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A conurbation is a region comprising a number of
metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural cen ...

metropolis
es, cities, large towns, and other
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
s that, through
population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a
polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' ("many") and ''kentrikós'' ("center"). Polycentricism (or polycentricity) is the abstract noun formed from polycentric. They may re ...
urbanised area, in which
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

transport
ation has developed to link areas to create a single urban
labour market Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finlan ...
or
travel to work area A Travel to Work Area or TTWA is a statistical tool used by UK Government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
.
Patrick Geddes Masterplan for Tel Aviv, 1925 Sir Patrick Geddes (2 October 1854 – 17 April 1932) was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner. He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban ...

Patrick Geddes
coined the term in his book ''Cities In Evolution'' (1915). He drew attention to the ability of the then new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, and gave as examples " Midlandton" in England, the
Ruhr The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' (" ...
in Germany,
Randstad The Randstad (; "Rim City") is a conurbation in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas. Among other things, it contains the Po ...

Randstad
in the Netherlands, and Northeastern Seaboard in the United States. The term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
" may have its own common designation, such as
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
or the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is often used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation". A conurbation should also be contrasted with a
megalopolis A megalopolis (), sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, city cluster or supercity, is a group of two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, ur ...
, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous, and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed.


Africa


Mauritius

The cities and towns of
Port Louis Port Louis (french: Port-Louis) is the Capital city, capital city of Mauritius. It is mainly located in the Port Louis District, with a small western part in the Black River District. Port Louis is the country's economic, cultural and political ...

Port Louis
,
Beau Bassin-Rose Hill Beau Bassin-Rose Hill (or Beau-Bassin Rose-Hill; french: Villes sœurs; ) is a town in Mauritius, located in the Plaines Wilhems District. It is administered by the Municipal Council of Beau Bassin-Rose Hill and has a population of 147,066 habitan ...
,
Curepipe Curepipe () also known as ''La Ville-Lumière'' (The City of Light), is a town in Mauritius, located in the Plaines Wilhems District, the eastern part also lies in the Moka District. The town is administered by the Municipal Council of Curepipe. C ...
,
Quatre Bornes Quatre Bornes () also known as ''La Ville des Fleurs'' (The City of Flowers), is a town in Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice ; mfe, Moris oʁis, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean Th ...
,
Vacoas-Phoenix Vacoas-Phoenix () also known as French: ''Villes Jumelles'' (Twin Cities), is a town in Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice ; mfe, Moris oʁis, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean The In ...
and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of
Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice, link=no ; mfe, label=Mauritian Creole Mauritian Creole or Morisien or formerly Morisyen ( mfe, kreol morisien, links=no ) is a French-based creole language spoken in Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: ...

Mauritius
. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of
Plaines Wilhems Plaines Wilhems () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, cou ...
. This network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 (49% of the island's population) as of 2011.


Morocco

Rabat-Salé


Nigeria

Lagos Lagos (Nigerian English Nigerian English, also known as Nigerian Standard English, is a List of dialects of the English language, dialect of English spoken in Nigeria. Based on British English, the dialect contains various loanwords an ...

Lagos
is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns, such as
Ikeja Ikeja is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (o ...

Ikeja
, Ojo, along with various suburban communities like
Agege Agege is a suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television adv ...

Agege
,
Alimosho Alimosho is a Local Government Area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivi ...
,
Ifako-Ijaiye Ifako-Ijaiye is a city and local government area in Lagos, Nigeria. It has a land area of 43 square kilometres (17 sq mi) and had a population of 427,878 people in 2006. The current Ag. Executive Chairman is Prince Usman Akanbi Hamzat History Th ...
,
Kosofe Kosofe is a Local Government Areas of Nigeria, Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Kosofe. It has an area of 81 km² and a population of 665,393 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area ...
, Mushin, Oshodi and
Shomolu Somolu (or Shomolu) is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level s ...
.


South Africa

Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
,
Ekurhuleni The City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is a Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality that forms the local government of the East Rand region of Gauteng Province, Gauteng, South Africa. The municipality itself i ...
(East Rand), and
Tshwane The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (also known as the City of Tshwane) () is the Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality that forms the local government of northern Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Metro ...
(greater Pretoria) are currently merging to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million.


Oceania


Australia


Albury-Wodonga

Albury Albury () is a major regional city in New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the Hume Highway and the northern side of the Murray River. Albury is the Local government in Australia, seat of local government for the council area which also ...
and
Wodonga Wodonga ( Waywurru: ''Wordonga'') is a city on the Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victori ...

Wodonga
are cross border cities that are geographically separated by the
Murray River The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri language, Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta language, Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia. It is list of rivers of Australia#Longest river ...

Murray River
. Albury on the north of the river is part of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, while Wodonga on the south bank is in
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
. In the early 1970s Albury-Wodonga was selected as the primary focus of the
Whitlam Government The Whitlam Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam Edward Gough Whitlam (; 11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975. He led th ...
's scheme to arrest the uncontrolled growth of Australia's large metropolitan areas (in particular
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
and
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
) by encouraging
decentralisation Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group. Concep ...

decentralisation
. Together, the two cities form an urban area with an estimated population of 93,603. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018.


