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A caron (), háček or haček ( or ; plural ''háčeks'' or ''háčky'') also known as a hachek, wedge, check, kvačica, strešica, mäkčeň, paukščiukas, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, or flying bird, is a
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
(ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea, a sea in Europe * Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea * Baltic states (also Baltics, Baltic nations, Baltic countries or Baltic rep ...

Baltic
,
Slavic
Slavic
,
Finnic
Finnic
,
Samic
Samic
,
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...

Berber
, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation. The use of the caron differs according to the orthographic rules of a language. In most Slavic and other European languages it indicates present or historical palatalization (e → ě; [] → []), iotation, or postalveolar consonant, postalveolar articulation (c → č; → ). In Salishan languages, it often represents a uvular consonant (x → x̌; [] → ). When placed over vowel symbols, the caron can indicate a contour tone (linguistics), tone, for instance the falling and then rising tone in the
Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

Pinyin
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
of Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese. It is also used to decorate symbols in mathematics, where it is often pronounced ("check"). The caron is shaped approximately like a small letter "v". In serif typefaces, the caron generally takes one of two forms: either symmetrical, essentially identical to a rotated
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
; or with the left stroke thicker than the right, like the usual serif form of the letter "v" (but without serifs). The latter form is often preferred by Czech designers for use in the
Czech language Czech (; Czech ), historically also Bohemian (; ''lingua Bohemica'' in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kno ...
, while for other uses the symmetrical form tends to predominate, as it does also among sans-serif fonts. The caron is not to be confused with the
breve A breve (, less often , neuter form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...

breve
(˘), which has a curved bottom, while the caron is pointed (see illustration below).


Names

Different disciplines generally call this diacritic by different names. Typography tends to use the term ''caron''. Linguistics more often uses ''haček'' (with no long mark), largely due to the influence of the
Prague School The Prague school or Prague linguistic circle is a language and literature society. It started in 1926 as a group of linguistics, linguists, philology, philologists and literary critics in Prague. Its proponents developed methods of semiotic lite ...
(particularly on Structuralist linguists who subsequently developed alphabets for previously unwritten languages of the Americas). Pullum's and Ladusaw's ''
Phonetic Symbol Guide The ''Phonetic Symbol Guide'' is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is ...
'' (Chicago, 1996) uses the term ''wedge''. The term ''caron'' is used in the official names of
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
characters (e.g., "Latin capital letter Z with caron"). Its earliest known use was in the
United States Government Printing Office The United States Government Publishing Office (USGPO or GPO; formerly the United States Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of ...

United States Government Printing Office
Style Manual of 1967, and it was later used in character sets such as DIN 31624 (1979), ISO 5426 (1980), ISO/IEC 6937 (1983) and ISO/IEC 8859-2 (1985). Its actual origin remains obscure, but some have suggested that it may derive from a fusion of
caret The caret () is a V-shaped grapheme, usually inverted and sometimes extended, used in proofreading and typography to indicate that additional material needs to be inserted at this point in the text. There is a similar mark, , that has a variet ...

caret
and macron. Though this may be
folk etymology Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familia ...
, it is plausible, particularly in the absence of other suggestions. The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' gives 1953 as the earliest citation for . In
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
, () means 'small
hook A hook is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates ...
', the
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
form of (, 'hook')". The name appears in most English dictionaries, but they treat the long mark (
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembl ...

acute accent
) differently. British dictionaries, such as the '' OED'', ''
ODE An ode (from grc, ᾠδή, ōdḗ) is a type of lyrical stanza. It is an elaborately structured poem praising or glorifying an event or individual, describing nature intellectually as well as emotionally. A classic ode is structured in three maj ...
'', '' CED'', write (with the mark) in the headwords, while American ones, such as the ''
Merriam-Webster Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical literature, periodical (or electronic publishing, its electronic equivalent) to which one can refer for info ...
'', '' NOAD'', '' AHD'', omit the acute and write , however, the ''NOAD'' gives as an alternative spelling. In
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
it is called (, i.e., 'softener' or ' palatalization mark'), in
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
or ('angled hook' or 'small angled hook'), in
Slovenian Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
('little
roof A roof is the top covering of a building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in co ...

roof
') or ('little hook'), in
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
('little bird') or ('little
jackdaw The western jackdaw (''Coloeus monedula''), also known as the Eurasian jackdaw, the European jackdaw, or simply the jackdaw, is a passerine bird in the Corvidae, crow family. Found across Europe, Palearctic, western Asia and North Africa; it is ...

jackdaw
'), in
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
('roof'), in
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
('hat'), and in
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
('wedge').


Origin

The caron evolved from the dot above diacritic, which
Jan Hus Jan Hus (; ; – 6 July 1415), sometimes anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spel ...

