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Centrism is a
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...

political
outlook or position that involves acceptance and/or support of a balance of
social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spat ...
and a degree of
social hierarchy Social stratification refers to a society's categorization Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects, ev ...
, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society strongly to either the
left Left may refer to: Music * ''Left'' (Hope of the States album), 2006 * ''Left'' (Monkey House album), 2016 * ''Left'' (Sharlok Poems album) Direction * Left (direction), the relative direction opposite of right * Left-handedness Politics * ...
or the
right Rights are legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is describe ...
. Both
centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
and
centre-right Centre-right politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
politics involve a general association with centrism that is combined with leaning somewhat to their respective sides of the
left–right political spectrum The left–right political spectrum is a system of classifying political positions characteristic of left-right politics, ideologies An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, ...
. Various political ideologies, such as
Christian democracy Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in 19th-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as neo-Calvinism. It was conceived as a combination of modern Democracy, democratic ideas and Christian ...
and certain forms of
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
,
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
and
classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...

liberalism
, can be classified as centrist ones, as can the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
, a modern political movement that attempts to reconcile
right-wing Right-wing politics embraces the view that certain social orders and Social stratification, hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition.T. A ...
and
left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. ...
politics by advocating for a synthesis of
centre-right Centre-right politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
economic platforms with some
centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
social policies.


Usage by political parties by country


Australia

There have been centrists in both sides of politics, who serve alongside the various factions within the
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
and
Labor Labour or labor may refer to: * , the delivery of a baby * , or work ** , physical work ** , a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * , an American quarterly on the history of the labor movement * ', an academic ...
parties. Centrism is represented by the
moderates Moderate is an ideological category which designates a rejection of radical politics, radical or extremism, extreme views, especially in regard to politics and religion. A moderate is considered someone occupying any mainstream position avoiding ext ...
in the Liberal Party and
Labor Right The Labor Right, also known as Labor Unity, is a political faction of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) at the national level that tends to be more socially conservative and economically liberal. The Labor Right is a broad alliance of various s ...
in the Labor Party. The
Australian Democrats The Australian Democrats is a centrist political party in Australia. Founded in 1977 from a merger of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement, both of which were descended from Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal Party dissenting splin ...

Australian Democrats
is the most prominent centrist party in Australian History. The party had representation in the senate from 1977 through to 2007, frequently holding the balance of power in that time. Formed by
Don Chipp Donald Leslie Chipp, Officer of the Order of Australia, AO (21 August 192528 August 2006) was an Australian politician who was the inaugural leader of the Australian Democrats, leading the party from 1977 to 1986. He began his career as a member ...
, on a promise to "Keep the Bastards Honest", it was known to have represented the "middle ground". The party regained registration in 2019. In addition, there are a number of smaller groups that have formed in response to the bipartisan system who uphold centrist ideals. South Australian Senator
Nick Xenophon Nicholas Xenophon (né Xenophou; 29 January 1959) is an Australian politician and lawyer who was a Senator for South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part ...

Nick Xenophon
had launched his own centrist political party called the
Nick Xenophon Team Nick is a masculine given name. It is also often encountered as a short form (hypocorism A hypocorism ( or ; from Ancient Greek: (), from (), 'to call by pet names') or pet name is a name used to show affection for a person or object. ...
(NXT) in 2014, renamed
Centre Alliance Centre Alliance, formerly known as the Nick Xenophon Team (NXT), is a centrist Centrism is a political outlook or position that involves acceptance and/or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opp ...
in 2018.


Belgium

The traditional centrist party of
Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * ...

Flanders
was the People's Union which embraced
social liberalism Social liberalism (german: Sozialliberalismus, es, socioliberalismo) also known as New liberalism in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brita ...
and aimed to represent Dutch-speaking Belgians who felt culturally suppressed by Francophones. The
New Flemish Alliance The New Flemish Alliance ( nl, Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie, N-VA) is a Flemish nationalist, Conservatism, conservative Political parties in Belgium, political party in Belgium. The party was founded in 2001 by the right-leaning faction of the centri ...
is the largest and since 2009 the only extant successor of that party. It is, however, primarily composed of the right wing of the former People's Union, and has adopted a more
liberal conservative Liberal conservatism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosopher ...
ideology in recent years. Among French speaking Belgians the
Humanist Democratic Centre The Humanist Democratic Centre (french: Centre démocrate humaniste, cdH) is a Christian-democratic and Christian humanism, humanist French Community of Belgium, French-speaking Political parties in Belgium, political party in Belgium. Until 2002, ...
is a centre party as it is considerably less
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
than its Flemish counterpart,
Christian Democratic and Flemish Christian Democratic and Flemish (, ; CD&V) is a Flemish Christian-democratic political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political ...
. Other parties in the centre of the political spectrum are the liberal
Reformist Movement The Reformist Movement (french: Mouvement Réformateur, MR) is a liberal French-speaking French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that ...
and the French-speaking minority party
DéFI DéFI () is a social-liberal, liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liber ...
.