Canberra-Queanbeyan

A cross border built-up area comprising the nation's capital
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
in the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
and the city of
Queanbeyan Queanbeyan is a city in south-eastern region of the Australian state of New South Wales, located adjacent to the Australian Capital Territory in the Southern Tablelands region. Located on the Queanbeyan River, the city is the council seat of th ...
in New South Wales, which is considered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to have a single labour market.


Newcastle, Sydney, Wollongong

Conurbation in New South Wales extends from
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
and surrounding satellite towns of the
Hunter Valley The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It ...

Hunter Valley
through the Central Coast, broken only by waterways and national parks, through to the greater
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
metropolitan area and the
Wollongong Wollongong ( ), informally referred to as "The Gong", is a city located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Wollongong lies on the narrow coastal strip between the Illawarra Escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, 68 kilometres (42 ...

Wollongong
urban area. The total length from the top to the bottom of the conurbation is around 270km with a population of just over 6 million people.Australia’s tale of two nations needs a united front
by Bernard Salt from
The Australian ''The Australian'', with its Saturday edition, ''The Weekend Australian'', is a broadsheet newspaper published by News Corp Australia since 14 July 1964.Bruns, Axel. "3.1. The active audience: Transforming journalism from gatekeeping to gatewat ...
. Retrieved 28 November 2020
Transport is linked throughout the region by motorways, the M1, M2, M4, M5, M7, M8, M15 and M31. An extensive public transport network allows for commuting for work or services across and between multiple distinct but joined centres, with
NSW TrainLink NSW TrainLink is a train and coach operator in Australia, providing services throughout New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, along with limited interstate services into Victoria, Australia, Victoria, Queensland and South Australia ...
's
intercity InterCity (commonly abbreviated ''IC'' on timetables and tickets) is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe. Such trains (in contrast to regional, local, or commuter trains) generally call at maj ...
network serving Sydney, the Central Coast, Newcastle, the Hunter Valley and the
Illawarra Illawarra is a Regions of New South Wales, region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast, New South Wales, South Coast region. It encompa ...

Illawarra
. Plans for making Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle a single city has been around since the 1960s, with a report titled ''The Committee for Sydney'' having a chapter called ''The Sandstone Mega-Region, Uniting Newcastle, the Central Coast, Sydney, Wollongong'' (since all these cities sit on the geological region called the
Sydney Basin #REDIRECT Sydney Basin#REDIRECT Sydney Basin The Sydney Basin is an interim Australian bioregion A bioregion is an ecology, ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a biogeographical realm, but larger than an ecoregio ...
, which is made up of
Sydney sandstone Sydney sandstone is the common name for Sydney Basin Hawkesbury Sandstone, one variety of which is historically known as Yellowblock, and also as "yellow gold" a sedimentary rock named after the Hawkesbury River north of Sydney, where this s ...
). The report discovered that the link would benefit the “six cities” within the region, which are: Illawarra and Wollongong, the Western City (
Greater Western Sydney Greater Western Sydney (GWS) is a large region of the metropolitan area of Greater Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia ...
), the Central City (
Parramatta Parramatta () is a major commercial suburb and Central business district, centre in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately west of the Sydney central business district on the ban ...
), the Eastern City (
Sydney central business district The Sydney Central Business District (CBD) is the historical and main commercial centre of Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Au ...
,
eastern suburbsEastern Suburbs may refer to: Places *Eastern Suburbs (Mumbai), India *Eastern Suburbs (Sydney), Australia **Eastern Suburbs railway line, Sydney, Australia Sports clubs ;Association football *Eastern Suburbs AFC, Auckland, New Zealand *Eastern Su ...
,
Northern Sydney Northern Sydney is a large metropolitan area in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia on the north shore of Port Jackson, Sydney Harbour and Port Jackson, Parramatta River. The region embraces suburbs in Sydney’s north-east, north and inner nor ...
), the Central Coast (
Gosford Gosford is a suburb of the Central Coast Council Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locatio ...
) and Newcastle (including
Lake Macquarie The City of Lake Macquarie is a local government area in the Hunter Region of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. ...
).


Greater Perth

The
Perth Metropolitan Region #REDIRECT Perth metropolitan region The Perth metropolitan region or the Perth metropolitan area is the administrative area and geographical extent of the Western Australian capital city of Perth and its conurbation. It generally includes the ...
,
City of Mandurah The City of Mandurah is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-lev ...
and
Pinjarra
Pinjarra
form a continuous urban area in
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
more than 130 km (80 miles) long, on a north–south axiswhich is sometimes known as "
Greater Perth Greater Perth is Perth Perth () is the list of Australian capital cities, capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is Australia's list of cities in Australia by population, fourth-most populous city, wi ...
"and has a population of more than 2.05 million (2015). Introduction of the
Mandurah railway line The Mandurah railway line is a hybrid Commuter rail, suburban rail/rapid transit railway line on the Transperth Trains network in Western Australia that runs from Perth south to the state's second largest city Mandurah. For part of its route, it ...
in 2007 made it possible for commuters to travel the 70 km (43.5 mi) from
Mandurah station Mandurah () is a coastal city in the Australian state of Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external te ...
to
Perth station
Perth station
in 48 minutes.