Jan Hus
introduced into Czech orthography (along with the
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembl ...

acute accent
) in his '' De Orthographia Bohemica'' (1412). The original form still exists in
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
''
ż
ż
''. However, Hus's work was hardly known at that time, and ''háček'' became widespread only in the 16th century with the introduction of printing.


Usage

For the fricatives ''š'' , ''ž'' , and the affricate ''č'' only, the caron is used in most northwestern Uralic languages that use the Latin alphabet, such as
Karelian
Karelian
, Veps,
Northern Sami Northern or North Sami ( ; se, davvisámegiella ; fi, pohjoissaame ; no, nordsamisk; sv, nordsamiska; disapproved exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term u ...
and
Inari Sami Inari Sami (, "the Inarian language", or , "the Inari (Aanaar) Sámi language") is a Sami languages, Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami people, Inari Sami of Finland. It has approximately 300 speakers, the majority of whom are middle-aged or o ...
(though not in
Southern Sami The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...
).
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
and
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
use ''š'' and ''ž'' (but not ''č''), but only for transcribing foreign names and loanwords (albeit common loanwords such as or 'check'); the sounds (and letters) are native and common in Karelian, Veps and Sami. In
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, ''š'', ''ž'', and ''č'' are routinely used as in Slovenian to transcribe
Slavic
Slavic
names in the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
since in native Italian words, the sounds represented by these letters must be followed by a vowel, and Italian uses ''ch'' for , not . Other
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of w ...

Romance languages
, by contrast, tend to use their own orthographies, or in a few cases such as Spanish, borrow English ''sh'' or ''zh''. The caron is also used in the
Romany alphabetThe Romani language has for most of its history been an entirely oral language, with no written form in common use. Although the first example of written Romani dates from 1542, it is not until the twentieth century that vernacular writing by native ...
. The Faggin-Nazzi writing system for the
Friulian language Friulian ( ) or Friulan (natively or ; it, friulano; german: Furlanisch; sl, furlanščina) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin ...
makes use of the caron over the letters ''c'', ''g'', and ''s''. The caron is also often used as a diacritical mark on consonants for
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
of text from non-Latin writing systems, particularly in the
scientific transliteration Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This ...
of Slavic languages. Philologists and the standard Finnish orthography often prefer using it to express sounds for which English require a digraph (''sh, ch'', and ''zh'') because most Slavic languages use only one character to spell the sounds (the key exceptions are Polish '' sz'' and '' cz''). Its use for that purpose can even be found in the United States because certain
atlas Blaeu's world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior">Joan_Blaeu.html" ;"title="world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu">world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior'', published in the first b ...

atlas
es use it in romanization of foreign
place name Place may refer to: Geography * Place (United States Census Bureau), defined as any concentration of population ** Census-designated place, a populated area lacking its own municipal government * "Place", a type of street or road name ** Often ...
s. On the typographical side, Š/š and Ž/ž are likely the easiest among non-Western European diacritic characters to adopt for Westerners because the two are part of the
Windows-1252 Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorith ...

Windows-1252
character encoding.
Esperanto Esperanto ( or ) is the world's most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a meant for communication between people from different nations ...
uses the
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
over ''c'', ''g'', ''j'' and ''s'' in similar ways; the circumflex was chosen because there was no caron on most Western European
typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular ...

typewriter
s, but the circumflex existed on
French
French
ones. It is also used as an accent mark on vowels to indicate the
tone Tone may refer to: Color-related * Tone, mix of tint and shade, in painting and color theory * Tone, the lightness Lightness is a visual perception of the luminance (L) of an object. It is often judged relative to a similarly lit object. ...

tone
of a syllable. The main example is in
Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

Pinyin
for
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
in which it represents a falling-rising tone. It is used in transliterations of
Thai Thai or THAI may refer to: * Of or from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia ** Thai people, the dominant ethnic group of Thailand ** Thai language, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in and around Thailand *** Thai script *** Thai (Unicode block) ...

Thai
to indicate a rising tone.


Phonetics

The caron represents a rising tone in the
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest s ...
. It is used in the
Uralic Phonetic Alphabet The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones) by means o ...
for indicating postalveolar consonants and in Americanist phonetic notation to indicate various types of pronunciation. The caron below represents
voicing Voicing may refer to: * Voicing (music), the distribution of a chord's notes, either in composition or orchestration *The regulation of tone and loudness of an instrument's notes: **Piano_maintenance#Voicing **Voicing (pipe organ) **Plectrum#Voicin ...
.


