Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates
, sometimes with variable amounts of iron
, alkali metal
s, alkaline earth
s, and other cation
s found on or near some planetary surface
Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of abiogenesis
involve them. They are important constituents of soils
, and have been useful to humans since ancient times in agriculture
s form flat hexagonal sheets similar to the mica
s. Clay mineral
s are common weathering
products (including weathering of feldspar
) and low-temperature hydrothermal alteration
products. Clay minerals are very common in soils, in fine-grained sedimentary rock
s such as shale
, and siltstone
and in fine-grained metamorphic slate
Clay minerals are usually (but not necessarily) ultrafine-grained (normally considered to be less than 2 micrometres in size on standard particle size classifications) and so may require special analytical techniques for their identification and study. These include X-ray diffraction
, electron diffraction
methods, various spectroscopic methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy
, infrared spectroscopy
, Raman spectroscopy
, and SEM
or automated mineralogy
processes. These methods can be augmented by polarized light microscopy
, a traditional technique establishing fundamental occurrences or petrologic relationships.
Given the requirement of water, clay minerals are relatively rare in the Solar System
, though they occur extensively on Earth where water has interacted with other minerals and organic matter
. Clay minerals have been detected at several locations on Mars
, including Echus Chasma
, Mawrth Vallis
, the Memnonia quadrangle
and the Elysium quadrangle
. Spectrography has confirmed their presence on asteroids including the dwarf planet Ceres
and Tempel 1
as well as Jupiter's moon Europa
Clay minerals can be classified as 1:1 or 2:1, this originates because they are fundamentally built of tetrahedral silicate
sheets and octahedral hydroxide
sheets, as described in the structure section below. A 1:1 clay would consist of one tetrahedral sheet and one octahedral sheet, and examples would be kaolinite
. A 2:1 clay consists of an octahedral sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets, and examples are talc
, and montmorillonite
Clay minerals include the following groups:
group which includes the minerals kaolinite
, and nacrite
** Some sources include the kaolinite-serpentine group
due to structural similarities.
* Smectite group which includes dioctahedral smectites, such as montmorillonite
and beidellite, and trioctahedral smectites, such as saponite
In 2013, analytical tests by the Curiosity rover
found results consistent with the presence of ''smectite clay minerals'' on the planet Mars
group which includes the clay-micas. Illite is the only common mineral.
* Chlorite group
includes a wide variety of similar minerals with considerable chemical variation.
* Other 2:1 clay types exist such as palygorskite
(also known as attapulgite
) and sepiolite
, clays with long water channels internal to their structure.
Mixed blue layer clay variations exist for most of the above groups. Ordering is described as a random or regular order and is further described by the term reichweite
, which is German for range or reach. Literature articles will refer to an R1 ordered illite-smectite, for example. This type would be ordered in an ISIS fashion. R0 on the other hand describes random ordering, and other advanced ordering types are also found (R3, etc.). Mixed layer clay minerals which are perfect R1 types often get their own names. R1 ordered chlorite-smectite is known as corrensite, R1 illite-smectite is rectorite.
The crystallographic structure of clay minerals became better understood in the 1930s with advancements in the x-ray diffraction
(XRD) technique indispensable to decipher their crystal lattice.
Standardization in terminology arose during this period as well
with special attention given to similar words that resulted in confusion such as sheet and plane.
Like all phyllosilicates, clay minerals are characterised by two-dimensional ''sheets'' of corner-sharing tetrahedra and/or octahedra. The sheet units have the chemical composition . Each silica tetrahedron shares 3 of its vertex oxygen atoms with other tetrahedra forming a hexagonal array in two-dimensions. The fourth vertex is not shared with another tetrahedron and all of the tetrahedra "point" in the same direction; i.e. all of the unshared vertices are on the same side of the sheet.
In clays, the tetrahedral sheets are always bonded to octahedral sheets formed from small cations, such as aluminum or magnesium, and coordinated by six oxygen atoms. The unshared vertex from the tetrahedral sheet also forms part of one side of the octahedral sheet, but an additional oxygen atom is located above the gap in the tetrahedral sheet at the center of the six tetrahedra. This oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom forming an OH group in the clay structure. Clays can be categorized depending on the way that tetrahedral and octahedral sheets are packaged into ''layers''. If there is only one tetrahedral and one octahedral group in each layer the clay is known as a 1:1 clay. The alternative, known as a 2:1 clay, has two tetrahedral sheets with the unshared vertex of each sheet pointing towards each other and forming each side of the octahedral sheet.
Bonding between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets requires that the tetrahedral sheet becomes corrugated or twisted, causing ditrigonal distortion to the hexagonal array, and the octahedral sheet is flattened. This minimizes the overall bond-valence distortions of the crystallite.
Depending on the composition of the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets, the layer will have no charge or will have a net negative charge. If the layers are charged this charge is balanced by interlayer cations such as Na+
. In each case the interlayer can also contain water. The crystal structure is formed from a stack of layers interspaced with the interlayers.
Biomedical applications of clays
As most of the clays are made from minerals, they are highly biocompatible and have interesting biological properties. Due to disc-shaped and charged surfaces, clay interacts with a range of macromolecules such as drugs, protein, polymers, DNA, etc. Some of the applications of clays include drug delivery, tissue engineering, and bioprinting.
Clay minerals can be incorporated in lime-metakaolin mortars to improve mechanical properties. Electrochemical separation helps to obtain modified saponite-containing products with high smectite-group minerals concentrations, lower mineral particles size, more compact structure, and greater surface area. These characteristics open possibilities for the manufacture of high-quality ceramics and heavy-metal sorbents from saponite-containing products.
Furthermore, tail grinding occurs during the preparation of the raw material for ceramics; this waste reprocessing is of high importance for the use of clay pulp as a neutralizing agent, as fine particles are required for the reaction. Experiments on the Histosol
deacidification with the alkaline clay slurry demonstrated that neutralization with the average pH level of 7.1 is reached at 30% of the pulp added and an experimental site with perennial grasses proved the efficacy of the technique. Moreover, the reclamation of disturbed lands is an integral part of the social and environmental responsibility of the mining company and this scenario addresses the community necessities at both local and regional levels.
* Mudstone/clays on planet Mars