Brazil

There are several centrist parties in Brazil, such as the
Brazilian Democratic Movement The Brazilian Democratic Movement ( pt, Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, MDB) is a Brazilian centrist Centrism is a political outlook or position that involves acceptance and/or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of soci ...
(MDB), which is a
catch-all party Big tent or catch-all party is used in reference to a political party's policy of permitting or encouraging a broad spectrum of views among its members. This is in contrast to other parties that defend a determined ideology and seek voters wh ...
, one of the largest political parties in Brazil. The
Brazilian Social Democracy Party The Brazilian Social Democracy Party ( pt, Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB), also known as the Brazilian Social Democratic Party or the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy,. is a political party in Brazil. As the third largest party ...
(PSDB) is also another example of a centrist party in Brazilian politics. Other centrist parties include
Social Democratic Party (Brazil, 2011) The Social Democratic Party ( pt, Partido Social Democrático, PSD) is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party ...
(PSD),
Green Party (Brazil) The Green Party ( pt, Partido Verde, PV) is a political party in Brazil. It was constituted after the military dictatorship A military dictatorship is a dictatorship in which the military exerts complete or substantial control over political a ...
(PV), Citizenship (Brazil) (CID),
PODEMOSPodemos may refer to: *Podemos (Bolivia), Bolivian political party *Podemos (Spanish political party), Spanish political party *Podemos (Guatemala), Guatemalan political party *Podemos (Venezuela), Venezuelan political party *Juntos Podemos Más, Chi ...
(PODE) and
Republican Party of the Social Order The Republican Party of the Social Order (Portuguese: ''Partido Republicano da Ordem Social'', ''PROS'') is a political party in Brazil, founded in 2010, and officially recognized in 2013.Canadian government The Government of Canada (french: gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces a ...
s at the federal level have governed from a
moderate Moderate is an ideological category which designates a rejection of radical politics, radical or extremism, extreme views, especially in regard to politics and religion. A moderate is considered someone occupying any mainstream position avoiding ext ...

moderate
, centrist political position, practicing "brokerage politics". Both the
Liberal Party of Canada The Liberal Party of Canada (french: Parti libéral du Canada, region=CA) is the longest-serving and oldest active federal political party in Canada. The party has dominated federal politics of Canada The politics of Canada function within ...
and the
Conservative Party of Canada The Conservative Party of Canada (french: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ...
(or its predecessors) rely on attracting supports from a broad spectrum of voters. The historically predominant Liberals position themselves at the centre of the Canadian political scale being more moderate and centrist than the
center-right Centre-right politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
Conservative. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister
Pierre Elliott Trudeau Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau ( , ; October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), also referred to by his initials PET, was a Canadian politician who served as the 15th prime minister of Canada (1968–1979, 1980–1984) and lea ...

Pierre Elliott Trudeau
claimed that his Liberal Party of Canada adhered to the "
radical center The term radical center can refer to: * Radical centrism, a political movement * a mathematical construct: also called the power center (geometry) {{Disambig ...
".Graham, Ron, ed. (1998). ''The Essential Trudeau''. McClelland & Stewart, p. 71. .
Far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum The left–right political spectrum is a system of classifying political positions c ...
and
far-left Far-left politics are politics further to the left of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political left. There are different definitions of the far-left. Some scholars define it as representing the left of social democracy whi ...
politics have never been a prominent force in Canadian society.