South East Queensland

A built-up area 200 kilometres long, centred on
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
, includes the
local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ar ...
s (LGAs) of
Gold Coast Gold Coast may refer to: Places Africa * Gold Coast (region), in West Africa, which was made up of the following colonies, before being established as the independent nation of Ghana: ** Portuguese Gold Coast (Portuguese, 1482–1642) ** Dutch Gol ...

Gold Coast
,
Ipswich Ipswich () is a large port town and borough in Suffolk Suffolk () is a ceremonial Counties of England, county of England in East Anglia. It borders Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lie ...
,
Logan City Logan City is a local government in Australia, local government area situated within the south of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland, Australia. Situated between the City of Brisbane to the north and the City of Gold Coast ...
,
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approx ...
,
Redland City Redland City, better known as the Redlands and formerly known as Redland Shire, is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country su ...
,
Sunshine CoastSunshine Coast may refer to: * Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia **Sunshine Coast Region, a local government area of Queensland named after the region **Sunshine Coast Stadium * Sunshine Coast (British Columbia), geographic subregion of the Bri ...
, Noosa Shire and
Tweed Heads Tweed Heads is a town in New South Wales. It is located on the Tweed River in north-eastern New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast ...

Tweed Heads
,
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. This area is served by a single public transport network, Translink. Broader definitions of
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bio-geographical, metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form ...
are also used, including the separate built-up area of
Toowoomba Toowoomba ( , nicknamed 'The Garden City' and 'T-Bar') is a city in the Toowoomba Region The Toowoomba Region is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrativ ...

Toowoomba
(140 kilometres; 87 miles west of Brisbane), which is not part of the Translink network. Expansive definitions of South East Queensland give it a population of more than 3.4 million people (2014), ERP at 30 June 2014. covers 22,420 square kilometres (8,660 sq mi), incorporates ten LGAs and extends 240 kilometres (150 mi) from
Noosa The Shire of Noosa is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-lev ...

Noosa
in the north to the Gold Coast (some sources include Tweed Heads).


New Zealand

In 2010
Auckland Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The List of New Zealand urban areas by population, most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about It is locate ...
became a unitary authority encompassing seven former city and district councils including
Auckland City Auckland City was a city in the Auckland Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The List of New Zealand urban areas by population, most populous urban area in the country, Auckland ha ...

Auckland City
,
Manukau City Manukau City was a territorial authority district in Auckland Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The List of New Zealand urban areas by population, most populous urban area in th ...
,
North Shore City North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating Direction (geometry), direction or geography. Etymology Th ...
and
Waitakere City Image:Waitakere city coat of arms.JPG, upright=0.90, The coat of arms of the City of Waitakere Waitākere City was a Territorial Authorities of New Zealand, territorial authority in the western part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand; i ...
as well as a number of smaller towns, rural area and the islands of the
Hauraki Gulf (left), the Hauraki Gulf (centre) and the Coromandel Peninsula (right), by NASA's Terra satellite, 2002. The Hauraki Gulf / Tīkapa Moana is a coastal feature of the North Island of New Zealand. It has an area of 4000 km2,Auckland Council , settlement_type = Unitary authority, Unitary territorial authorities of New Zealand, territorial authority , image_blank_emblem = Auckland_Council_Logo.svg , blank_emblem_type = Logo , blank_emble ...
is the largest council in Australasia and the region has a population of 1,529,300, being almost 33% of the total population of New Zealand. Long before formal recognition, the entire urban area rather than the constituent administrative city was often referred to as “Auckland” by New Zealanders. The Wellington Metropolitan Area compromises the four cities of
Wellington City Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-TaraTe Whanganui-a-Tara is the Māori name for Wellington Harbour. The term is also used to refer to the city of Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of ...

Wellington City
,
Porirua Porirua, a list of cities in New Zealand, city in the Wellington Region of the North Island of New Zealand, is one of the four cities that constitute the Wellington, Wellington metropolitan area; thus it is considered a part of Wellington as ...
and the cities of
Lower Hutt Lower Hutt ( mi, Te Awakairangi) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...
and
Upper Hutt Upper Hutt (Māori language, Māori: Te Awa Kairangi ki Uta) is a city in the Wellington Region of New Zealand and one of the four cities that constitute the Wellington, Wellington metropolitan area. Geography The Upper Hutt city centre lies a ...

Upper Hutt
, together known as Hutt Valley. The Wellington Metropolitan Area is the second largest Urban population in New Zealand with a population of 409,200.


North America


Canada


Golden Horseshoe (Ontario)

The "
Golden Horseshoe The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' ...

Golden Horseshoe
" is a densely populated and
industrialized Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based ...

industrialized
region centred on the west end of
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario (french: Lac Ontario) is one of the five Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lakes in the mid-east region ...