Writing and printing carons

In printed Czech and Slovak text, the caron combined with certain letters (lower-case ť, ď, ľ, and upper-case Ľ) is reduced to a small stroke. That is optional in handwritten text. In Lazuri orthography, the lower-case ''k'' with caron sometimes has its caron reduced to a stroke while the lower-case ''t'' with caron preserves its caron shape.Lazuri Font / Lazca Font, Lazca yazı karakterleri
Lazuri.com Although the stroke looks similar to an
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
, there is a significant difference in
kerning In typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used ...

kerning
. Using an apostrophe in place of a caron looks very unprofessional, but it can be found on goods produced in foreign countries and imported to Slovakia or the Czech Republic (compare t’ to ť, L’ahko to Ľahko). (Apostrophes appearing as palatalization marks in some
Finnic languages The Finnic (''Fennic'') or more precisely Balto-Finnic (''Balto-Fennic''; Baltic Finnic, ''Baltic Fennic'') languages, are a branch of the Uralic language family The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language fam ...

Finnic languages
, such as Võro and , are not forms of caron either.) Foreigners also sometimes mistake the caron for the
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembl ...

acute accent
(compare Ĺ to Ľ, ĺ to ľ).


List of letters


Balto-Slavic

The following are the
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
and
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
letters and
digraph Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography), a pair of characters used together to represent a single sound, such as "sh" in English * Orthographic ligature, the joining of two letters as a single glyph, such as "æ" * Digraph (computing), a grou ...
s with the caron (Czech: , Slovak: ): * Č/č (pronounced , similar to 'ch' in ''cheap'': , which means
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
) * Š/š (pronounced , similar to 'sh' in ''she'': in ) * Ž/ž (pronounced , similar to 's' in ''treasure'': 'sorrow') * Ř/ř (only in Czech: special fricative trill , transcribed as in pre-1989 IPA:
Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( ; ; 8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czechs, Czech composer, one of the first to achieve worldwide recognition. Following the Romantic-era Czech nationalism, nationalist example of his predecessor Bedřich Sm ...

Antonín Dvořák
) * Ď/ď, Ť/ť, Ň/ň (palatals, pronounced , , , slightly different from palatalized consonants as found in Russian): , 'The Devil and a beheaded horse') * Ľ/ľ (only in Slovak, pronounced as palatal : , 'businessman') * DŽ/Dž/dž (considered a single letter in Slovak, Macedonian, and
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
, two letters in Czech, pronounced "jungle" - identical to the ''j'' sound in ''jungle'' and the ''g'' in ''genius'', found mostly in borrowings.) * Ě/ě (only in Czech) indicates mostly palatalization of preceding consonant: ** , , are , , ; ** but is or , and , , , are . * Furthermore, until the 19th century, Ǧ/ǧ was used to represent while was used to represent . In the
Lower Sorbian Lower may refer to: *Lower (surname)Lower is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Arthur R. M. Lower (1889–1988) Canadian historian * Britt Lower (born 1985), American actress * Cyrus B. Lower (1843–1924), American Civil War ...
and Upper Sorbian languages, the following letters and digraphs have the caron: * Č/č (pronounced like 'ch' in ''cheap'') * Š/š (pronounced like 'sh' in ''she'') * Ž/ž (pronounced like 's' in ''treasure'') * Ř/ř (only in Upper Sorbian: pronounced like 'sh' in ''she'') * Tř/tř (digraph, only in Upper Sorbian, soft (palatalized) sound) * Ě/ě (pronounced like 'e' in ''bed'') Balto-Slavic
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
,
Slovenian Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, Latvian and
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
use č, š and ž. The digraph dž is also used in these languages but is considered a separate letter only in Serbo-Croatian. The
Belarusian Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byeloru ...
Lacinka alphabets also contain the digraph (as a separate letter), and Latin transcriptions of
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
and
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
may use them at times, for transcription of the letter-combination ДЖ (Bulgarian) and the letter Џ (Macedonian).


Uralic

Of
Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning " ...

Uralic languages
,
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
(and transcriptions to
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
) use Š/š and Ž/ž, and and some
Sami languages Places * Sápmi (, smj, Sábme / Sámeednam, sma, Saepmie, sju, Sábmie, , , : Соаме ''Soame'') is the traditionally inhabited by the . Sápmi is in and includes the northern parts of , also known as the "". The region stretches ...

Sami languages
use Č/č, Š/š and Ž/ž. Dž is not a separate letter. (Skolt Sami has more: see below.) Č is present because it may be phonemically
geminate In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of eve ...

geminate
: in Karelian, the phoneme 'čč' is found, and is distinct from 'č', which is not the case in Finnish or Estonian, for which only one length is recognized for 'tš'. (Incidentally, in transcriptions, Finnish orthography has to employ complicated notations like or even the to express Karelian .) On some Finnish keyboards, it is possible to write those letters by typing ''s'' or ''z'' while holding right
Alt key :''For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see Table of keyboard shortcuts'' The Alt key (pronounced or ) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys. Thus, the Alt key is a modifier key In computing ...

