). Pop vocalists and musicians, opera singers, classical instrumentalists, and occasionally rock groups primarily perform classical crossover. Although the phenomenon was long common in the music world, the name "classical crossover" was coined by record companies in the 1980s. It has gained in popularity since the 1990s and has acquired its own ''Billboard'' chart.


Popular classics

Particular works of classical music have become popular among individuals who mostly listen to popular music, sometimes appearing on non-classical charts. Some classical works that achieved crossover status in the twentieth century include the '' Canon in D'' by
Johann Pachelbel Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706; also Bachelbel) was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ schools to their peak. He composed a large body of sacred and secular Secula ...
, the '' Symphony No. 3'' by
Henryk Górecki Henryk Mikołaj Górecki ( , ; 6 December 1933 – 12 November 2010) was a Polish composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ...
, and the second movement of
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Born in Salzburg, in the Holy Roman Empire Th ...

Mozart
's '' Piano Concerto No. 21, K. 467'' (from its appearance in the 1967 film ''
Elvira Madigan Hedvig Antoinette Isabella Eleonore Jensen (December 4, 1867 July 19, 1889), better known by her stage name Elvira Madigan, was a circus performer who performed as a slack rope dancer, artistic rider, juggler and dancer. She is best known today ...

Elvira Madigan
''). Such popularity has been assisted by the use of classical music in advertising campaigns. For example, the long-running
British Airways British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by th ...

British Airways
advertisements familiarised a large viewing public with the song ''Aria'' by New Age artist'' ''
Yanni Yiannis Chryssomallis ( el, Γιάννης Χρυσομάλλης, born November 14, 1954), known professionally as Yanni ( ), is a Greek-American composer, keyboardist, pianist, and music producer. Yanni continues to use the musical shortha ...

Yanni
, a piece itself based on a duet from the opera '''' by
Léo Delibes Clément Philibert Léo Delibes (; 21 February 1836 – 16 January 1891) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his ballets and operas Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles a ...

Léo Delibes
. Another means of generating vast popularity for the classics has been through their use as inspirational anthems in sports settings. The aria "
Nessun Dorma "" (; English: "Let no one sleep") is an aria from the final act of Giacomo Puccini's opera ''Turandot'' (text by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni) and one of the best-known tenor arias in all opera. It is sung by Calaf, (the unknown prince), wh ...
" from
Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( , ; ; 22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers ...

Puccini
's ''
Turandot ''Turandot'' ( , ; see #Origin and pronunciation of the name, below) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, posthumously completed by Franco Alfano in 1926, and set to a libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni. Its best-kn ...
'', especially
Luciano Pavarotti Luciano Pavarotti (, , ; 12 October 19356 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor A tenor is a type of classical music, classical male singing human voice, voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice t ...

Luciano Pavarotti
's version, has become indissolubly linked with soccer."Nessun Dorma put football back on map"
''The Telegraph'', 7 September 2007 (accessed 24 September 2015).


Classical performers

Within the classical recording industry, the term "crossover" is applied particularly to classical artists' recordings of popular repertoire such as
Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (disambiguation) * Broadway theatre, theatrical productions in professional theatres near Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, U.S. ** Broadway (Manhattan), the street **Broadway Theatre (53rd Str ...
show tunes. Two examples of this are
Lesley Garrett Lesley Garrett, CBE (born 10 April 1955) is an English soprano singer, musician, broadcaster and media personality. She is noted for being at home in opera and "crossover music". Early life Garrett was born in the town of Thorne, South Yorksh ...
's excursions into musical comedy and also
José Carreras Josep Maria Carreras Coll (; born 5 December 1946), better known as José Carreras (, ), is a Spanish operatic tenor who is particularly known for his performances in the operas of Donizetti, Verdi and Puccini. Born in Barcelona, he made his deb ...
's recording ''
West Side Story ''West Side Story'' is a Musical theatre, musical conceived by Jerome Robbins with music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and a Book (musical theatre), book by Arthur Laurents. Inspired by William Shakespeare's play ''Romeo and ...