Lake Ontario
in
Southern Ontario Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first ...
, Canada. The largest cities in the region are
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
,
Mississauga Mississauga ( ) is a city in the Canadian province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fir ...
, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catharines,
Niagara Falls, Ontario Niagara Falls is a city in Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada ...

Niagara Falls, Ontario
,
Brampton Brampton ( or ) is a city in the Canadian province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-l ...

Brampton
, and
HamiltonHamilton may refer to: * Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804), first American Secretary of the Treasury and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States **Hamilton (musical), ''Hamilton'' (musical), a 2015 Broadway musical written by Lin-Manuel Mira ...
. If metropolitan areas which are somewhat distinct from the core urban area of the Golden Horseshoe by about 30 to 50 km of less developed and semi-rural land are included (similar to Combined Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States as defined by
United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the president's budget, but it also examines agency programs, poli ...
), the total population is 8.8 million people, which is slightly over a quarter (25.6%) of the population of Canada, approximately 75% of Ontario's population and one of the largest metropolitan areas in North America. The larger area is named the
Greater Golden Horseshoe The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' ...
and includes the metropolitan areas of
Kitchener
Kitchener
(including adjacent cities it is often referred to as
Waterloo Region The Regional Municipality of Waterloo (Waterloo Region or Region of Waterloo) is a metropolitan area of Southern Ontario, Canada. It contains the cities of Cambridge, Ontario, Cambridge, Kitchener, Ontario, Kitchener and Waterloo, Ontario, Waterl ...
),
Barrie Barrie is a city and manifesting regional centre in Central Ontario Central Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Can ...
,
Guelph Guelph ( ; 2016 Canadian Census population 131,794) is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Known as "The Royal City", Guelph is roughly east of Kitchener, Ontario, Kitchener and west of Downtown Toronto, at the intersection of Highway 6 (O ...
,
Peterborough Peterborough () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and unitary authority#United Kingdom, unitary authority area in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 202,110 in 2017. Originally part of Northamptonshire, it became ...
, and
Brantford Brantford ( 2016 population 97,496; CMA population 134,203) is a city in southwestern Ontario Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province A province is almost always ...
. The Greater Golden Horseshoe is also part of the Windsor-Quebec Corridor and its southeastern boundary is across the Niagara River from the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area in the United States.


Greater Montreal (Quebec)

Greater Montreal is Canada's second-largest conurbation, with Statistics Canada defining the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) as and a population of 3,824,221 as of Canada 2011 Census, 2011, which represents almost half of the population of the province of Quebec. Slightly smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under th
Montreal Metropolitan Community
to coordinate issues such as land planning, transportation, and economic development.


Lower Mainland (British Columbia)

British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada. It consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver (North Vancouver (city), city and North Vancouver (district municipality), district municipality), West Vancouver, Burnaby, New Westminster, Richmond, British Columbia, Richmond, Surrey, British Columbia, Surrey, and Coquitlam, among others. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million (as of 2011) and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census.


National Capital Region (Ontario and Quebec)

The National Capital Region (NCR) is made up of the capital, Ottawa, and neighbouring Gatineau which is located across the Ottawa River. As Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec, this is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other. The National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is very similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA. When all the communities are added, the population is around 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces.


Mexico


Mexico City (CDMX)

The "CDMX" is the most densely populated center in North America. Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México), constituted by Mexico City itself composed of 16 Municipalities—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo. For normative purposes, however, Greater Mexico City most commonly refers to the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México) an agglomeration that incorporates 18 additional municipalities. As of 2019 an estimated 27,782,000 people lived in Greater Mexico City, making it the largest metropolitan area in North America. It is surrounded by thin strips of highlands which separate it from other adjacent metropolitan areas, of which the biggest are Puebla, Toluca, and Cuernavaca-Cuautla, and together with which it makes up the Mexico City megalopolis.


Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (Guadalajara metropolitan area, Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara)

The Guadalajara conurbation in the state of Jalisco (colloquially known as the City of Guadalajara, as that is the state capital and most populous of the cities) comprises seven municipalities: Guadalajara, Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, Jalisco, Tonalá, El Salto, Jalisco, El Salto, Zapotlanejo, and Tlajomulco de Zúñiga. Officially, two other cities (Juanacatlán and Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos) are also considered part of the Metropolitan Area, though they are not contiguous with the other seven. The area had an estimated population of 4 500 000 in 2010, spread over a combined area of .


United States


Puerto Rico

The Caribbean area has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Juan, Bayamón, Puerto Rico, Bayamón, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico, Guaynabo, Carolina, Puerto Rico, Carolina, Canóvanas, Puerto Rico, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico, Toa Baja, Cataño, Puerto Rico, Cataño, and Caguas, Puerto Rico, Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "San Juan, Puerto Rico metropolitan area, Área Metropolitana", and houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of approximately 396.61 square kilometers (153.13 sq mi), making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area.


New York Tri-state area

One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area (the Tri-state region) centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007. Approximately one-fifteenth of all U.S. residents live in the Greater New York City area, the world's most brightly illuminated urban conurbation and largest urban landmass. This conurbation is the result of several central cities whose urban areas have merged.


