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Combat (
French
French
for ''fight'') is a purposeful
violent Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violent
conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using
weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defe ...
s) or unarmed ( not using weapons). Combat is sometimes resorted to as a method of
self-defense Self-defense (self-defence in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense The right of self-defense (also called, when ...
, or can be used as a tool to impose one's will on others. An instance of combat can be a stand-alone confrontation or a small part of a much larger violent conflict. Instances of combat may also be benign and recreational, as in the cases of
combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Combat sports share a long p ...
s and
mock combat Mock combat involves the execution of combative actions without intent to harm. Participants can engage in such sparring for ritual, training, recreational or performance reasons. The nature of mock combat can vary from Realism (arts), realistic ...
. Combat may comply with, or be in violation of, local or international laws regarding conflict. Examples of rules include the
Geneva Conventions file:Geneva Convention 1864 - CH-BAR - 29355687.pdf, upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions are four Treaty, treaties, and three additional Protocol (diplomacy), protocols, that establish internatio ...
(covering the treatment of people in war), medieval
chivalry Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal and varying code of conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised ...
, the
Marquess of Queensberry rules 1877 '' Vanity Fair'' caricature of The 9th Marquess of Queensberry. The caption reads "A good light weight" The Marquess of Queensberry Rules, also known as Queensbury Rules, are a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing Boxin ...
(covering boxing) and several forms of combat sports.


Hand-to-hand combat

Hand-to-hand combat Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a physical confrontation between two or more persons at short range (grappling Grappling, in hand-to-hand combat Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a ph ...
(
melee A melee ( or , French: mêlée ) or pell-mell is disorganized hand-to-hand combat Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a physical confrontation between two or more persons at short range (grappling Grappling, in h ...
) is combat at very close range, attacking the opponent with the body ( striking,
kick A kick is a physical strike Strike may refer to: People *Strike (surname) Physical confrontation or removal *Strike (attack), attack with an inanimate object or a part of the human body intended to cause harm *Airstrike, military strike by ...

kick
ing,
strangling Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost. It involves a complete, or near-complete, lack of re ...
, etc.) and/or with a
melee weapon A melee weapon, hand weapon or close combat weapon is any handheld weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and e ...
(
knives A knife (plural knives; from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse wa ...

knives
,
sword A sword is an edged, bladed weapon intended for manual cutting or thrusting. Its blade, longer than a knife A knife (plural knives; from Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Ge ...

sword
s,
baton Baton may refer to: Stick-like objects *Baton (conducting), a short thin stick used for directing a musical performance *Baton, a type of Club (weapon), club **Baton (law enforcement) **Baston (weapon), a type of baton used in Arnis and Filipino M ...
s, etc.), as opposed to a
ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting ...
. Hand-to-hand combat can be further divided into three sections depending on the distance and positioning of the combatants: *
Clinch fighting Clinch fighting is the part of where the combatants are in a , typically using . Clinching the opponent can be used to eliminate the opponent's effective usage of some , , and . The clinch can also be used as a medium to switch from stand-up fig ...
*
Ground fighting Ground may refer to: * Soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, ga ...
*
Stand-up fighting In martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using w ...


Military combat

Military combat War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (news ...
has always between two or more opposing
military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
in
warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

warfare
. Military combat situations can involve multiple groups, involving
guerilla Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States joint doctrine as "a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations." Concepts a ...
groups,
insurgents An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Socio ...

insurgents
, domestic and/or foreign
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
s. A military conflict is known either as a
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...

battle
or a
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
, depending on the size of the fighting and exactly which geographical areas in which the
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
/
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...

battle
occurs.
Combat effectiveness Combat effectiveness is the capacity or performance of a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict bet ...
has always demanded that the personnel maintain strategic preparedness by being sufficiently
trained Image:Christer Fuglesang underwater EVA simulation for STS-116.jpg, An astronaut in training for an extravehicular activity mission using an underwater simulation environment on Earth. Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any ...
,
armed Armed (May, 1941–1964) was an United States, American Thoroughbred gelding horse racing, race horse who was the American Horse of the Year in 1947 and Eclipse Award for Outstanding Older Male Horse, Champion Older Male Horse in both 1946 and 1 ...
, equipped, and funded to carry out combat operations in the unit to which they are assigned.North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nato Standardization Agency AAP-6 - Glossary of terms and definitions, p. 80 Warfare falls under the
laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war define sovereignty and nationhood, states and territor ...
, which govern its purposes and conduct, and protect the rights of
combatants Combatant is the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups suc ...
and
non-combatants Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known ...
.


References


Sources

*
Martin van Creveld
Martin van Creveld
: The Changing Face of War: Lessons of Combat, from the Marne to Turkey. Maine, New England 2007.


Further reading

*
Wong, Leonard Leonard Wong is a Research Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, ''professor'' d ...
. 2006.
Combat Motivation in Today’s Soldiers: U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute
”''Armed Forces & Society'', vol. 32: pp. 659–663. *Gifford, Brian. 2005.
Combat Casualties and Race: What Can We Learn from the 2003-2004 Iraq Conflict?
''Armed Forces & Society'', vol. 31: pp. 201–225. *Herspring, Dale. 2006.
Undermining Combat Readiness in the Russian Military, 1992-2005.
''Armed Forces & Society'', Jul 2006; vol. 32: pp. 513–531. *Ben-Shalom, Uzi; Lehrer, Zeev; and Ben-Ari, Eyal. 2005.
Cohesion during Military Operations: A Field Study on Combat Units in the Al-Aqsa Intifada
” ''Armed Forces & Society'', vol. 32: pp. 63–79. *Woodruff, Todd; Kelty, Ryan; Segal, Archie Cooper, David R. 2006.
Propensity to Serve and Motivation to Enlist among American Combat Soldiers
” ''Armed Forces & Society'', Apr 2006; vol. 32: pp. 353–366. *Dienstfrey, Stephen. 1988
“Women Veterans’ Exposure to Combat.”
''Armed forces & Society'', vol. 14: pp. 549–558. {{Authority control Military operations by type