West Side Story
'', as well as
Teresa Stratas Teresa Stratas, OC (born May 26, 1938 in Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 largest munic ...
' recording ''
Showboat A showboat, or show boat, was a floating theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live ...
''. Soprano
Eileen Farrell Eileen Farrell (February 13, 1920 – March 23, 2002) was an American soprano A soprano () is a type of classical music, classical female singing human voice, voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (u ...
is generally considered to be one of the first classical singers to have a successful crossover recording with her 1960 album ''I've Got a Right to Sing the Blues''. A popular pioneering figure in classical crossover was classically trained
tenor A tenor is a type of classical music, classical male singing human voice, voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice types. It is the highest male chest voice type. The tenor's vocal range extends up to C5. The lo ...

tenor
and film star
Mario Lanza Mario Lanza (, ; born Alfredo Arnold Cocozza ; January 31, 1921 – October 7, 1959) was an American tenor, actor, and Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, A ...
, although the term "crossover" did not yet exist at the time of his greatest popularity in the 1950s. Signed to
RCA Victor RCA Records is an American record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Bran ...
as an artist on its premium Red Seal label, Lanza's albums appealed to more than just classical music audiences. His recording of "
Be My Love "Be My Love" is a popular song with lyrics by Sammy Cahn Samuel Cohen (June 18, 1913 – January 15, 1993), known professionally as Sammy Cahn, was an American lyricist, songwriter, and musician. He is best known for his romantic lyrics ...
" from his second film, ''
The Toast of New Orleans ''The Toast of New Orleans'' is a 1950 MGM musical film directed by Norman Taurog and choreographed by Eugene Loring. It stars Mario Lanza, Kathryn Grayson, David Niven, J. Carrol Naish, James Mitchell (actor), James Mitchell and Rita Moreno. The f ...
'', hit Number One on the ''
Billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising Out-of-home (OOH) advertising, also called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, is advertising experienced ou ...
'' pop singles chart in February 1951 and sold more than two million copies, a feat no classical artist before or since has achieved. Lanza recorded two other million-selling singles that made Billboard's top ten, " The Loveliest Night of the Year" and "
Because You're Mine ''Because You're Mine'' is a 1952 musical film, musical comedy film starring Mario Lanza. Directed by Alexander Hall, the film also stars Doretta Morrow, James Whitmore, and Dean Miller. Plot Opera singer superstar Renato Rossano (Mario Lanza) i ...
". Five of Lanza's albums hit Number One on Billboard's pop album chart between 1951 and 1955. ''
The Great Caruso ''The Great Caruso'' is a 1951 biographical film made by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and starring Mario Lanza as Enrico Caruso Enrico Caruso (, also , ; 25 February 1873 – 2 August 1921) was an Italian opera Opera is a form of theatre in w ...
'' was the first and to date is the only recording composed exclusively of operatic arias to reach Number One on the U.S. pop album charts. ''
The Student Prince ''The Student Prince'' is an operetta in four acts with music by Sigmund Romberg and book and lyrics by Dorothy Donnelly. It is based on Wilhelm Meyer-Förster's play ''Old Heidelberg (play), Old Heidelberg''. The piece has elements of melodram ...

The Student Prince
'', released in 1954, was Number One for 42 weeks. Arguably another early pioneer of crossover was the twentieth century composer
Kurt Weill Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900April 3, 1950) was a German (later American) composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his later years in the United States. He was a leading composer for the stage who was best known for his ...
. A writer of avant garde serious music, his collaborations with playwright
Bertolt Brecht Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner A theatre practitioner is someone who creates theatrical performances and/or produces a theoretica ...

Bertolt Brecht
on projects such as
The Threepenny Opera ''The Threepenny Opera'' ( ) is a "play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service ...
nevertheless gave an early indication of his interest in writing in an easily accessible, popular musical style. This trend in his work came to full fruition in later life in the United States, where he switched primarily to writing the scores for Broadway musicals such as
Knickerbocker Holiday ''Knickerbocker Holiday'' is a 1938 musicalMusicAL was a 24-hour Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It ...
and
One Touch of Venus ''One Touch of Venus'' is a musicalMusicAL was a 24-hour Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is loc ...
. Some of the hits from those shows, such as
September Song "September Song" is an American standard pop standard, popular song composed by Kurt Weill with lyrics by Maxwell Anderson. It was introduced by Walter Huston in the 1938 Broadway musical production ''Knickerbocker Holiday''. After being used in ...
and
Speak Low "Speak Low" (1943 Events Below, the events of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, th ...
, are better remembered than the musicals from which they came. The first
Three Tenors The Three Tenors were a popular opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such a "work" (the literal translation of t ...
concert in 1990 was a landmark in which
Luciano Pavarotti Luciano Pavarotti (, , ; 12 October 19356 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor A tenor is a type of classical music, classical male singing human voice, voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice t ...

