HOME

TheInfoList




Civil engineering is a
professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure Licensure means a restricted practic ...
discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including
public works Public works are a broad category of projects, financed and constructed by the , for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater . They include public buildings (, s, s), (s, s, s, , s, s, s), (s, s, es), public servi ...

public works
such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports,
sewage system Sewerage (or sewage system) is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers. It encompasses components such as receiving drainage, drains, manholes, pumping stations, storm overflows, an ...
s, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after
military engineering Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport Military supply-chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, produc ...
, and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering can take place in the public sector from municipal
public works Public works are a broad category of projects, financed and constructed by the , for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater . They include public buildings (, s, s), (s, s, s, , s, s, s), (s, s, es), public servi ...

public works
departments through to federal government agencies, and in the private sector from locally based firms to global
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
companies.


History


Civil engineering as a discipline

Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of
physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of eve ...

physics
and
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no general consensus abo ...
throughout history. Because civil engineering is a broad profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography,
geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can ...

geology
,
soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms tha ...

soil
s,
hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ...
,
environmental science Environmental science is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other ...
,
mechanics Mechanics (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million ...

mechanics
,
project management Project management is the process of leading the work of a team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal A goal is an idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study o ...
, and other fields. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by
artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional or strictly decorative, for example fur ...

artisan
s, such as
stonemasons Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and ...

stonemasons
and
carpenter Carpenters in an Indian village Carpentry is a skilled trade A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often fo ...

carpenter
s, rising to the role of
master builder A master builder or master mason is a central figure leading construction projects in pre-modern times (a precursor to the modern architect and engineer). Historically, the term has generally referred to "the head of a construction project in the ...

master builder
. Knowledge was retained in
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional ...
s and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads, and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

Archimedes
in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of
buoyancy Buoyancy (), or upthrust, is an upward exerted by a that opposes the of a partially or fully immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bo ...

buoyancy
, and practical solutions such as
Archimedes' screw Archimedes' screw, also known as the water screw, screw pump upPrinciple of screw pump (Saugseite = intake, Druckseite = outflow) A screw pump, also known as a water screw, is a positive-displacement (PD) pump that use one or several screws to mo ...
.
Brahmagupta Brahmagupta ( – ) was an Indian mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematic ...

Brahmagupta
, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation (volume) computations.


Civil engineering profession

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a of , concentrated along the lower reaches of the , situated in the place that is now the country . Ancient Egyptian civilization followed and coalesced around 3100 (according to ) with the political unification of u ...

ancient Egypt
, the
Indus Valley Civilization , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...

Indus Valley Civilization
, and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
(ancient Iraq) when humans started to abandon a
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
ic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and
sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the ''water'' (sailing ship, sailboat, Windsurfing, windsurfer, or Kitesurfing, kitesurfer), on ''ice'' (iceboat) or on ''land'' (Land sailing ...
. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same occupation, and often used interchangeably. The construction of
pyramids A pyramid (from el, πυραμίς ') is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single step at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilater ...
in Egypt (circa 2700–2500 BC) were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the
Qanat A qanat or kariz, is a system for transporting water from an aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeability (Earth sciences), permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groun ...

Qanat
water management system (the oldest is older than 3000 years and longer than 71 km,) the
Parthenon The Parthenon (; grc, Παρθενών, , ; ell, Παρθενώνας, , ) is a former temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect te ...

Parthenon
by
Iktinos Ictinus (; el, Ἰκτῖνος, ''Iktinos'') was an architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings ...
in
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
(447–438 BC), the
Appian Way The Appian Way (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...

Appian Way
by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), the
Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China () is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against Eurasian nomads, various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Step ...

Great Wall of China
by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC) and the stupas constructed in ancient
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
like the
Jetavanaramaya The Jetavanaramaya ( si, ජේතවනාරාමය, ''jētavanārāmaya'') is a stupa A stūpa (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South ...
and the extensive irrigation works in
Anuradhapura Anuradhapura ( si, අනුරාධපුරය, translit=Anurādhapuraya; ta, அனுராதபுரம், translit=Aṉurātapuram) is a major city in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, t ...