Greater Boston Area

Holding a population of 7,427,336 as of 2005, the Combined Statistical Area including Greater Boston consists of Boston proper and a collection of distinct but intertwined cities including Providence, Rhode Island, Worcester, Massachusetts, and Manchester, New Hampshire. Most importantly, the cities that compose the Greater Boston CSA are interlinked by heavy public transportation infrastructure, maintain continuously urban interstices, and hold mutual commuting patterns.


San Francisco Bay Area

Another conurbation is the combination of the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, California, Oakland, and San Jose, California, San Jose and several minor urban centers with a combined population of nearly 8 million people, known as the
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
.


Greater Los Angeles Area

The Greater Los Angeles Area consists of the merging of several distinct central cities and counties, including Los Angeles, Orange County, California, Orange County, Riverside, California, Riverside, San Bernardino, California, San Bernardino, and Ventura County, California, Ventura. This area is also often referred to simply as Southern California or colloquially as SoCal (a larger region which includes San Diego). In 2016, Southern California had a population of 23,800,500, making it slightly larger than the New York Tri-State Area, and is projected to remain so due to a faster growth rate. But because Southern California is not yet a recognized Combined Statistical Area by the Office of Management and Budget, United States Office of Management and Budget, the New York Tri-State Area officially remains the nation's largest as of now.


Greater Houston area

An example of a conurbation is seen in Greater Houston. Centered in Houston, the area is now a continuously urbanized from the coastal areas of Galveston, Texas, Galveston extending through the northern side of the metro area, including The Woodlands, Texas, The Woodlands, Conroe, Texas, Conroe, and Spring, Texas, Spring, going up to Huntsville, Texas, Huntsville. The suburbs of Fort Bend County, Texas extend through the cities of the Galveston Bay Area and beyond to form a population of 7,197,883.


Baltimore–Washington Area

The traditionally separate metropolitan areas of Baltimore and Washington, D.C. have shared suburbs and a continuous urbanization between the two central cities (Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area).


San Diego–Tijuana

The largest conurbation between the United States and Mexico, San Diego–Tijuana includes the two countries' busiest border crossing and a shared economy.


Dallas–Fort Worth

Three large cities — Dallas, Fort Worth, Texas, Fort Worth, and Arlington, Texas, Arlington — make up this area. Each city is linked by bordering city limits or suburbs. The area is also known as the Dallas–Fort Worth “metroplex”, so called because has more than one principal anchor city of nearly equal size or importance, and is included in the emerging megalopolis known as the Texas Triangle. According to ''Texas Monthly'', the term is a portmanteau of the terms "metropolitan" and "complex" and was created by local advertising agency TracyLocke. The North Texas Commission trademarked the term "Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex" in 1972 as a replacement for the previously ubiquitous term "North Texas". Urban areas with smaller secondary anchor cities (such as Mexico City, New York City, Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago and Phoenix, Arizona, Phoenix) are not considered to be conurbations.


Detroit–Windsor

The major U.S. city of Detroit, Detroit, Michigan lies immediately across the Detroit River from Windsor, Ontario in Canada. In many respects—economically, historically, culturally, socially, and geographically—Windsor is more a part of Metro Detroit than of Ontario. The two cities and their surrounding suburbs are commonly referred to collectively as the Detroit–Windsor area. The Detroit-Windsor border is the largest commercial border crossing in North America and the busiest between the two countries.


South Florida

The entire tri-county area also known as the Miami metropolitan area, Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach metropolitan area is now continuously urbanized along a roughly length of the Florida east coast as well as extending inland and continuing south of Miami as far as Florida City, Florida, Florida City. Although this is generally all referred to as a single metropolitan area, not a conurbation, it is sometimes broken up into the Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach metros.


Minneapolis–St. Paul

Minneapolis–Saint Paul is the most populous urban area in the state of Minnesota, and is composed of 182 cities and townships built around the Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix rivers. The area is also nicknamed the Twin Cities for its two largest cities, Minneapolis, with the highest population, and Saint Paul, Minnesota, Saint Paul, the state capital.


Quad Cities

The Quad Cities is a metropolitan area located along the border of Illinois and Iowa. Straddling the Mississippi River as it flows west, the area once known as the "Tri Cities" consists of a handful of larger cities and smaller municipalities that have grown together. The largest cities include Rock Island, Illinois, Rock Island, Moline, Illinois, Moline, and East Moline, Illinois, East Moline in Illinois as well as Davenport, Iowa, Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, Bettendorf in Iowa.


The Valley of the Sun

Phoenix, Arizona is the capital and most populous city in Arizona. It is the center of The Valley of the Sun, recognized by the United States Census Bureau as Chandler, Mesa, and Phoenix in the MSA. Other communities in the metropolitan area include Scottsdale, Glendale, Arizona, Glendale, Tempe, Gilbert, and Peoria.


The Front Range Urban Corridor

Denver, Colorado is the capital and most populous city in Colorado, as well as the most populous municipality in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This conurbation encompasses 18 counties in Colorado and Wyoming and had an estimated population of 4,976,781 in 2018, an increase of 14.84% since the 2010 United States Census.