Luciano Pavarotti
,
José Carreras Josep Maria Carreras Coll (; born 5 December 1946), better known as José Carreras (, ), is a Spanish operatic tenor who is particularly known for his performances in the operas of Donizetti, Verdi and Puccini. Born in Barcelona, he made his deb ...
and
Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil (born 21 January 1941) is a Spanish opera singer, Conducting, conductor and arts administrator. He has recorded Plácido Domingo discography, over a hundred complete operas and is well known for his versatility, reg ...

Plácido Domingo
brought a combination of opera, Neapolitan folksong, musical theatre and pop to a vast television audience. This laid the foundations for the modern flourishing of classical crossover. The aspiration of classical singers to appeal to a wide pop audience is exemplified by the career of Rhydian. Classically trained, Rhydian appeared in the UK version of the pop talent show ''
X Factor ''The X Factor'' is a television music competition franchise created by British producer Simon Cowell and his company SYCOtv. It The X Factor (UK TV series), originated in the United Kingdom, where it was devised as a replacement for ''Pop Idol' ...
'' (4th series, 2007, placed second). His four albums and subsequent appearances have straddled pop, classical, musical theatre and religious television fields. This also applies to classically trained instrumentalists, such as
Vanessa Mae Vanessa-Mae (陈美 Chén Měi) (born 27 October 1978) also called Vanessa-Mae Vanakorn Nicholson, is a British violinist with album sales reaching several million, having made her the wealthiest entertainer under 30 in the United Kingdom in 20 ...

Vanessa Mae
,
Bond Bond or bonds may refer to: Common meanings * Bond (finance) In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of ...
, Escala, David Garrett, Taylor Davis,
Stjepan Hauser Stjepan Hauser (; born 15 June 1986) is a Croatian cellist. He is a member of 2CELLOS, along with Luka Šulić. Early life and musical training Hauser was born in Pula, Croatia, into a musical family, where he began his musical education. His ...
,
Luka Šulić Luka Šulić (born 25 August 1987) is a Slovenian-Croatian cellist. He is a member of 2CELLOS, along with Stjepan Hauser. Early life Šulić was born in Maribor, Slovenia. Šulić's father, Božo (through whom Šulić has Croatian citizenship ...
,
2CELLOS 2CELLOS (stylized 2CΞLLOS) are a Croatian cellist duo, consisting of classically trained cellists, Luka Šulić and Stjepan Hauser Stjepan Hauser (; born 15 June 1986) is a Croatian cellist. He is a member of 2CELLOS, along with Luka Šuli ...
,
Eric Stanley __NOTOC__ Eric Gerald Stanley Fellow of the British Academy, FBA (19 October 1923 – 20 June 2018) was a British Medieval studies, Anglo-Saxonist; he was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, from ...
and Catya Maré. Collaborations between classical and popular performers have included
Sting Sting may refer to: * Stinger A stinger (or sting) is a sharp organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs ...
and
Edin KaramazovEdin Karamazov (Zenica Zenica ( ; ; ) is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and an administrative and economic center of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Zenica-Doboj Canton. It is located in the Bosna (river), Bosna river valley, about ...
's album '' Songs from the Labyrinth''. A collaboration between
Freddie Mercury Freddie Mercury (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 1946 – 24 November 1991) was a British singer, songwriter, record producer and lead vocalist of the rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally o ...
and soprano
Montserrat Caballé María de Montserrat Bibiana Concepción Caballé i Folch (, , ; 12 April 1933 – 6 October 2018) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_ ...

Montserrat Caballé
resulted in the worldwide hit "
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...
".
R&B Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African ...
singer
Mariah Carey Mariah Carey (; born March 27, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. Known for her five-octave vocal range Vocal range is the range of pitches that a human voice The human voice consists of sound mad ...
performed a live duet with her mother Patricia, who is an opera singer, of the
Christmas song Christmas music comprises a variety of Music genre, genres of music regularly performed or heard around the Christmas and holiday season, Christmas season. Music associated with Christmas may be purely instrumental, or, in the case of Christmas ...
-
O Come, All Ye Faithful "O Come, All Ye Faithful" (originally written in Latin as ) is a Christmas carol A Christmas carol is a carol (a song or hymn) on the theme of Christmas Christmas (or the Feast of the Nativity) is an annual festival commemorating ...
. Welsh mezzo-soprano
Katherine Jenkins Katherine Maria Jenkins (born 29 June 1980) is a Welsh mezzo-soprano from Neath, Wales. Jenkins performs operatic arias, popular songs, musical theatre and hymns.
performed a duet with rock singer
Michael Bolton Michael Bolotin
, The Jewish Historical Society of New Haven, 1998.
(born February 26, 1953), known professio ...
of
O Holy Night "O Holy Night" (also known as ) is a well-known Christmas carol composed by Adolphe Adam in 1847 to the French poem (Midnight, Christians) by poet Placide Cappeau (1808–1877). The carol (music), carol reflects on the nativity of Jesus, birth ...
. Singers and instrumentalists from the classical tradition,
Andreas Dorschel Andreas Dorschel (born 1962) is a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. The coining of the t ...
has argued, run the risk of losing the sophistication of the genre(s) they were trained in, when they try to perform rock music, without coming up to the often rough and wild qualities of the latter.