Anuradhapura
. The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially
aqueducts Aqueduct may refer to: Bridges *Aqueduct (bridge) Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, Italy, built by Luigi Vanvitelli. It is a World Heritage Site and one of the finest examples of an aqueduct in Europe. Aqueducts or water bridges are bridges constructe ...

aqueducts
,
insulae The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...
, harbors, bridges, dams and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering. In 1747, the first institution for the teaching of civil engineering, the
École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées École may refer to: * an elementary school in the French educational stages Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. Th ...
was established in France; and more examples followed in other European countries, like
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
. The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was
John Smeaton John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discip ...

John Smeaton
, who constructed the
Eddystone Lighthouse The Eddystone Lighthouse is a lighthouse that is located on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, south of Rame Head in Cornwall, England. The rocks are submerged below the surface of the sea and are composed of Precambrian gneiss. View at 1:50000 s ...

Eddystone Lighthouse
. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, and in 1820 the eminent engineer
Thomas Telford Thomas Telford FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:


Civil engineering education

The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was
Norwich University Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springf ...
, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute () (RPI) is a private university, private research university in Troy, New York, with additional campuses in Rensselaer at Hartford, Hartford and Groton, Connecticut. It was established in 1824 by Stephen Van Re ...
in 1835. The first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by
Cornell University Cornell University is a and , based in . Founded in 1865 by and , Cornell was founded with the intention to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge — from the to the s, and from the to the applied. These ideals, unconve ...
to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering (served by the
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich Woolwich () is a district in South London, southeast London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. The district's location on the River Thames led to its status as an important naval, mil ...
), coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at
King's College London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public university, public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and Member institutions of the University of London, member institution of the f ...
in 1838, mainly as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in
Putney Putney () is a district in southwest London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England ...
was established in 1839, and the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
in 1840.


Education

''Civil engineers'' typically possess an
academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including Bach ...
in civil engineering. The length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is designated as a
bachelor of technology A Bachelor of Technology (Latin ''Baccalaureus Technologiae'', commonly abbreviated as B.Tech. or BTech; with Academic honors, honours as B.Tech. (Hons.)) is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after the completion of a three-year, a four- ...
, or a
bachelor of engineering A Bachelor of Engineering (abbreviated as B.E., B.Eng. or B.A.I. in Latin form) is a first professional undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically in ...
. The curriculum generally includes classes in physics, mathematics,
project management Project management is the process of leading the work of a team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal A goal is an idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study o ...
, design and specific topics in civil engineering. After taking basic courses in most sub-disciplines of civil engineering, they move on to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines at advanced levels. While an undergraduate degree (BEng/BSc) normally provides successful students with industry-accredited qualification, some academic institutions offer post-graduate degrees (MEng/MSc), which allow students to further specialize in their particular area of interest.,


Practicing engineers

In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards
professional certification Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply ''certification'' or ''qualification'', is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task. Not all certifications ...
, and a
professional body Regulatory colleges are legal entities in Canada charged with serving the public interest by regulating the practice of a profession. Most regulatory colleges are established by an Act of Parliament, acts of parliament instead of through articles o ...
certifies the degree program. After completing a certified degree program, the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements including work experience and exam requirements before being certified. Once certified, the engineer is designated as a
professional engineer Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure Licensure means a restricted practi ...
(in the United States, Canada and South Africa), a
chartered engineer Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure process through which an engineer bec ...
(in most
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
countries), a chartered professional engineer (in Australia and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
), or a European engineer (in most countries of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
). There are international agreements between relevant professional bodies to allow engineers to practice across national borders. The benefits of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada, "only a licensed
professional engineer Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure Licensure means a restricted practi ...
may prepare, sign and seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or seal engineering work for public and private clients." This requirement is enforced under provincial law such as the Engineers Act in
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
. No such legislation has been enacted in other countries including the United Kingdom. In Australia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state of
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
. Almost all certifying bodies maintain a
code of ethics Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between right Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental nor ...
which all members must abide by. Engineers must obey
contract law A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; ...
in their contractual relationships with other parties. In cases where an engineer's work fails, they may be subject to the law of
tort of negligence Negligence (Lat. ''negligentia'') is a failure to exercise appropriate and/or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances. The area of tort law known as ''negligence'' involves harm caused by failing to act as a for ...