Croatia

Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
and
People's Party - Reformists People's, branded as ''People's Viennaline'' until May 2018, and legally ''Altenrhein Luftfahrt GmbH'', is an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is ...
may be considered as centrist parties. Agrarian
Croatian Peasant Party The Croatian Peasant Party ( hr, Hrvatska seljačka stranka, HSS) is an agrarian Agrarian means pertaining to agriculture, farmland, or rural areas. Agrarian may refer to: Political philosophy *Agrarianism *Agrarian law, Roman laws regulati ...
became moderate and centrist during its last years, having been centre-right in the past.


Czech Republic

The
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
has a number of prominent centrist parties, including the
syncretic Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs and various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, Lis ...
populist Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasise the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the 19th century and has been applied to various politicians, parties, and moveme ...
movement
ANO 2011 ANO 2011 is a Populism, populist list of political parties in the Czech Republic, political party in the Czech Republic. The party was founded by Andrej Babiš, the second-richest person in the Czech Republic, owner of the Agrofert conglomerate, an ...
, the
civil libertarian Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a Sovereign state, state, a corporatio ...
Czech Pirate Party The Czech Pirate Party or Pirates ( cs, Česká pirátská strana , abbreviated ''Piráti'' ) is a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ad ...
, the long-standing
Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Ko ...
and the
localist Localism describes a range of political philosophies which prioritize the local. Generally, localism supports local production and consumption of goods, local control of government, and promotion of local historyLocal history is the study of hist ...
party
Mayors and Independents The Mayors and Independents ( cs, Starostové a nezávislí), abbreviated to STAN, is a liberal political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the membe ...
.


Estonia


France

France has a tradition of parties that call themselves "''centriste''", though the actual parties vary over time: when a new political issue emerges and a new political party breaks into the mainstream, the old centre-left party may be de facto pushed rightwards, but unable to consider itself a party of the right, it will embrace being the new centre: this process occurred with the Orléanism, Moderate Républicanism,
Radical Republicanism Radicalism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
and Radical-Socialism. Currently the most notable centrist party is La République en marche !, founded by
Emmanuel Macron Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician who has been serving as the since 14 May 2017. Born in , Macron studied at , later completing a master's degree in public affairs at and graduating fr ...
, who was elected as
President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state of France, as well as the Chief of the Armed Forces (France), commander-in-chief of the French Arm ...
in May 2017. Another party is the
Democratic Movement A democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct demo ...
of
François Bayrou François René Jean Lucien Bayrou (; born 25 May 1951) is a French politician who has presided over the Democratic Movement (France), Democratic Movement (MoDem) since he founded it in 2007. A centrist, he was a candidate in the 2002 French presi ...

François Bayrou
, founded in 2007, which was the successor of the
Christian democratic Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in 19th-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching Catholic social teaching, commonly abbreviated as CST, is a Catholic doctrine on matters of human dignity ...
Union for French Democracy The Union for French Democracy (french: Union pour la démocratie française, UDF) was a centre-right Centre-right politics (British English) or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, lean to the ...

Union for French Democracy
.


Germany

''Zentrismus'' is a term only known to experts, as it is easily confused with ''Zentralismus'' ("centralism", the opposite to decentralisation/federalism), so the usual term in German for the political centre/centrism is ''politische Mitte'' (literally "political middle", or "political centre"). Historically, the German party with the most purely centrist nature among German parties to have had current or historical parliamentary representations was most likely the
social-liberal Social liberalism (german: Sozialliberalismus, es, socioliberalismo) also known as New liberalism in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brita ...
German Democratic Party The German Democratic Party (Deutsche Demokratische Partei, or DDP) was a left-wing liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a ...
of the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
(1918–1933). During the Weimar Republic (and again after the Nazi period), there existed a '' Zentrum'', a party of German
Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
founded in 1870. It was called Centre Party not for being a proper centrist party, but because it united left-wing and right-wing Catholics, because it was the first German party to be a ''Volkspartei'' (
catch-all party Big tent or catch-all party is used in reference to a political party's policy of permitting or encouraging a broad spectrum of views among its members. This is in contrast to other parties that defend a determined ideology and seek voters wh ...
) and because his elected representatives sat between the liberals (the left of the time) and the conservatives (the right of the time). However, it was distinctly right-wing conservative in that it was not neutral on religious issues (such as on secular education), being markedly against more liberal and modernist positions. The main successor of ''Zentrum'' after the return of democracy to West Germany in 1945, the Christian Democratic Union, has throughout its history alternated between describing itself as right-wing or centrist and sitting on the right-wing (with the
Free Democratic PartyFree Democratic Party is the name of several political parties around the world. It usually designates a party ideologically based on liberalism. Current parties with that name include: *Free Democratic Party (Germany), a liberal political party in ...
in its social liberal moments sitting at its left, in the centre and themselves sitting at the centre, with the FDP in its
classical liberal Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism Liberalism is a Political philosophy, political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide a ...
moments sitting at its right, in the right-wing). The representatives of the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-makin ...
, although they have referred to themselves as "the new middle" many times since the 1990s (under influence of the
Third way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...
of the time), however, they feel less at ease in describing their party as centrist due to their history and socialist identity.
Alliance '90/The Greens Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or '; ), is a green Green is the between and on the . It is evoked by light which has a of roughly 495570 . In systems, used in painting and color print ...
was founded in 1993 as a merger from the East German
Alliance 90 Alliance 90 () was an alliance of three non-communist political groups in East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1 ...
(a group of centrist/ transversalist civil rights activists) and the (West) German Greens. The latter was a coalition of various unorthodox-left politicians and more liberal "realists". This
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal diet (assembly), Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the ...