Pop performers in classical and mixed genres

Pop singers have consistently sought to attain a symphonic or operatic dimension in their writing and performance. Early examples include
The Moody Blues The Moody Blues were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical comp ...
's ''
Days of Future Passed ''Days of Future Passed'' is the second album and first concept album A concept album is an album packaged in book form, like a photograph album An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc (CD ...
'' (1967), "Genuine Imitation Life" from ''Genuine Imitation Life Gazette'' (1969) by The Four Seasons,
Deep Purple Deep Purple are an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, ...

Deep Purple
's ''
Concerto for Group and Orchestra ''Concerto for Group and Orchestra'' is an album by Deep Purple Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertford, Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bor ...
'' (1969) and ''
Gemini Suite Live ''Gemini Suite Live'' is a recording of Jon Lord's classical/rock piece Gemini Suite featuring the original List of Deep Purple band members#"Mark" numbers, Mark II band lineup of Deep Purple, recorded live during this one and only live perform ...
'' (1970) as well as
Rick Wakeman Richard Christopher Wakeman (born 18 May 1949) is an English keyboardist. He is best known for being in the band across five tenures between 1971 and 2004 and for his solo albums released in the 1970s. Born and raised in , Wakeman intended ...
's ''
Journey to the Centre of the Earth ''Journey to the Center of the Earth'' (french: Voyage au centre de la Terre), also translated with the variant titles ''A Journey to the Centre of the Earth'' and ''A Journey into the Interior of the Earth''), is a classic science fiction novel ...
'' (1974), ''
The Myths and Legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table ''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite art ...
'' (1975), and ''Une Nuit A Paris'', a miniature rock opera from ''The Original Soundtrack'' (1975) by 10cc. A more recent example is Metallica's ''S&M (Metallica album), S&M'' (1999). Neil Diamond won a Grammy for his soundtrack for the movie ''Jonathan Livingston Seagull (film), Jonathan Livingston Seagull'' (1973), in which he, aided by composer/conductor Lee Holdridge, wrote and recorded songs containing classical, pop, and religious elements. Italian pop
tenor A tenor is a type of classical music, classical male singing human voice, voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice types. It is the highest male chest voice type. The tenor's vocal range extends up to C5. The lo ...

tenor
Andrea Bocelli, who is the biggest-selling singer in the history of classical music, has been described as the king of classical crossover. British soprano Sarah Brightman is also considered a crossover classical artist, having released albums of classical, folk, pop and musical-theatre music. Brightman dislikes the classical crossover label, though she has said she understands the need to categorize music. In the 2008 Polish release of her ''Symphony (Sarah Brightman album), Symphony'' album she sings "I Will Be with You (Where the Lost Ones Go)" with Polish tenor Andrzej Lampert, another artist who has performed in both classical and non-classical styles, as well as having actually obtained full musical training and academic degrees in both (though operatic singing is his main professional focus). In addition, Welsh mezzo-soprano
Katherine Jenkins Katherine Maria Jenkins (born 29 June 1980) is a Welsh mezzo-soprano from Neath, Wales. Jenkins performs operatic arias, popular songs, musical theatre and hymns.
has achieved international fame via her crossover albums.