tort of negligence
, and in extreme cases, criminal charges. An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as
building codes A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanent ...
and
environmental law Environmental law is a collective term encompassing aspects of the law that provide protection to the environment. A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now strongly influenced by environmental legal principles, focus on the manageme ...
.


Sub-disciplines

There are a number of sub-disciplines within the broad field of civil engineering. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to design grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, dams, electric and communications supply. General civil engineering is also referred to as site engineering, a branch of civil engineering that primarily focuses on converting a tract of land from one usage to another. Site engineers spend time visiting project sites, meeting with stakeholders, and preparing construction plans. Civil engineers apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects of all sizes and levels of construction.


Coastal engineering

''Coastal engineering'' is concerned with managing coastal areas. In some jurisdictions, the terms sea defense and coastal protection mean defense against flooding and erosion, respectively. The term coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to techniques that allow erosion to claim land.


Construction engineering

''Construction engineering'' involves planning and execution, transportation of materials, site development based on hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering. As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms do, construction engineers often engage in more business-like transactions, for example, drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating , and monitoring prices of supplies.


Earthquake engineering

''Earthquake engineering'' involves designing structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures. Earthquake engineering is a sub-discipline of structural engineering. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are to understand interaction of structures on the shaky ground; foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes; and design, construct and maintain structures to
perform PerForm and PerForm PRO were electronic form programs, initially designed to work under Graphics Environment Manager, GEM in DOS. Later versions were designed to work in Windows 3.1, at which point it was succeeded by FormFlow. The initial version ...
at earthquake in compliance with
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, ...
s.


Environmental engineering

''Environmental engineering'' is the contemporary term for
sanitary engineering Sanitary engineering, also known as public health engineering or wastewater engineering, is the application of engineering methods to improve sanitation Sanitation refers to public health Public health has been defined as "the science an ...
, though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by environmental engineering. Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms being used. Environmental engineering deals with treatment of chemical, biological, or thermal wastes, purification of water and air, and remediation of contaminated sites after waste disposal or accidental contamination. Among the topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport,
water purification Water purification means the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from water. The goal is to produce water that is fit for specific purposes. Most water is purified and disinfected for ...
,
waste water treatment Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle. Once returned to the water cycle, the effluent creates an acceptable impact on the environment ...

waste water treatment
, air pollution, ,
recycling Recycling is the process of converting waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or ...

recycling
, and hazardous waste management. Environmental engineers administer pollution reduction,
green engineering Green engineering approaches the design of products and processes by applying financially and technologically feasible principles to achieve one or more of the following goals: (1) decrease in the amount of pollution that is generated by a construct ...
, and
industrial ecology Industrial ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems. The global Global means of or referring to a globe A globe is a spherical physical model, model of Earth, of some other astronomical object, celes ...
. Environmental engineers also compile information on environmental consequences of proposed actions.


Forensic engineering

''Forensic engineering'' is the investigation of materials,
products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Produc ...
, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although it may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally the purpose of a Forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s.


Geotechnical engineering

''Geotechnical engineering'' studies rock and soil supporting civil engineering systems. Knowledge from the field of
soil science Soil science is the study of soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, mine ...
, materials science,
mechanics Mechanics (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million ...

mechanics
, and
hydraulics Hydraulics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
is applied to safely and economically design foundations,
retaining wall Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting soil laterally so that it can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not naturally keep to ( ...

retaining wall
s, and other structures. Environmental efforts to protect
groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living ...