South America


Argentina

* Greater Buenos Aires (12.046.799) – Greater La Plata (694.253) – Zárate, Buenos Aires Province, Zárate / Campana, Buenos Aires Province, Campana


Brazil

The entire Rio–São Paulo area is also sometimes considered a conurbation, and plans are in the works to connect the cities with a Rio–São Paulo high-speed rail, high-speed rail. However, the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, and population data may not be reliable.


Colombia


Peru


Asia


China

There are 3 well-known conurbations in China: * The Yangtze River Delta comprising Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Ningbo, houses 150 million people and in 2016 it generated $2.76 trillion, 20 percent of China's national GDP. It is responsible for one-third of China's imports and exports. * The Jing-Jin-Ji, Jingjinji, comprising Tianjin, Beijing, Tangshan and Qinhuangdao, houses an estimated 130 million people and is responsible for a GDP of $1.1 trillion. * The Pearl River Delta including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Hong Kong and Macau houses 60 million people and is responsible for a GDP of $1,5 trillion, 9% of China's national GDP.


India

The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) consists of Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils. The region has an area of 4,355 km² and with a population of 20.5 million, and is among the top ten most populated urban agglomerations in the world. It is linked together through the Mumbai Suburban Railway system and a large network of roads. The National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region (NCR) is a name for the coordinated planning region which encompasses the entire Delhi, National Capital Territory of Delhi as well as several surrounding districts in the neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. However, the conurbation of Delhi is actually limited to the NCT of Delhi and the neighbouring contiguous urban areas comprising Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad. The area is officially known as the Central National Capital Region (CNCR), a small part of overall NCR. The population of this conurbation was estimated 21.7 million in 2011. It is the world's third most populous urban agglomeration. The Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, Amaravati Metropolitan Region (AMR) of Andhra Pradesh is a conurbation of three cities, namely Vijayawada, Eluru and Guntur and 11 other towns which include Mangalagiri, Tadepalle Municipality, Tadepalle, Tenali, Ponnuru, Chilakaluripeta, Narasaraopeta, Sattenapally, Nandigama, Jaggayyapeta, Nuzividu, Gudivada and Vuyyuru. The new capital city of the state, Amaravati, is being developed between the cities of Vijayawada and Guntur at the center of the conurbation. The region holds a total population of 58 lakhs. The Greater Jamshedpur, Jamshedpur Metropolitan Area has a plan of Greater Jamshedpur. This place contains the area and city of Adityapur, Mango (Jamshedpur), Maango and Jugsalai


Bangladesh

Dhaka has recently been linked with Narayanganj and Gazipur city such that there are no gaps between Dhaka and those two cities.


Indonesia

Greater Jakarta or Jabodetabek comprises the largest urban area in Indonesia and the second-largest in the world with a population of around 30 million. The center and national capital, Jakarta, has a population of 10.3 million within its borders. The second-most populated city in Indonesia, Surabaya, also forms a conurbation known as Gerbangkertosusila with a metropolitan population of about 10 million compared to the city proper of 3 million. Conurbations are also present around Bandung and Medan.


Israel

* Gush Dan, Metropolitan Area of Tel Aviv, Central District (Israel), Central District (about 45% of the country's total population)


Japan

The Taiheiyō Belt is the largest conurbation in Japan in every sense, extending from Ibaraki Prefecture to Fukuoka Prefecture, running almost 1,200 km, with the total population of 82.9 million. However, it is rarely referred to in Japan itself with each Prefecture maintaining separate identities. The Greater Tokyo Area, also called Shutoken (the National Capital Region (Japan), National Capital Region), is a
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
in the Kantō region, with the estimated population of 35,676,000 in 2007, often referred to as the most populous and economically largest metropolitan area in the world.


Malaysia

The Klang Valley conurbation in the state of Selangor is composed of: * Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia; * Petaling Jaya; * Ampang Jaya; * Pandan Indah; * Subang Jaya; * Shah Alam; * Klang (city), Klang; * Selayang; * Gombak; * Putrajaya; * Cyberjaya; * Sepang; and * Kajang. The second largest conurbation by population in Malaysia is Greater Penang Conurbation, Greater Penang. Centred in George Town, Penang, George Town, the capital city of the Penang, State of Penang, the conurbation also includes the following towns in Penang, and within the neighbouring states of Kedah and Perak. *Butterworth, Penang, Butterworth * Bukit Mertajam * Perai *Batu Kawan * Nibong Tebal * Sungai Petani, Kedah * Kulim District, Kulim, Kedah * Bandar Baharu District, Bandar Baharu, Kedah * Parit Buntar, Perak *Bagan Serai, Perak The third largest conurbation by population in Malaysia is Iskandar Malaysia. Centred in Johor Bahru, the capital city of the state of Johor, the conurbation also includes the following towns in Johor that composed of: * Johor Bahru, the centre of Iskandar Malaysia * Tebrau * Pasir Gudang * Ulu Tiram * Kempas * Tampoi, Johor, Tampoi * Skudai * Iskandar Puteri * Senai * Kulai * Pekan Nenas


Pakistan

*Karachi–Hyderabad, Sindh, is one of the largest metropolitan areas of the world, with a population exceeding 20 million (2017). *Rawalpindi–Islamabad, also known as the twin cities of Pakistan, were built about 8 miles apart and have now completely intertwined into each other due to massive population growth and the expansion of both cities. * Lahore–Raiwind–Kala Shah Kaku, the second largest city in Pakistan with its adjoining towns of Kala Shah Kaku and Raiwind.