Crossover country

Country music, Country-Western music (North America), western music, up through the early 1950s, had a distinct, Appalachian sound that was generally popular only in rural areas in the south and west; for others, it was an acquired taste. Arthur "Guitar Boogie" Smith, Arthur Smith was an early country crossover success with his 1945 instrumental "Guitar Boogie (song), Guitar Boogie." Rockabilly artists such as Carl Perkins, Elvis Presley and the early works of Johnny Cash managed crossover hits in country and rock music during a brief period in the mid-1950s. The first sustained and deliberate attempt to aim country music at a mainstream pop audience was the Nashville sound; Patsy Cline was a particularly successful example of this style, charting several pop and country hits from the late 1950s until her death in 1963. During the late 1960s, Glen Campbell began aiming his music at the mainstream pop charts, adding strings, horns and other pop music flourishes to such songs as "Wichita Lineman", "By the Time I Get to Phoenix", and "Galveston", which allowed his music to chart both in country and pop. While such artists as Lynn Anderson and Charlie Rich followed Campbell's example into the early 1970s, it was Dolly Parton and Kenny Rogers who, during the mid to late 1970s came to personify the concept of country pop crossover, with both artists maintaining a consistent presence on both the pop and country charts well into the mid-1980s, culminating in their duet, "Islands in the Stream (song), Islands in the Stream", which topped the country and pop charts in 1983. Others, like John Denver, Olivia Newton-John, The Eagles, Faron Young, Willie Nelson, Dottie West, Alabama (American band), Alabama, Eddie Rabbitt, Ronnie Milsap, Anne Murray, and Crystal Gayle began successful in country but made the crossover to pop music. Conversely, Conway Twitty, Dan Seals, England Dan Seals, former Righteous Brother Bill Medley, Exile (American band), Exile, and Merrill Osmond and the The Osmonds, Osmond Brothers crossed over from pop to country. By the late 1980s, as neotraditional country, country moved to a much more traditional sound, pop and country crossovers had become exceedingly rare (only Roy Orbison's posthumous "You Got It (Roy Orbison song), You Got It" would top both charts in this time frame).


1990s and 2000s crossover country

In the 1990s many country artists experienced huge crossover success. These artists include Garth Brooks, Shania Twain, Billy Ray Cyrus, Tim McGraw, Faith Hill, Dixie Chicks, Jo Dee Messina, Martina McBride, Reba McEntire, Lonestar, Sara Evans and LeAnn Rimes. The early 2000s also saw continued success of these artists. Lee Ann Womack scored a big hit with "I Hope You Dance (song), I Hope You Dance". The Dixie Chicks had continued success with a less mainstream country-pop sound when they released their album ''Home (Dixie Chicks album), Home'' in 2002. However, by the mid-2000s there were fewer country acts having crossover success. Carrie Underwood, who emerged as both a pop star and a country musician as a result of the TV series ''American Idol'' (a show that was at its peak in popularity at the time Underwood won the contest), became a crossover success with hits on both the country and pop charts. Underwood would become the first of several country musicians, including another American Idol winner Scotty McCreery, who would find success on the pop charts beginning in the late 2000s.


Late 2000s and 2010s crossover country

Concurrent with Underwood's crossover success was the debut of teen singer-songwriter Taylor Swift. Swift initially specialized in country-flavored coffee house songs such as "Tim McGraw (song), Tim McGraw" and "Teardrops on My Guitar," but as her success grew, she increasingly began moving her musical career toward pop. Beginning with "The Story of Us (song), The Story of Us" in 2010, Swift started releasing some of her songs either primarily, or solely, as pop tunes. Many of the songs Swift recorded for the country and pop markets also achieved wide success (especially "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together," which topped both charts), turning her into a leading example of a country crossover phenomenon, with various critics lauding her as the "next Shania Twain". A change to the ''Billboard'' methodology for compiling charts such as country charts directly benefited crossover artists such as Swift by taking into account airplay on non-country stations. Other artists who have found success on both pop and country in the early 2010s, in addition to the continued success of Swift and Underwood, have been Lady Antebellum and The Band Perry. Florida Georgia Line also crossed over to the pop charts with a remixed version of their song "Cruise". This version features rapper Nelly. The popularity of bro-country by artists such as Luke Bryan has increased the crossover success of country artists, a tradition which has further continued through the infusion of R&B music by artists including Brett Eldredge, Thomas Rhett and Sam Hunt.


Latin crossover artists


1980s crossover acts

Gloria Estefan is the most successful crossover performer in Latin music (genre), Latin music to date. She began crossing over to English music in 1984. Estefan at the time was with the Miami Sound Machine. Their more successful follow-up album, ''Primitive Love'', was released in 1985, launching three Top 10 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, ''Billboard'' Hot 100: "Conga (song), Conga" (U.S. #10), "Words Get in the Way" (U.S. #5), and "Bad Boy (Miami Sound Machine song), Bad Boy" (U.S. #8) became follow–up hits in the U.S. and around the world. "Words Get in the Way" reached No. 1 on the US Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks chart, establishing that the group could perform pop ballads as successfully as dance tunes. The song "Hot Summer Nights" was also released that year and was part of the blockbuster movie ''Top Gun''. Since then Estefan has bridged between both the English and Latin world for the mid to late 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.