groundwater
and safely maintain landfills have spawned a new area of research called geo-environmental engineering.Mitchell, James Kenneth (1993), Fundamentals of Soil Behavior (2nd ed.), John Wiley and Sons, pp 1–2 Identification of soil properties presents challenges to geotechnical engineers.
Boundary condition Boundary or Boundaries may refer to: * Border, in political geography Entertainment * ''Boundaries'' (2016 film), a 2016 Canadian film * ''Boundaries'' (2018 film), a 2018 American-Canadian road trip film Mathematics and physics * Boundary (top ...
s are often well defined in other branches of civil engineering, but unlike steel or concrete, the material properties and behavior of soil are difficult to predict due to its variability and limitation on investigation. Furthermore, soil exhibits nonlinear ( stress-dependent)
strength Physical strength *Physical strength, as in people or animals *Hysterical strength, extreme strength occurring when people are in life-and-death situations *Superhuman strength, great physical strength far above human capability *A common attrib ...
, stiffness, and dilatancy (volume change associated with application of shear stress), making studying
soil mechanics Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics Soil physics is the study of soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, a ...
all the more difficult. Geotechnical engineers frequently work with professional
geologists A geologist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern scien ...
and soil scientists.


Materials science and engineering

''Materials science'' is closely related to civil engineering. It studies fundamental characteristics of materials, and deals with ceramics such as concrete and mix asphalt concrete, strong metals such as aluminum and steel, and
thermosetting polymer In materials science, a thermosetting polymer, often called a thermoset, is a polymer that is obtained by Reversible process (thermodynamics), irreversibly hardening ("curing (chemistry), curing") a soft solid or viscous liquid prepolymer (resin). ...
s including polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers. ''Materials engineering'' involves protection and prevention (paints and finishes). Alloying combines two types of metals to produce another metal with desired properties. It incorporates elements of
applied physics Applied physics is the application of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (p ...
and
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
. With recent media attention on
nanoscience Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...
and
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
, materials engineering has been at the forefront of academic research. It is also an important part of forensic engineering and
failure analysisFailure analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data to determine the cause of a failure The 1895 alt= Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective (goal), objective, and may be viewed as the op ...
.


Site development and planning

''Site development'', also known as ''site planning'', is focused on the planning and development potential of a site as well as addressing possible impacts from issues and environmental challenges.


Structural engineering

''Structural engineering'' is concerned with the
structural design Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man-made structures. Structural engineers also must understand and calcu ...
and
structural analysis Structural analysis is the determination of the effects of load Load or LOAD may refer to: Aeronautics and transportation *Load factor (aeronautics), the ratio of the lift of an aircraft to its weight *Passenger load factor, the ratio of reve ...
of buildings, bridges,
tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rul ...

tower
s, (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea,
aerostructure An aerostructure is a component of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, ...
and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be ''serviceable''). Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including
wind engineering Wind engineering is a subset of mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridg ...
and earthquake engineering. Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
.


Surveying

''Surveying'' is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that occur on or near the surface of the Earth. Surveying equipment such as levels and theodolites are used for accurate measurement of angular deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. With computerisation, electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning have to a large extent supplanted traditional instruments. Data collected by survey measurement is converted into a graphical representation of the Earth's surface in the form of a map. This information is then used by civil engineers, contractors and realtors to design from, build on, and trade, respectively. Elements of a structure must be sized and positioned in relation to each other and to site boundaries and adjacent structures. Although surveying is a distinct profession with separate qualifications and licensing arrangements, civil engineers are trained in the basics of surveying and mapping, as well as
geographic information system A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The ( ...
s. Surveyors also lay out the routes of railways,
tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder rails) are often used to provide a protective flangeway in the trackwork in city streets. Like standard Track ( ...
s, highways, roads, pipelines and streets as well as position other infrastructure, such as
harbor A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engl ...