Philippines

Metro Manila, also known as the National Capital Region, is a conurbation of the capital Manila, fifteen neighboring cities, and a small town to compose the largest urban center in the Philippines. Within the immediate periphery but not administratively part of the region, are cities and towns belonging to various provinces near the capital region. These include the cities of Antipolo, Bacoor, Meycauayan, San Jose del Monte and San Pedro, Laguna, San Pedro; and the towns of Angono, Binangonan, Cainta, Cardona, Rizal, Cardona, Marilao, Bulacan, Marilao, Obando, Bulacan, Obando, Rodriguez, Rizal, Rodriguez, San Mateo, Rizal, San Mateo and Taytay, Rizal, Taytay.


Turkey

Asian part of Istanbul forms a conurbation together with Gebze, Darıca, Çayırova District, Kocaeli, Çayırova, Dilovası districts of Kocaeli Province, Kocaeli Province and with town of Yalova on south of the Gulf of İzmit, İzmit Bay. Each province has separate governments but they work in close coordination. Transport between Anatolian part of Istanbul and western end of Kocaeli Province, Kocaeli is coordinated by both provinces and there are interprovincial urban buses between Kartal and İzmit and Marmaray, commuter rail service between Halkalı railway station, Halkalı and Gebze via Bosporus, Bosphorus, dense ferry service between Yalova and İstanbul although each municipality has a clear boundary of service. Tri-province region makes 17,5 million, which is 20% of Turkey's population. İzmir and Manisa forms a conurbation. Although there is a Spil Mount, mountain between cities with State road D.565 (Turkey), D565 via Sabuncubeli Tunnel many people daily commutes for work, education and home. In addition, İZBAN commuter rail connects satellite towns with İzmir in north and south directions. Two cities metropolitan areas together makes up of a population of 3,3 million.


Thailand

Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand (14m)


United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates, while comprising seven distinct entities called emirates, each with its own Emirs, contains a significant conurbation formed by the agglomeration of the urban areas of three cities belonging to three separate Emirates. The Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area contains the urban areas of Dubai to the south, Sharjah in the middle and Ajman toward the north eastern end of the conurbation. The total population is about 5.64 million people as of 2015 and as such, contributes to over 70% of the UAE population. Dubai is the major financial hub and Sharjah serves as an industrial, educational, cultural and major residential centre.


Vietnam

*Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area, Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Region: comprising Ho Chi Minh City (itself comprising Ho Chi Minh City#Administration, the inner districts, Nhà Bè, Bình Chánh District, Bình Chánh, Hóc Môn, Củ Chi and Cần Giờ District, Cần Giờ); Bình Dương (itself comprising Thủ Dầu Một, Bến Cát (town), Bến Cát, Tân Uyên Town, Tân Uyên, Thuận An, Dĩ An); Đồng Nai (itself comprising Biên Hòa and Long Thành (township in Đồng Nai), Long Khánh); Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu (itself comprising Vũng Tàu, Bà Rịa, and Phú Mỹ, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu, Phú Mỹ); Tây Ninh (city), Tây Ninh (Tây Ninh Province, Tây Ninh); Tân An, Long An (itself comprising Tân An, Long An Province, Tân An and Kiến Tường); Bình Phước Province, Bình Phước (itself comprising Đồng Xoài, Bình Long, Bình Phước, Bình Long and Phước Long, Bình Phước, Phước Long); Tiền Giang Province, Tiền Giang (itself comprising Mỹ Tho, Cai Lậy (town), Cai Lậy and Gò Công) *Hanoi Capital Region, Hanoi Metropolitan Region: comprising Hanoi, Hà Nội and the former province of Hà Tây Province, Hà Tây (itself comprising Hanoi#Administration, Hà Nội's urban districts, Gia Lâm District, Gia Lâm, Đông Anh, Mê Linh District, Mê Linh, Sóc Sơn District, Sóc Sơn, Hà Đông District, Hà Đông and Sơn Tây); Bắc Ninh Province, Bắc Ninh (itself comprising Từ Sơn and Bắc Ninh); Thái Nguyên Province, Thái Nguyên (itself comprising Thái Nguyên, Sông Công and Phổ Yên District, Phổ Yên); Vĩnh Phúc (itself comprising Phúc Yên and Vĩnh Yên); Phú Thọ Province, Phú Thọ (itself comprising Phú Thọ (town), Phú Thọ and Việt Trì); Hòa Bình City, Hòa Bình (Hòa Bình Province, Hòa Bình); Hưng Yên Province, Hưng Yên (ítelf comprising Hưng Yên and Mỹ Hào (town), Mỹ Hào); Hải Dương Province, Hải Dương (itself comprising Chí Linh (city), Chí Linh and Hải Dương); Bắc Giang (Bắc Giang Province, Bắc Giang) and Phủ Lý (Hà Nam Province, Hà Nam) * Qui Nhơn-Nha Trang-Đà Lạt Conurbation Belt: comprising Qui Nhơn, An Nhơn (Bình Định Province, Bình Định), Sông Cầu, Tuy Hòa (Phú Yên Province, Phú Yên), Ninh Hòa, Nha Trang, Cam Ranh (Khánh Hòa Province, Khánh Hòa), Phan Rang (Ninh Thuận Province, Ninh Thuận) and Da Lat, Đà Lạt (Lâm Đồng Province, Lâm Đồng) * Huế-Da Nang-Quảng Ngãi Conurbation Belt: comprising Huế, Hương Trà District, Hương Trà, Hương Thủy (Thừa Thiên - Huế), Da Nang, Đà Nẵng, Hội An, Tam Kỳ, Điện Bàn District, Điện Bàn (Quảng Nam Province, Quảng Nam), and Quảng Ngãi (Quảng Ngãi Province, Quảng Ngãi)