1990s crossover acts

In the mid '90s, Selena was gaining prominence within the Hispanic music world. Primarily marketed as a Tejano music artist, Selena's success was met with rhythmic Cumbia recordings. After bypassing several barriers within the Tejano industry, she quickly superseded other Latin artist acts and earned the title "Queen of Tejano Music". After being presented with a Grammy for ''Selena Live!'', Selena became the first Latin artist to release four number–one singles, in 1994. With a meteoric rise in popularity, Selena was presented with the opportunity to record an English-crossover album. Unfortunately, months before the release of her English album, Selena was murdered by her fan club president, on 31 March 1995, in Corpus Christi, Texas. Selena's incomplete album, titled ''Dreaming of You (Selena album), Dreaming of You'', was released in July 1995, topping the Billboard 200, ''Billboard'' 200. Selena's songs "Dreaming of You (Selena song), Dreaming of You" and "I Could Fall In Love" quickly became mainstream hits, and the album became among the "Top ten best-selling debuts of all time" along with being among the "best-selling debuts for a female artist". Selena became the first Latin artist, male or female, to have ever debuted with a No. 1 album, partially in Spanish. Despite, and perhaps fueled by, Selena's death and crossover success, the "Latin explosion" continued in the late '90s. At that time, a handful of rising stars who shared a Latin heritage were touted as proof that sounds from Latin countries were infiltrating the pop mainstream. These included Ricky Martin, Thalía, Marc Anthony, Enrique Iglesias and Jennifer Lopez, who rendered a Golden Globe performance as Selena Selena (film), on film. Like Estefan and Selena, many of these artists, including some who recorded in English after gaining fame singing in Spanish, had been influenced at least as much by American music and culture. Ricky Martin gained success with "La Copa de la Vida", which Martin made a major hit in an English version when he was chosen to sing the anthem of the 1998 FIFA World Cup. "The Cup of Life"/"La Copa de la Vida" reached number one on the charts in 60 countries and in the United States the English version went to No. 45 on the Hot 100 charts. The song went Platinum in France, Sweden and in Australia, where it ultimately became the number one single of the year. The song was awarded "Lo Nuestro Award for Pop Song of the Year, Pop Song of the Year" at the Premio Lo Nuestro 1999, 1999 Lo Nuestro Awards. Martin at the Grammy Awards was booked to sing on the show's live TV broadcast. The now-legendary performance of "The Cup of Life" stopped the show, earning Martin an unexpected standing ovation and introducing the star to the mainstream American
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. Martin capped off the evening by winning the award for Best Latin Pop Performance. ''Vuelve (album), Vuelve'' became Martin's first Top 40 album on Billboard Top 200 Albums chart in the U.S., where it was Platinum certification, certified Platinum by the RIAA. The album notably went to No. 1 in Norway for three weeks, going on to sell eight million copies worldwide. Martin prepared his first English album in 1999, as the first and most prominent single was "Livin' la Vida Loca", which reached number one in many countries around the world, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Guatemala, Mexico, Russia, Turkey and South Africa. He followed up with the hit "She's All I Ever Had", which peaked at No. 2 on The Billboard Hot 100, ''Billboard'' Hot 100. This album became one of the top-selling albums of 1999, and was certified seven times platinum, selling over 22 million copies worldwide to date. Also in 1999, attempting to emulate the crossover success of Gloria Estefan, Selena and Ricky Martin in the anglophone market, Marc Anthony released an English-language Latin Pop self-titled album with the US Top 5 hit single "I Need to Know (Marc Anthony song), I Need to Know", and the Spanish version "Dímelo". Other hits include "When I Dream At Night" and "My Baby You". His song "You Sang To Me" was featured in ''Runaway Bride (1999 film), Runaway Bride''. The successful dance version was re-mixed by Dutch producer Rene Van Verseveld. The foray was considered a mixed success, partly because it alienated his traditional salsa fans, though "Da La Vuelta" (not a Spanish version of any of the songs) was a salsa song and was a hit. Another note is that the song "That's Okay" has more of a salsa tune than pop. Enrique Iglesias had begun a successful crossover career into the English language music market. Thanks to other successful crossover acts, Latino artists and music had a great surge in popularity in mainstream music. Iglesias' contribution to the soundtrack of Will Smith's movie ''Wild Wild West'', "Bailamos", became a number–one hit in the US. After the success of "Bailamos", several mainstream record labels were eager to sign Enrique. Signing a multi-album deal after weeks of negotiations with Interscope, Iglesias recorded and released his first full CD in English, ''Enrique''. The pop album, with some Latin influences, took two months to complete and contained a duet with Whitney Houston called "Could I Have This Kiss Forever" and a cover of the Bruce Springsteen song "Sad Eyes (Bruce Springsteen song), Sad Eyes". The album's third single, "Be with You (Enrique Iglesias song), Be With You", became his second number one. Jennifer Lopez's debut album ''On the 6'', a reference to the 6 subway line she used to take growing up in Castle Hill, Bronx, Castle Hill, was released on 1 June 1999, and reached the top ten of the Billboard 200, ''Billboard'' 200. The album featured the Billboard Hot 100 number-one lead single, "If You Had My Love", as well as the top ten hit "Waiting for Tonight", and even the Spanish version of the song "Una Noche Mas" became a hit as well. The album also featured a Spanish language, Latin-flavored duet "No Me Ames" with Marc Anthony, who later would become her husband before their divorce in 2014. Though "No Me Ames" never had a commercial release, it reached number one on the U.S. Hot Latin Tracks.