Bundestag
party also hesitates in using the term centre, although it does distance itself as well from the tag of left, which identifies it for the moment as a transversalist party. The transversalist moderation of the party and its position in the Bundestag between the Social Democrats and the Christian Democrats (while the FDP has its seats at the right of the Christian Democrats) also points somewhat to The Greens being a more or less centrist party. In the state parliaments of specific German states there are other specifically regional parties which could be identified as centrist. The
South Schleswig Voter Federation The South Schleswig Voters' AssociationOther translations include ''South Schleswig Voter Alliance'', ''South Schleswig Voters' Committee'', ''South Schleswig Voter Federation'', ''South Schleswig Voters Group'', ''South Schleswig Voters League'', ...
, of the Danish and Frisian minorities in the state of
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein () is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany The Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , la ...

Schleswig-Holstein
has currently a centrist political position, although in the past the party usually leaned to the left. In the German presidential elections of
2009 2009 was designated as: *International Year of Astronomy 200px, Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2009 Coinage, International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-l ...
,
2010 2010 was designated as: *International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the dat ...
and
2012 2012 was designated as: *International Year of Cooperatives2012 was designated as the International Year of Cooperatives by the United Nations General Assembly on 18 December 2009. The designation has honored the use of cooperative organiz ...
, it supported the candidates of the Social Democrats and the Greens. In Bavaria, the
Free Voters Free Voters (german: Freie Wähler, FW or FWG) in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German ...

Free Voters
party present at the state parliament may also be seen as a centrist party.


Greece

In modern Greek politics, the roots of centrism can be traced to centrist politician and founder of the
Agricultural and Labour Party The Agricultural and Labour Party ( el, Αγροτικόν Εργατικόν Κόμμα) was a Greece, Greek political party. It was founded in 1926 by Alexandros Papanastasiou, a former member of the Liberal Party (Greece), Liberal Party. In th ...
,
Alexandros Papanastasiou Alexandros Papanastasiou ( el, Αλέξανδρος Παπαναστασίου; 8 July 1876 – 17 November 1936) was a Greeks, Greek lawyer, sociologist and politician who served twice as the Prime Minister of Greece in the interwar period, being ...
. In 1961,
Georgios Papandreou Georgios Papandreou ( ''Geórgios Papandréou''; 13 February 1888 – 1 November 1968) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, i ...
created along with other political leaders the coalition party of Centre Union. Five parties were merged: Liberal Party, Progressive Agricultural Democratic Union, National Progressive Center Union, Popular Social Party into one, with strong centrist agenda opposed equally to right wing party of National Radical Union and left wing party of United Democratic Left. The Centre Union Party was the last Venizelist party to hold power in Greece. The party nominally continued to exist until 1977 (after the Junta it was known as the Centre Union – New Forces, Center Union – New Forces), when its successor Union of the Democratic Centre (EDIK) party was created. Union of Centrists was created by Vassilis Leventis in 1992 under the title "Union of Centrists and Ecologists", though the name was changed shortly after. The Union of Centrists claims to be the ideological continuation of the old party Center Union. The party strives to become "the political continuance of the centrist expression in Greece". Leventis aimed to become part of the Venizelist legacy of some great politicians of the past, such as Eleftherios Venizelos and George Papandreou Sr. However, the party's total influence had been marginal until 2015, with 1.79% of the total votes (in the January 2015 Greek legislative election) being its highest achievement before finally making its way to the Greek Parliament in September 2015 with 3.43% of the total votes and 9 members elected.


