criminal justice Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes "deserving" being impacted upon by numerous fields ...
, particularly in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, correction, corrections, and correctional, are
umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the m ...
s describing a variety of functions typically carried out by
government agencies A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government The machinery of government (sometimes abbreviated as MoG) is the interconnected structures and proce ...
, and involving the
punishment Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of soci ...

treatment Treatment may refer to: * Treatment (song), "Treatment" (song), a 2012 song by * Film treatment, a prose telling of a story intended to be turned into a screenplay * Medical treatment or therapy * Sewage treatment * Surface treatment or surface fi ...
, and
supervision Supervision is an act or instance of directing, managing, or oversight. Etymology The English language, English noun "supervision" derives from the two Latin words "super" (above) and "videre" (see, observe). Spelling The spelling is "Supervis ...
of persons who have been
convicted In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described ...

crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

s. These functions commonly include imprisonment, parole, and probation.Bryan A. Garner, editor, ''Black's Law Dictionary'', 9th ed., West Group, 2009, , 0-314-19949-7, p. 396 (or p. 424 depending on the volume) A typical ''correctional institution'' is a prison. A ''correctional system'', also known as a ''penal system'', thus refers to a network of agencies that administer a jurisdiction's prisons, and community-based programs like parole, and probation boards. This system is part of the larger criminal justice system, which additionally includes police, prosecution and courts. Jurisdictions throughout Provincial correctional services in Canada, Canada and the Department of Corrections, US have ministries or departments, respectively, of corrections, correctional services, or similarly-named agencies. "Corrections" is also the name of a List of academic disciplines, field of academic study concerned with the theories, policies, and programs pertaining to the practice of corrections. Its object of study includes personnel training and management as well as the experiences of those on the other side of the fence — the unwilling subjects of the correctional process. Stohr and colleagues (2008) write that "Earlier scholars were more honest, calling what we now call corrections by the name penology, which means the study of punishment for crime."


The idea of "corrective labor" ( ru , исправительные работы) in Soviet Russia dates back as far as December 1917. From 1929 the USSR started using the terminology Gulag, "corrective-labor camps" (russian: исправительно-трудовые лагеря (ИТЛ)) and corrective labor colony, "corrective labor colonies" (russian: исправительно-трудовые колонии (ИТК)). The terminology change in US academia from "penology" to "corrections" occurred in the 1950s and 1960s which was driven by a new philosophy emphasizing rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitation. It was accompanied by concrete changes in some prisons, like giving more privileges to inmates, and attempting to instill a more communal atmosphere. At least nominally, most prisons became "correctional institutions", and guards became "correctional officers". Although the corrections-related terminology continued thereafter in US correctional practice, the philosophical view on offenders' treatment took an opposite turn in the 1980s, when academics labeled th
"get tough"
program a
"The New Penology"

Community Based Corrections

Community Based Corrections are sanctions imposed on convicted adults or adjudicated juveniles that occur in a residential or community setting outside of jail or prison. The sanctions are enforced by agencies or courts with legal authority over the adult or juvenile offenders. Community Based Corrections can focus on both of adults and juveniles, attempting to rehabilitate them back into the community. In contrary to the "Law and order, tough on crime" mindset which expresses harsh punishment, this community based correctional method seeks to Rehabilitation (penology), transition offenders back into the community.


In Canada, until 1972, the Criminal Code legislated that courts could impose a form of whipping on male offenders, to be administered on up to three occasions, but did not limit the number of strokes. Whipping of female offenders was not allowed. The whipping could be inflicted using a strap, cat-o'-nine-tails, or a paddle unless specified by the court.Abolition of Corporal Punishment 1972
Correctional Service of Canada
The move to abolish corporal punishment in the Canadian penal system coincided with several reforms and a change from the ''Reform Institutions'' label to ''Corrections'' or ''Correctional''. Intermediate sanctions (law), Intermediate sanctions may include sentences to a halfway house or Community service#Alternative sentencing, community service program, home confinement, and electronic monitoring. Additional sanctions may be financial and may include Fine (penalty), fines, Asset forfeiture, forfeiture, and restitution; these are sometimes applied in combination.


The use of Sanctions (law), sanctions, which can be either positive (rewarding) or negative (
punishment Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of soci ...

) is the basis of all criminal theory, along with the main goals of social control, and deterrence of Deviance (sociology), deviant behavior. Many facilities operating in the United States adhere to particular correctional theories. Although often heavily modified, these theories determine the nature of the facilities' design and security operations. The two primary theories used today are the more traditional Remote Supervision and the more contemporary direct supervision model. In the Remote Supervision Model, officers observe the inmate population from remote positions, e.g., towers or secure desk areas. The Direct Supervision Model positions prison officers within the inmate population, creating a more pronounced presence.

See also

*American Correctional Association *Death penalty *Deterrence (legal), Deterrence *Individual rights *National Commission on Correctional Health Care *National Institute of Corrections *National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center *National Prison Rape Elimination Commission *Social control *United States Bureau of Justice Statistics

Juvenile corrections

*Juvenile court *Juvenile delinquency *Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act *Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention


Further reading

* * {{Authority control Criminal law Penology