2000s crossover acts

After the '90s, there were very few crossover acts that became successful in the 2000s. The only ones who proved successful were Shakira, Thalía, Paulina Rubio, Jennifer Lopez and Christina Aguilera, although the latter started at first in English and then turned to Spanish. Both Ricky Martin and Enrique Iglesias retained their roles as one of the most successful crossover artists that decade. Colombian singer Shakira's third studio album and first English language album, ''Laundry Service'' (''Servicio De Lavanderia'', in Latin America and Spain) was released on 13 November 2001. The album debuted at number three on the U.S. Billboard 200 chart, selling over 200,000 records in its first week. ''Laundry Service'' was later certified triple platinum by the RIAA in June 2004 as well and thus helped to establish Shakira's musical presence in the mainstream North American market. Jennifer Lopez officially released her first full Spanish-language album, ''Como Ama una Mujer'', in March 2007. Her now-ex husband, singer Marc Anthony, produced the album with Estefano, except for "Qué Hiciste", which Anthony co-produced with Julio Reyes. The album peaked at number ten on the Billboard 200, number one on the U.S. Top Latin Albums for four straight weeks, and on the U.S. Latin Pop Albums for seven straight weeks. The album did well in Europe, peaking at number three on the albums chart, mainly due to the big success in countries such as Switzerland, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, Greece, Germany, Austria, and Portugal. On 24 July 2007 ''
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'' magazine reported that Lopez and now ex-husband Marc Anthony would "co-headline" a worldwide tour called "Juntos en Concierto" starting in New Jersey on 29 September. Tickets went on sale 10 August. The tour was a mix of her current music, older tunes and Spanish music. In a later press release, Lopez announced a detailed itinerary. The tour launched 28 September 2007 at the Mark G. Etess Arena and ended on 7 November 2007 at the American Airlines Arena in Miami, Florida. The lead single, "Qué Hiciste," was officially released to radio stations in January 2007. Since then, it has peaked at 86 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 and number one on the Hot Latin Songs and the Hot Dance Club Play. It also went top ten on the European chart. The video for the song was the first Spanish-language video to peak at number one on MTV's Total Request Live daily countdown. Lopez won an American Music Award as the Favorite Latin Artist in 2007. With ''Como Ama Una Mujer'', Jennifer Lopez is one of the few performers to debut in the top 10 of the Billboard 200 with a Spanish album. Jay-Z took part in a crossover record in 2004. He teamed up with rock band Linkin Park and produced the hit mash-up song "Numb/Encore". The song, while boasting a majority of Jay-Z's lyrics and hip-hop style, the genre of the song would be considered rock because of the tropes of rock music included in the piece. George Nelson, producer of television series "The Get Down" wrote an article titled ''Death and Rhythm of Blues''. In the article, Nelson discusses the appealing to audiences of other races. With the production of "Numb/Encore", Jay-Z and Linkin Park were able to not only crossover genres, but consumer groups as well.


2010s crossover acts

American opera and classical crossover singer Fernando Varela (opera singer), Fernando Varela has performed in fully staged operas, as a member of the classical crossover trio Forte Tenors, and has toured both with David Foster, and independently as a crossover artist. In 2017, "Despacito", a song by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee, reached the top of the ''Billboard'' Hot 100 after the release of a bilingual remix featuring Justin Bieber. The song would tie a record for the most weeks spent at the number-one spot in the Hot 100's history, and reached the top of singles charts in 47 countries. Following Despacito's success, other Latin songs also found a market, including J Balvin and Willy William's "Mi Gente (J Balvin and Willy William song), Mi Gente" , which became a top 40 hit in the U.S. and United Kingdom, and "Súbeme la Radio" by Enrique Iglesias, which reached the top 10 in the U.K.