India

The National People's Party (India), National People's Party is a national-level political party in India, though its influence is mostly concentrated in the state of Meghalaya. The party was founded by P. A. Sangma, P A Sangma after his expulsion from the Nationalist Congress Party, NCP in July 2012. It was accorded national party status on 7 June 2019. It is the first political party from Northeast India, Northeastern India to have attained this status. Actor turned politician Kamal Haasan has launched a party named Makkal Needhi Maiam meaning People's Centre for Justice.


Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, both two main political parties (Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael) claim the political centre ground, but seem to lean to the centre-right and be mostly made up of centre-right members.Iran Daily – Dot Coms – 05-31-07, Bertie's Challenge
, 5th paragraph
The two parties have shared broadly similar policies in the past, with their primary division being perceived as being steeped in Irish Civil War politics. Fine Gael is aligned to Christian democracy, Christian democratic parties in Europe via its membership of the European People's Party and is described internationally as centre-right by the likes of Reuters. The consensus in analysis seems to be that Fianna Fáil is mostly centrist, expanding to the centre-right space and that Fine Gael is mostly centre-rightist, expanding also to the centre space.


Israel

In Israel, centrism is represented by the Yesh Atid Party led by Yair Lapid. The party was founded in 2013 and has remained a major player on the political scene. It served in government between 2013 and 2015 with Lapid serving as Israel's Finance Minister and a member of the Security Cabinet. In 2020, after a year of political turmoil in Israel, Yair Lapid became the Leader of the Opposition (Israel), Leader of the Opposition to the fifth government of Benjamin Netanyahu, and in 2021 he was sworn in as Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of Naftali Bennett. Yair Lapid published a long political essay entitled ''Only the center can hold: Democracy and the battle of ideas'' in which he laid out his vision of political centrism in Israel. The essay was originally published in Hebrew in Haaretz under the title "Not, just not Bibi. In this battle of ideas the center has solutions"


Netherlands

In the Netherlands, four moderate centrist to centre-right parties have sent members into the Third Rutte cabinet since 2017. From them, the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) tend to be centre-right whilst the social liberal Democrats 66 (D66) are more centrist. The Protestantism in the Netherlands, Protestant Christian Union (Netherlands), Christian Union is a small Christian democracy, Christian Democratic party that has transversalist positions less typical in European centrist parties. Whilst it is left-leaning on issues such as immigration, welfare and the environment, it is more conservative on social issues, such as recreational drug use, drugs and euthanasia. They have participated in several coalitions due to their moderate centrist politics. Another centrist party is the
populist Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasise the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the 19th century and has been applied to various politicians, parties, and moveme ...
List of pensioners' parties, Pensioners' interests party 50PLUS which combines Social democracy, social democratic, Social liberalism, social liberal and Social conservatism, social conservative positions. Livable Netherlands was originally a centrist political movement of local grass-root parties with an anti-establishment touch similar to early D66. However, the party entered in 2002 national parliament with a right-wing populism, right-wing populist programme based Law and order (politics), on security and immigration as the major issues. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were two self-described "centre" parties, the Centre Party (Netherlands), Centre Party and the Centre Democrats (Netherlands), Centre Democrats who at some point were represented in Tweede Kamer, Dutch parliament. However these parties were considered as far right (in the case of the Centre Democrats) or even extreme right (in the case of the Centre Party) in their opinion about foreign immigration. Both parties denied being racist or extremist in character. The party slogan of the Center Party was ''"niet rechts, niet links"'' ("Neither rightist nor leftist"), and in some respect could be seen as a centrist (or more correctly Third Position) party since it borrowed ideas from the political (far) right (a tough stand on immigration combined with typical racial prejudice) and the political left (mixed economy, green politics). However both of these two parties didn't really have a coherent ideology; they were basically one-issue parties focussed on what they perceived as mass immigration from non-European countries.