Europe


Belgium

The Flemish Diamond ( nl, Vlaamse Ruit, links=no) is the Flemish community, Flemish reference to a network of four metropolitan areas in Belgium, three of which are in the central provinces of Flanders, together with the Brussels Capital Region. It consists of four agglomerations which form the four corners of a diamond shape: Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp and Leuven. Over five million people live in this conurbation, with a population density of more than 800 per square kilometre. Actually, given the high level of commuting from and to Brussels every day, supported by one of the densest networks of railways and motorways in the world, It could be easily argued that the whole Belgium and Luxembourg area is one conurbation or is becoming one.


France

The most notable conurbation is Lille-Roubaix-Tourcoing-Villeneuve-d'Ascq, located in the north of France, with over 1.2 million people living in the area. That conurbation is actually an international one as Belgian cities such as Tournai are increasingly playing the role of commuter town for Lille.


Germany

Germany has three conurbations along the River Rhine, namely Rhine-Main, Rhine-Neckar and Rhine-Ruhr. The Rhine-Ruhr is the largest conurbation in continental Europe and is a densely populated polycentric Metropolitan regions in Germany, metropolitan region in the western part of Germany, comprising the three subregions of Ruhr, Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Düsseldorf-Mönchengladbach-Wuppertal Region and Cologne/Bonn Region, Cologne/Bonn Metropolitan Region. These three are all interlinked by a continuous urban settlement, while at the same time having cultural and economic differences.


Italy

Naples metropolitan area, that includes the whole metropolitan city of Naples, Caserta, Salerno and several other municipalities.


Malta

Valletta Urban Area, the area around the Grand Harbour, is the main conurbation in Malta. It contains 27 of the Malta's 68 local councils including the capital Valletta. According to the Demographia, Valletta Urban Area has a population of 300,000,World Urban Areas
– Demographia, 2014
while the European Spatial Planning Observation Network states that the functional urban area of Valletta has a population of 355,000, which represents about 75% of Malta's population.


Netherlands

The
Randstad The Randstad (; "Rim City") is a conurbation in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas. Among other things, it contains the Po ...

Randstad
is a densely populated area in the Netherlands with over 7 million inhabitants. It consists of a cluster of the four most populous cities of the country (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) as well as several smaller cities, towns and urbanized villages.


Poland

Katowice Urban Area (''aglomeracja katowicka, ''konurbacja górnośląska'', ''GOP'') is the largest conurbation in Poland, located in Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Around 5,294,000 people live in the region — up 5.26% of the population of Poland.


Spain

*The conurbation of Barcelona. *The conurbation of Bilbao.


United Kingdom

Industrial and housing growth in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries produced many conurbations. Greater London is by far the largest urban area and is usually counted as a conurbation in statistical terms, but differs from the others in the degree to which it is focused on a single central area. In the mid-1950s the Metropolitan Green Belt, Green Belt was introduced to stem the further urbanisation of the countryside in South East England. The list below shows the most populous urban areas in the UK as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Different organisations define conurbations in the UK differently for example, Liverpool–Manchester Megalopolis, the Liverpool–Manchester or the Manchester–Liverpool conurbation is defined as one conurbation by AESOP in a comparison report published by the University of Manchester in 2005 foun
here.
The Liverpool–Manchester Conurbation has a population of 5.68 million.


See also

* Ecumenopolis * Ekistics * Megalopolis * Transborder agglomeration * Urban sprawl


References


Further reading

:
Patrick Geddes Masterplan for Tel Aviv, 1925 Sir Patrick Geddes (2 October 1854 – 17 April 1932) was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner. He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban ...

Patrick Geddes

In Evolution
'' : Edward Soja – ''"Postmetropolis"'' {{Cities Urban studies and planning terminology Urbanization Types of populated places