Christian crossover artists

The term "crossover artist" may refer to musical performers and groups that are Christian music artists, who many times originally are marketed through List of Christian record labels, Christian record labels, radio stations, churches and other Christian media but who start selling in mainstream secular markets as well. Other times, crossover artists may start out in the mainstream market but have Christian undertones or themes if not overtly Christian. The term "crossing over" is used to describe when an artist who had started predominantly in Christian markets starts receiving mainstream success. Some people may feel that the artist is betraying the church for fame or glory, while others may see this as a great opportunity for the artist spread the message of their Christian beliefs. The first major artist crossover was by Amy Grant, with her 1985 album ''Unguarded (Amy Grant album), Unguarded'' and 1991 hit song "Baby Baby (Amy Grant song), Baby Baby" from the highest-selling Christian album ''Heart in Motion''. The albums and single were distributed by a Christian label but received heavy play on pop radio stations and were chart-toppers on the Billboard charts. Since then, many artists have been labeled as "crossover artist" regardless of whether they originally intended to market to the Christian market, secular market, or both. The most notable recent Christian crossover artists are Lauren Daigle, Kirk Franklin, Switchfoot, The Afters, Relient K, and many of the artists on Tooth & Nail Records such as MxPx, Underoath, Emery (band), Emery, Lifehouse (band), Lifehouse, Zao (American band), Zao, and Dead Poetic. Christian and country artists have experienced significant crossover. Much of Carrie Underwood's work has been overtly Christian, including "Jesus, Take the Wheel" and "Temporary Home" , "Something in the Water (Carrie Underwood song), Something in the Water." Other notable Christian-country crossovers have included "Changed (song), Changed" by Rascal Flatts, "A Living Prayer" by Alison Krauss and "Believe (Brooks & Dunn song), Believe" by Brooks & Dunn. For a time in the late 2000s, the God's Country Radio Network specialized in Christian-country crossovers, such was the extent of the body of music that fit into both genera. A more unusual example of a crossover artist is Katy Perry. She released a little known, commercially unsuccessful Christian album in 2001 under her birth name, Katy Hudson. She then went on to release commercially successful secular albums in 2008, 2010, and 2013. There are still some noticeable Christian elements in some of her secular music, particularly her later work, such as "Who Am I Living For" (2010) and "By The Grace of God" (2013).


Jazz crossover and rock crossover

Besides describing music of a distinct genre that becomes broadly popular, the musical term "crossover" suggested mixed genres. "Fusion (music), Fusion" is a more common term for this phenomenon. Examples include jazz fusion and world music. Example albums of crossover jazz plus classical music were albums of Deodato, Jean Luc Ponty and Bob James. Bob James ''One (Bob James album), One'' (CTI, 1974), contained the song "Feel Like Makin' Love (Roberta Flack song), Feel Like Making Love", which Roberta Flack already had as a hit. Radio stations played this song and contributed to the success of album ''One''. The album was notable for adapting classical music to a modern-day scene, e.g. "In the Garden" was based on Pachelbel's Canon in D and "Night on Bald Mountain" was a cover of Modest Mussorgsky's composition of the same name. Other examples of crossover in music are bands that play a mix of genres such as funk, Rapping, rap, Rock music, rock, Heavy metal music, metal and Punk rock, punk, for instance bands such as Urban Dance Squad, Faith No More, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Suicidal Tendencies, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, D.R.I., Primus (band), Primus, Linkin Park, Rage Against the Machine, System of a Down and 311 (band), 311.


See also

* Jazz fusion * World music * Folk music * Eclecticism in art * Polystylism


References


Bibliography

* *Lonergan, David F. ''Hit Records, 1950–1975''. Scarecrow Press, 2004.


Further reading

*Szwed, John F. (2005). ''Crossovers: Essays on Race, Music, And American Culture''. . *Brackett, David (Winter 1994). "The Politics and Practice of 'Crossover' in American Popular Music, 1963–65" ''The Musical Quarterly'' 78:4. *George, Nelson. (1988). ''The Death of Rhythm & Blues''. New York: Pantheon Books.


External links


Article on the definition of Classical Crossover

Article on the Shakira's net worth
{{DEFAULTSORT:Crossover (Music) Crossover (music),