In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxon, taxa (singular: ...
, class ( la, classis) is a
In biological classification
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, ...
, as well as a taxonomic unit, a
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
, in that rank. Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signaling, signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (they have Death ...
Domain may refer to:
*Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined
**Domain of definition of a partial function
**Natural domain of a partial function
**Domain of holomorphy of a function
Kingdom may refer to:
* A type of monarchy
* A realm ruled by:
**A king, during the reign of a male monarch
**A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch
* Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy
Arts an ...
In biology, a phylum (; plural
The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typically denotes a q ...
Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to:
Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness
Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the habit of achieving a ...
In human society
A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politics, ...
Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In the hierarchy of biolog ...
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...
, with class fitting between phylum and order.
The class as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name (and not just called a ''top-level genus'' ''(genus summum)'') was first introduced by the
French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to:
* Something of, from, or related to France
France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ... botanist
Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ... Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist
Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science
Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic ent ...
in his classification of plants that appeared in his ''Eléments de botanique'', 1694.
Insofar as a general definition of a class is available, it has historically been conceived as embracing taxa that combine a distinct ''grade'' of organization—i.e. a 'level of complexity', measured in terms of how differentiated their organ systems are into distinct regions or sub-organs—with a distinct ''type'' of construction, which is to say a particular layout of organ systems. This said, the composition of each class is ultimately determined by the subjective judgement of
In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxon, taxa (singular ...
s. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no objective rules for describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus.
In the first edition of his ''
' (originally in Latin
Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...
divided all three of his kingdoms
of Nature (
In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (20 ...
Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and included algae and fungi; however, all current definitions o ...
Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiration#Aerobic respiration, ...
s) into classes. Only in the animal kingdom are Linnaeus's classes similar to the classes used today; his classes and orders of plants were never intended to represent natural groups, but rather to provide a convenient "artificial key" according to his ''
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts:
# the particular form of biological classification
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical struc ...
'', largely based on the arrangement of flowers. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed. Since the first publication of the
APG systemThe APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy. Published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, it was replaced by the improved AP ...
in 1998, which proposed a taxonomy of the
Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek
Greek may refer to:
Anything of, from, or related to Greece
Greece ( el, Ελλά ...
s up to the level of orders, many sources have preferred to treat ranks higher than orders as informal
A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organism
In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell t ...
s. Where formal ranks have been assigned, the ranks have been reduced to a very much lower level, e.g. class Equisitopsida for the land plants, with the major divisions within the class assigned to subclasses and superorders.
The class was considered the highest level of the taxonomic hierarchy until
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (; 23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in ...
's ''embranchements'', first called Phyla
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist
Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stu ...
[Collins, A.G., Valentine, J.W. (2001)]
"Defining phyla: evolutionary pathways to metazoan body plans"
''Evol. Dev''. 3: 432-442.
were introduced in the early nineteenth century.
Hierarchy of ranks below and above the level of class
As with the other principal ranks, classes can be grouped and subdivided. Here are some examples.
Cladistics (; ) is an approach to biological classification
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular ...
* List of animal classes
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, ...
Biology, Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the Correlation and dependence, relationships among living things through time. Relationships are visualized as evolutionary trees (syn ...
Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
Class or The Class may refer to:
Common uses not otherwise categorized
* Class (biology), a taxonomic rank
* Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects
* Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...