Alt key
or
AltGr key AltGr (also Alt Graph) is a modifier key found on many computer keyboards (rather than a second Alt key found on US keyboards). It is primarily used to type characters that are not widely used in the territory where sold, such as foreign curr ...
. Notice that they are ''not'' palatalized but postalveolar consonants. For example, Estonian (palatalized) is distinct from (postalveolar). Palatalization is typically ignored in spelling, but some Karelian and Võro orthographies use an
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
(') or an acute accent (´). In Finnish and Estonian, ''š'' and ''ž'' (and in Estonian, very rarely ''č'') appear in loanwords and foreign
proper names A proper noun is a noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (ling ...

proper names
only and when not available, they can be substituted with 'h': 'sh' for 'š', in print.
Skolt Sami Skolt Sami ( , "the Sámi language", or , "the Eastern Sámi language", if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic languages, Uralic, Sami languages, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with a ...
uses Ʒ/ʒ (ezh) to mark the alveolar affricate , thus Ǯ/ǯ (ezh-caron or edzh (edge)) marks the postalveolar affricate . In addition to Č, Š, Ž and Ǯ, Skolt Sami also uses the caron to mark palatal affricates Ǧ and Ǩ . More often than not, they are geminated: ''vuäǯǯad'' "to get".


Others

Northern Tamazight more specifically Taqbaylit(Kabyle language) is written using the
Berber Latin alphabet The Berber Latin alphabet ( ber, Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages. It was adopted in the 19th century, using varieties of letters. History The Berber languages were originally written ...
which includes the folllwing caron consonants: Č ͡ʃ Ǧ ͡ʒ Ř. Finnish
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...
uses Ȟ/ȟ.
LakotaLakota may refer to: * Lakota people, a confederation of seven related Native American tribes *Lakota language Lakota (), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes. T ...
uses Č/č, Š/š, Ž/ž, Ǧ/ǧ (voiced post-velar fricative) and Ȟ/ȟ (plain post-velar fricative). The
DIN 31635 DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early mediev ...
standard for transliteration of Arabic uses Ǧ/ǧ to represent the letter . ''

'', on account of the inconsistent pronunciation of in European languages, the variable pronunciation of the letter in educated Arabic , and the desire of the DIN committee to have a one-to-one correspondence of Arabic to Latin letters in its system. Romanization of
Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian languages, Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family. It is known in Persian language, Persian literature as Afghani (, ). Spo ...
uses Č/č, Š/š, Ž/ž, X̌/x̌, to represent the letters چ, ش, ژ, ښ, respectively. Additionally, Ṣ̌/ṣ̌ and Ẓ̌/ẓ̌ are used by the southern Pashto dialect only (replaced by X̌/x̌ and Ǵ/ǵ in the north). The latter Š/š is also used to transcribe the phoneme in and
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
cuneiform, and the phoneme in
Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication u ...

Semitic languages
represented by the letter
shin Shin may refer to: Biology * The front part of the human leg#Structure, human leg below the knee * Shinbone, the tibia, the larger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates Names * Shin (given name) (Katakana: シン, Hiragana: ...
(Phoenician and its descendants).


Other uses

The caron is also used in
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

pinyin
romanization and orthographies of several other
tonal language Tone is the use of pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches th ...
s to indicate the "falling-rising" tone (linguistics), tone (similar to the pitch made when asking "Huh?"). The caron can be placed over the vowels: ǎ, ě, ǐ, ǒ, ǔ, ǚ. The alternative to a caron is a number 3 after the syllable: = , as the "falling-rising" tone is the third tone in Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin. The caron is used in the D'ni language#New Transliteration System (NTS), New Transliteration System of Myst (series), D'ni in the symbol š to represent the sound (English "sh"). Many alphabets of African languages use the caron to mark the rising tone, as in the African reference alphabet. The caron is also used for Cypriot Greek letters that have a different sound from Standard Modern Greek: σ̌ κ̌ π̌ τ̌ ζ̌ in words like ('and'), ('cat'). A-caron (ǎ) is also used to transliterate the Cyrillic script, Cyrillic letter Ъ () in
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
 — it represents the mid back unrounded vowel .


Software


Unicode

For legacy reasons, most letters that carry carons are precomposed characters in
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
, but a caron can also be added to any letter by using the combining character , for example: b̌ q̌ J̌. The characters Č, č, Ě, ě, Š, š, Ž, ž are a part of the
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
Latin Extended-A set because they occur in Czech and other official languages in Europe, while the rest are in Latin Extended-B, which often causes an inconsistent appearance. Unicode also encodes , for example: p̬.


See also

* Acute accent * Apostrophe * Breve * Caret * Circumflex, Circumflex accent * Sicilicus * Soft sign (ь)


References

{{Latin script, , caron Latin-script diacritics Greek-script diacritics