Nordic countries

In most of the Nordic countries, there are Nordic agrarian parties. These share in addition to the centrist position on the socio-economic left-right scale a clear, separate ideology. This position is centred on decentralisation, a commitment to small business and environmentalism, environmental protection. Centrists have aligned themselves with the Liberal International and European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. Historically, all of these parties were farmers' parties committed to maintaining rural life. In the 1960s, these parties broadened their scope to include non-farmer-related issues and renamed themselves Centre Party (disambiguation), Centre Party. Neither the Centre Democrats (Denmark), Centre Democrats (a now defunct centrist political party) nor the Liberal Alliance (Denmark), Liberal Alliance (a political party founded as a centrist social liberal party, but that now is a classical liberal party), both of Denmark, are rooted in centrist agrarianism.


Pakistan

Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), founded by Imran Khan, claims to be a centrist political party. Following the 2013 Pakistani general election, general election of 2013, PTI emerged as the second-largest political party in Pakistan by number of votes. In July 2018 it won the general elections of Pakistan and Imran Khan, its chairman, became Prime Minister.


Palestine

The Third Way (Palestinian authority), Third Way is a small centrist Palestinian political party active in Palestinian politics. Founded on 16 December 2005, the party is led by Salam Fayyad and Hanan Ashrawi. In the January 2006 PLC elections, it received 2.41% of the popular vote and won two of the Palestinian Legislative Council, Council's 132 seats. The party presents itself as an alternative to the two-party system of Hamas and Fatah.


Poland

Civic Platform (PO), ruling in 2007–2015, began in 2001 as a liberal conservative party, but later under the leadership of Donald Tusk turned into typical centrist in order to attract left-leading liberal voters. Depending on the context, it is described as either Christian Democratic (it is a member of European People's Party), conservative, liberal, or social. Its pragmatism, technocracy and lack of ideology have been nevertheless criticized and currently, under the leader Grzegorz Schetyna announced that it is returning to the right, but with new leader Borys Budka and as a part of Civic Coalition (Poland), Civic Coalition it turns to progressivism again, as seen by policies proposed by their candidate, Rafał Trzaskowski, in 2020 presidential elections. Other political groups like Polish People's Party (PSL) may be described as centrist too (in Poland, national-moral right-wing Law and Justice is social conservative, usually at the same time economical left and favor protectionism policies). Newest political party present in Polish Parliament, Poland 2050 led by Szymon Hołownia, has been described as ideological centre with strong pragmatic influences.


Spain

The only national party that defends itself as a centrist party is Citizens (Spanish political party), Citizens, whose platform is increasingly perceived as right-wing by the Spanish citizens as the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas surveys show. In April 2018 Ciudadanos obtained a 6,77, when ranging political parties from 1 to 10, where 1 was farthest left and 10 its equivalent in the right. It first entered the Cortes Generales in 2015. In Catalonia, where the party was born, many people even consider it as an extreme right-wing party, considering its fierce "opposition to nationalism". Not even the media agree on its place and several newspapers from different ideologies manifest that Citizens is either left or right, depending on their political line. Regardless of subjective opinions, the truth is that Ciudadanos has always tried to reach agreements with Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), which Spanish voters most traditionally consider to be the closest to the centre according to several opinion polls. This popular perception was pointed out by UPyD, which positions itself simultaneously on the political centre and cross-sectionalism, thus embracing ideas across the political spectrum. UPyD has lost a great deal of its voters to Ciudadanos, the latter counting with 10 representatives in the Spanish Congress in the last election. Electors also consider as centrists the Convergence and Union coalition from Catalonia and the Basque Nationalist Party from the Basque Country (autonomous community), Spanish Basque Country, although these two usually consider themselves as right-centrist parties.


Switzerland

In Switzerland the political centre (in German language, German: ''die Mitte''; in French language, French: ''le Centre''; Italian language, Italian: ''il Centro'') is traditionally occupied by the so-called "bourgeois" parties: FDP.The Liberals (centre-right), the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic People's Party (centre to centre-right) and the much smaller Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland, Evangelical People's Party (centre to centre-left). Recently, some new parties were founded who claimed to be part of the political centre: the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, Conservative Democratic Party (centre to centre-right), a split from the right-wing populist Swiss People's Party and a self-styled centre party and the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (centre), a split from the leftist Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party. The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party is considered to be more to the left than to the centre. In Switzerland, the centrist parties tend to co-operate closely in Canton parliaments and municipal councils.