harbor
s, before construction. ;Land surveying In the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries land surveying is considered to be a separate and distinct profession. are not considered to be engineers, and have their own professional associations and licensing requirements. The services of a licensed land surveyor are generally required for boundary surveys (to establish the boundaries of a parcel using its legal description) and subdivision plans (a plot or map based on a survey of a parcel of land, with boundary lines drawn inside the larger parcel to indicate the creation of new boundary lines and roads), both of which are generally referred to as
Cadastral surveyingCadastral surveying is the sub-field of cadastre and surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles betwe ...
. ;Construction surveying Construction surveying is generally performed by specialized technicians. Unlike land surveyors, the resulting plan does not have legal status. Construction surveyors perform the following tasks: * Surveying existing conditions of the future work site, including topography, existing buildings and infrastructure, and underground infrastructure when possible; * "lay-out" or "setting-out": placing reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings; * Verifying the location of structures during construction; * As-Built surveying: a survey conducted at the end of the construction project to verify that the work authorized was completed to the specifications set on plans.


Transportation engineering

''Transportation engineering'' is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets, canals, highways, rail transport, rail systems, airports, ports, and mass transit. It includes areas such as transportation design, transportation planning, traffic engineering (transportation), traffic engineering, some aspects of municipal or urban engineering, urban engineering, queueing theory, pavement engineering, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), and infrastructure management.


Municipal or urban engineering

''Municipal engineering'' is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks, municipal water supply, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, storage depots for various bulk materials used for maintenance and public works (salt, sand, etc.), urban park, public parks and cycling infrastructure. In the case of underground public utility, utility networks, it may also include the civil portion (conduits and access chambers) of the local distribution networks of electrical and telecommunications services. It can also include the optimizing of waste collection and public transport bus service, bus service networks. Some of these disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties, however municipal engineering focuses on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built simultaneously, and managed by the same municipal authority. Municipal engineers may also design the site civil works for large buildings, industrial plants or campuses (i.e. access roads, parking lots, potable water supply, treatment or pretreatment of waste water, site drainage, etc.)


Water resources engineering

''Water resources engineering'' is concerned with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource). As a discipline it therefore combines elements of hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, water conservation, conservation, and resource management. This area of civil engineering relates to the prediction and management of both the quality and the quantity of water in both underground (aquifers) and above ground (lakes, rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyze and model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount and content of water as it flows into, through, or out of a facility. Although the actual design of the facility may be left to other engineers. ''Hydraulic engineering'' is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of Pipeline transport, pipelines, water supply network, drainage facilities (including bridges, dams, Channel (geography), channels, culverts, levees, storm sewers), and canals. Hydraulic engineers design these facilities using the concepts of fluid pressure, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and hydraulics, among others.


Civil engineering systems

Civil engineering systems is a discipline that promotes the use of systems thinking to manage complexity and change in civil engineering within its wider public context. It posits that the proper development of civil engineering infrastructure requires a Holism, holistic, coherent understanding of the relationships between all of the important factors that contribute to successful projects while at the same time emphasizing the importance of attention to technical detail. Its purpose is to help integrate the entire civil engineering Project management, project life cycle from conception, through planning, designing, making, operating to decommissioning.David Blockley and Patrick Godfrey ''Doing it Differently: Systems for Rethinking Infrastructure (2nd Edition)''] ICE Publications, London " Retrieved May 2018


See also

* Architectural engineering * Civil engineering software * Engineering drawing * Glossary of civil engineering * Index of civil engineering articles * List of civil engineers * List of engineering branches * List of Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks * Macro-engineering * Railway engineering * Site survey


Associations

* American Society of Civil Engineers * Canadian Society for Civil Engineering * Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors * Earthquake Engineering Research Institute * Engineers Australia * European Federation of National Engineering Associations * FIDIC, International Federation of Consulting Engineers * Indian Geotechnical Society * Institution of Civil Engineers * Institution of Structural Engineers * Institute of Engineering (Nepal) * International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering * Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh * Institution of Engineers (India) * Institution of Engineers of Ireland * Institute of Transportation Engineers * Japan Society of Civil Engineers * Pakistan Engineering Council * Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers * Transportation Research Board


References


Further reading

* * * *


External links


The Institution of Civil Engineers

Civil Engineering Software Database

The Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors

Civil engineering classes, from MIT OpenCourseWare
{{DEFAULTSORT:Civil Engineering Civil engineering, Engineering disciplines Articles containing video clips