United Kingdom

In the 1970s, the traditionally socialist Labour Party (UK), Labour Party moved further to the left, causing discomfort to MPs who saw themselves as belonging to the party's social democratic tendency. On 25 January 1981, leading figures from the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party (Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Shirley Williams and William Rodgers, Baron Rodgers of Quarry Bank, Bill Rodgers, known collectively as the "Gang of Four") launched the Council for Social Democracy, which later became the Social Democratic Party (UK), Social Democratic Party in March, after outlining their policies in what became known as the Limehouse Declaration. The "Gang of Four" were centrists, who had defected from the Labour Party due to what they perceived to be the influence of the Militant tendency and the "hard left" within the party. After waning electoral success, the SDP merged with the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party in 1988 to create the centrist Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats. In the mid to late 1990s, Labour under the leadership of Tony Blair began to move towards a centrist Third Way (centrism), Third Way policy platform, adopting the campaign name New Labour. The New Labour era ended when Blair's successor Gordon Brown lost the 2010 United Kingdom general election, 2010 election to the Conservatives. Brown's successor as leader, Ed Miliband, moved the party slightly to the left of the New Labour era position. Miliband set out his stall to "redefine the political centre", with pundits declaring New Labour "dead". The Blue Labour movement, launched in 2009, attempted to cultivate a new path for Labour centrism that would appeal to socially conservative working class periods, and was a mild influence on Labour during Miliband's tenure. The party later moved decisively to the left when the socialist Jeremy Corbyn became leader in 2015, as a result of the introduction of a one member one vote system under Miliband. In March 2011, Nick Clegg, the-then leader of the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats and Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, stated that he believed that his party belonged to the radical centre, mentioning John Maynard Keynes, William Beveridge, Jo Grimond, David Lloyd George and John Stuart Mill as examples of the radical centre that preceded the Liberal Democrats' establishment in 1988. He pointed to liberalism as an ideology of people and described the political spectrum and his party's position as follows: "For the left, an obsession with the state. For the right, a worship of the market. But as liberals, we place our faith in people. People with power and opportunity in their hands. Our opponents try to divide us with their outdated labels of left and right. But we are not on the left and we are not on the right. We have our own label: Liberal. We are liberals and we own the freehold to the centre ground of British politics. Our politics is the politics of the radical centre". In the mid to late 2000s, David Cameron also moved the Conservative Party towards the centre, allowing his party to be 2010 United Kingdom general election, elected in 2010 in a Cameron–Clegg coalition, coalition with the Liberal Democrats. In the 2015 United Kingdom general election, 2015 election, the Conservatives gained a majority and the Liberal Democrats lost most of their seats. They regained a small number of seats in the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 election. Cameron's successor Theresa May used left-wing rhetoric on her appointment as Prime Minister, stating her wish to tackle social inequality, and adopted some of Ed Miliband's policies; for example, on regulating energy companies. However, the party's 2017 manifesto was seen as sharp break from the centre ground, appealing to traditionally Tory heartland issues in the aftermath of the UK's Brexit referendum. Following the Brexit referendum, politics in the UK was seen as having reverted to traditionally polarised "left and right" politics. For the 2017 election, the group More United was set up in the vein of the US Super PAC model to support candidates from multiple parties who meet its values; it gave support primarily to Labour and Lib Dem MPs, as well as one Conservative. In April 2018, ''The Observer'' newspaper reported that a group setup by Simon Franks had amassed £50 million to start a new centrist political party in the UK to field candidates at the next general election. It has reportedly been named United for Change. In early 2019, difficulties and party clashes regarding Brexit caused a number of Labour and Conservative MPs to leave their parties, forming a Pro-Europeanism, pro-European group named The Independent Group for Change. They later announced their intention to register as a formal party named Change UK. The party has been identified as centrist by most sources, with Change UK MP Chris Leslie describing the party as "offering a home to those on the centre-left." Former Change UK MP Chuka Umunna joined the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats shortly after the formation of the party after disappointing results in the 2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom, 2019 European Parliament election. He gave the reason there is "no room for two in the centre ground". After losing all their MPs in the 2019 United Kingdom general election, 2019 General Election, the party was disbanded.


United States

After World War II, centrism was a dominant political philosophy in the United States but lacked its own party in the traditionally two-party country. For example, historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr., characterized political moderation as a vigorous “Third Force” in his 1949 book, The Vital Center. The book defended liberal democracy and a economic interventionism, state-regulated market economy against the totalitarianism of communism and fascism. Harry Truman, who served as U.S. president from 1945 until 1953, is regarded as a centrist Democratic Party (United States), Democrat, while Dwight Eisenhower, who was the president from 1953 to 1961, is regarded as a centrist Republican Party (United States), Republican. The early 1990s were perhaps the high water mark of post-war centrist politics in America. Journalist and political commentator E. J. Dionne wrote in his book ''Why Americans Hate Politics'', published on the eve of the 1992 United States presidential election, 1992 presidential election, that he believes American voters are looking for a "New Political Center" that intermixes "liberal instincts" and "conservative values". He labelled people in this center position as "tolerant traditionalists". He described them as believers in conventional social morals that ensure family stability, as tolerant within reason to those who challenge those morals and as pragmatically supportive of government intervention in spheres such as education, child care and Health care in the United States, health care, as long as budgets are balanced. Independent candidate Ross Perot, H. Ross Perot, who focused on pragmatic issues like a balanced budget and was viewed as a
populist Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasise the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the 19th century and has been applied to various politicians, parties, and moveme ...
centrist, garnered nearly 19% of the popular vote in the 1992 United States presidential election, 1992 presidential election, even though he ran against Bill Clinton, a center-left Democrat, and George H.W. Bush, a center-right Republican. Perot went on to form the Reform Party of the United States, Reform Party and run a second time in the 1996 United States presidential election, 1996 presidential election, but with less success. A late-2011 Gallup poll of Americans' attitudes towards government reported that 17% expressed conservative views, 22% expressed libertarian views, 20% expressed communitarian views, 17% expressed centrist views and 24% expressed liberal views. Americans Elect, a coalition of American centrists funded by wealthy donors such as business magnate Michael Bloomberg, former High-yield debt, junk-bond trader Peter Ackerman and hedge fund manager John H. Burbank III, launched an effort in mid-2011 to create a national "virtual primary" that would challenge the current two-party system. The group aimed to nominate a presidential ticket of centrists with names that would be on ballots in all 50 states. The group banked on broad cultural dissatisfaction with the partisan gridlock in Washington, D.C. ''The Christian Science Monitor'' has stated that "the political climate couldn't be riper for a serious third-party alternative" such as their effort, but the "hurdles Americans Elect faces are daunting" to get on ballots. Washington political journalist Linda Killian wrote in her 2012 book ''The Swing Vote'' that Americans are frustrated with Congress and its dysfunction and inability to do its job. A growing number of Americans are not satisfied with the political process because a number of factors such as influx of money into politics and the influence of special interests and lobbyists. The book classifies four types of independent voters including "NPR Rockefeller Republican, Republicans", "Reagan Democrats, America First Democrats", "The Facebook Generation" and "Starbucks Moms and Dads" who were big determinates of swing votes in the 2012 presidential election. Political Columnist and author John Avlon wrote in his 2005 book Independent Nation that centrism is not a matter of compromise or reading polls; rather it's an antidote to the politics of divisiveness, providing principled opposition to political extremes. Centrists in the two major U.S. political parties are often found in the New Democrat Coalition and the Blue Dog Coalition of the Democratic Party and the Republican Main Street Partnership of the Republican Party, as well as the bipartisan Problem Solvers Caucus. Barack Obama has been widely identified as a centrist Democrat president, as has Joe Biden. Outside of the two major parties, some centrists inhabit the Libertarian Party (United States), Libertarian Party and independent candidacy movements, such as The Centrist Project, Unite America co-founded by Charles Wheelan.


See also


Notes


References


Further reading

* Tariq Ali, Ali, Tariq (2015). ''The Extreme Centre: A Warning''. Verso Books. * Brown, David S. (2016). ''Moderates: The Vital Center of American Politics, from the Founding to Today''. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. * Chase Sr., Richard G. (2019). We of Mind and Reason - A Treatise for the Constitutional Patriots of America. thefourthbranch.biz, The Fourth Branch


External links

* * {{Authority control Centrism, Liberalism Communitarianism Political ideologies Political spectrum Political theories